What to do with the Interest Money in one’s Bank Account?

What to do with the Interest Money in one’s Bank Account?

                     9th September 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I have had a bank account and since a young age we received a lot of interest money which has reached to around £3000. My question is what is the best way or lawful way to get rid of it?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, it is ideal to open a bank account without interest being paid into it. However, when the interest money has accumulated in the account over the years, then they must be disposed of money by giving it to the poor and needy[1] regardless of whether they are Muslim or not without the intention of reward as the money itself is tainted and unlawful[2]. The money can also be given away to a welfare non-Islamic project.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Ibn Abideen, raddul Muhtaar, Kitaab uz zakat, vol 2, p 292

من ملك أموالا غير طيبة أو غصب أموالا و خلطها ملكها بالخلط و يصير ضامنا (الي قوله) ان علمت اصحابه او ورثتهم وجب رده عليهم و الا وجب التصدق

 

[2] Ibn Nujaym, Al Bahr al Raaiq, Kitaab al Karahiyya, Fasl fil Bay’ vol 8, p229

وإلا يتصدقوا به؛ لأن سبيل الكسب الخبيث التصدق إذا تعذر الرد.

 

Shellac; Permissible or Not?

Shellac; Permissible or Not?

13th August 2020

 

Question: What is the ruling on Shellac? Is it Halāl for consumption or not?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Shellac is a resin that is secreted by a female lac bug/beetle (called laccifer bug) that inhabits forests trees in South East Asia, particularly in India and Thailand.  The female lac bug feeds off a tree by sucking its sap. The lac bug secretes a lac or resin and forms a cocoon around its body. This cocoon like shape then coats the tree branches in which it lays eggs. The tree branches are cut and taken to a special factory to harvest the lac or shellac. They are placed into a special machine to scrape off the coating which contains both the lac resin and the insects. As the lac resin itself is sought, it goes through several refining processes to remove the debris and the dead insects. Towards the end, they come in the form of flakes. In some instances, the flakes are dissolved in ethanol to make liquid shellac used as a brush on-colorant, food, glaze and wood furnish.  It has industrial use like nail varnish, floor polish, adhesive and sealing wax. It is also used in the food industry such as coating for fruit, chocolate products and sweets, and for pharmaceutical use in specific capsules for oral medication.[1]

From the above overview of the shellac production process, the following fiqh implications emerge namely; the status of consuming insects, the residue of insect parts in foods and liquids, the lawfulness of its secretion and the issue of ethanol. With regards to the consumption of insects then the majority of schools do not permit eating them except in the Maliki school under the condition that head is severed like the ritual slaughtering.[2] The argument of the majority including the Hanafies make is that they fall under the remit of filth which Allāh Almighty has forbidden in the Quran,And He permits for them the pure things and forbids for them filth (khabaith).”[3]  They are referred to as filth due to the natural repulsion towards them considering that they tend to feed off from filth also. The only exception to insects is locust which has been permitted in a Hadeeth.[4] So lac bugs in of themselves are not Halāl for consumption. Although during the production process the shellac is refined thoroughly to discard the debris and dead insects, the question remains that since shellac is derived from an impure insect then does that also render it impure? In our understanding, the ruling between this and insect remnant (of its bodily parts) are not much different. There are indications in the Quran and Hadeeth that despite that the insect itself not being Halāl, their residue parts may not necessarily be impure. For instance, Almighty Allāh in the Quran enlists the production of honey from bees as a cure for mankind amongst His signs. Here despite that the bees are not lawful to consume, the honey extracted from them is permissible. It is arguable however that this analogy is not correct because firstly, the permissibility of honey is explicit in the text, and secondly, honey unlike lac resin is not produced from its glands but regurgitated from its mouth into the honey sac. Arguably, the permissibility of honey is specific to this case only. The notable point to be taken is that honey, despite its purity is not purely devoid of some of the bodily remnant of the bee yet the Shariah has overlooked it. Imām Abu Bakar Jassās rahimahullah in his tafseer commentary writes;

“And the statement of Allāh Almighty, multitude colours of drinks extracting from its belly in it being a cure for mankind, it becomes known that it (the honey) is not completely devoid of (residue) dead bee or its larvae but Allāh has ruled it as pure.”[5]

This is evident that an insect that has no flowing blood does not contaminate (make impure) whatever it falls into even if some of its residue parts remain. This can be further proven from a prophet Hadeeth wherein the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “If a fly falls into any of your utensil (of food) then he should thrust it all in then dispose of it because one of its wings contains cure whilst the other one contains the disease.”[6]  The jurists explain that it is evident that the remnant of a fly even if it dies in pure food or liquid does not render the food or liquid unlawful for consumption.[7]

By extension, the lac resin from which shellac is formed, secreted from the exocrine glands, cannot be treated as impure and nor does it render the food or liquid unlawful for consumption. This is similar to the case with silk harvested from silk worms or a spider’s web that though derive from an unlawful insect are not deemed impure.  A final point is that during the process, the shellac is dissolved in ethanol as was explained previously. The ruing of ethanol whether lawful or unlawful depends on two factors; whether its derived from grapes and dates and whether it intoxicates. If none of the two are found then the ethanol is pure which will not render the shellac unlawful.[8]

So to conclude that shellac which is derived from lac bugs is not deemed impure and if added as an ingredient in consumable things such as food, liquid or medicine then they are permissible to consume and if used for industrial use then they are also permissible to use.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Visit the link for more details. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shellac [accessed 12th August 2020]

 

[2] Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Kitāb al-Hadhr wal Ibahat, vol 3 p. 506

ويحرم أكل حشرات الأرض (صغار دوابها) كالعقرب والثعبان والفأرة والنمل والنحل لسُّميتها واستخباث الطباع السليمة لها. ويحرم المتولد من مأكول وغير مأكول كالبغل المتولد من الحمير والخيل، والحمار المتولد من حمار الوحش والحمار الأهلي؛ لأنه مخلوق مما يؤكل ومما لا يؤكل، فيغلب التحريم عملاً بقاعدة تقديم الحاظر على المبيح. وقال المالكية: يباح بالذكاة أكل خَشاش الأرض كعقرب وخنفساء وبنات ورَدْان وجندب ونمل ودود وسوس. ويباح أيضاً أكل حية أمن سمها إن ذبحت بحلقها

[3] Quran, Surah al-A’raf [7: 157]

 

[4] Sarakhsi, al-Mabsoot, vol11 p. 240

[كِتَابُ الصَّيْدِ]

وَلِمَعْنَى الْخُبْثِ فِيهِمَا، فَإِنَّ مِنْ طَبْعِهِمَا الِاخْتِطَافَ وَالِانْتِهَابَ……. وَالْمُسْتَخْبَثُ حَرَامٌ بِالنَّصِّ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: {وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمْ الْخَبَائِثَ} [الأعراف: 157] وَلِهَذَا حَرَّمَ تَنَاوُلَ الْحَشَرَاتِ، فَإِنَّهَا مُسْتَخْبَثَةٌ طَبْعًا،

 

Muheet al-Burhani, Kitabas-Sayd, vol 6, p. 57

الفصل الأول في بيان ما يؤكل من الحيوانات، وما لا يؤكل

يجب أن يعلم بأن الحيوانات على أنواع: منها ما لا دم له نحو الذباب والزنبور والسمك والجراد وغير ذلك، ولا يحل تناول شيء منها إلا السمك والجراد، غير أن الجراد يحل مات بعلة أو بغير علة، والسمك إذا مات بغير علة لا يحل،

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitab Dhaba’ih, vol 9, p. 444

وَكُلُّ مَا لَا دَمَ لَهُ فَهُوَ مَكْرُوهٌ أَكْلُهُ إلَّا الْجَرَادُ كَالزُّنْبُورِ وَالذُّبَابِ أَتْقَانِيٌّ. وَلَا بَأْسَ بِدُودِ الزُّنْبُورِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُنْفَخَ فِيهِ الرُّوحُ لِأَنَّ مَا لَا رُوحَ لَهُ لَا يُسَمَّى مَيْتَةً خَانِيَّةٌ وَغَيْرُهَا: قَالَ ط: وَيُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُ أَنَّ أَكْلَ الْجُبْنِ أَوْ الْخَلِّ أَوْ الثِّمَارِ كَالنَّبْقِ بِدُودِهِ لَا يَجُوزُ إنْ نُفِخَ فِيهِ الرُّوحُ اهـ

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitab Dhaba’i, vol 5, p. 357

[الْبَاب الثَّانِي فِي بَيَان مَا يُؤْكَلُ مِنْ الْحَيَوَانِ وَمَا لَا يُؤْكَلُ]

وَأَمَّا الَّذِي يَعِيشُ فِي الْبَرِّ فَأَنْوَاعٌ ثَلَاثَةٌ: مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ دَمٌ أَصْلًا وَمَا لَيْسَ لَهُ دَمٌ سَائِلٌ وَمَا لَهُ دَمٌ سَائِلٌ، فَمَا لَا دَمَ لَهُ مِثْلُ الْجَرَادِ وَالزُّنْبُورِ وَالذُّبَابِ وَالْعَنْكَبُوتِ وَالْخُنْفُسَاءِ وَالْعَقْرَبِ وَالْبَبْغَاءِ وَنَحْوِهَا لَا يَحِلُّ أَكْلُهُ إلَّا الْجَرَادُ خَاصَّةً، وَكَذَلِكَ مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ دَمٌ سَائِلٌ مِثْلُ الْحَيَّةِ وَالْوَزَغِ وَسَامٍّ أَبْرَصَ وَجَمِيعِ الْحَشَرَاتِ

 

[5] Imam Abu Bakar Jassas, Ahkam al-Quran Jassas vol 5, p. 5

ثُمَّ كُلِي مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ فَاسْلُكِي سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلًا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٌ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهُ فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لِلنَّاسِ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

فِيهِ الدَّلَالَةُ عَلَى طَهَارَةِ اللَّبَنِ الْمَحْلُوبِ مِنْ الشَّاةِ الْمَيْتَةِ مِنْ وَجْهَيْنِ أَحَدِهِمَا عُمُومُ اللَّفْظِ فِي إبَاحَةِ اللَّبَنِ مِنْ غَيْرِ فَرْقٍ بَيْنَ مَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُ حَيًّا أَوْ مَيِّتًا وَالثَّانِي إخْبَارُهُ تَعَالَى أَنَّهُ خَارِجٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ فَرْثٍ وَدَمٍ وَحُكْمُهُ بِطَهَارَتِهِ مَعَ ذَلِكَ إذْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ مَوْضِعَ الْخِلْقَةِ فَثَبَتَ أَنَّ اللَّبَنَ لَا يُنَجَّسُ بِنَجَاسَةِ مَوْضِعِ الْخِلْقَةِ وَهُوَ ضَرْعُ الْمَيْتَةِ كَمَا لَمْ يُنَجَّسْ بِمُجَاوَرَتِهِ لِلْفَرْثِ وَالدَّمِ  قَوْله تَعَالَى يَخْرُجُ مِنْ بُطُونِها شَرابٌ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوانُهُ فِيهِ شِفاءٌ لِلنَّاسِ فِيهِ بَيَانُ طَهَارَةِ الْعَسَلِ وَمَعْلُومٌ أَنَّهُ لَا يَخْلُو مِنْ النَّحْلِ الْمَيِّتِ وَفِرَاخِهِ فِيهِ وَحَكَمَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى مَعَ ذَلِكَ بِطَهَارَتِهِ فَأَخْبَرَ عَمَّا فِيهِ مِنْ الشِّفَاءِ لِلنَّاسِ فَدَلَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى أن مالا دَمَ لَهُ لَا يُفْسِدُ مَا يَمُوتُ فِيهِ

 

[6] Bukhari, No: 3320

وعن ابى هريرة ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إذا وقع الذباب فى اناء أحدكم فليغمسه كله ثم ليطرحه فان فى أحد جناحيه شفاء وفى الاخر داء- رواه البخاري

 

[7] Ikhtiyar, Kitab Taharat, vol 1. p. 15

قَالَ: (وَكَذَا مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ نَفْسٌ سَائِلَةٌ كَالذُّبَابِ وَالْبَعُوضِ وَالْبَقِّ) إِذَا مَاتَ فِي الْمَائِعِ لَا يُفْسِدُهُ، لِقَوْلِهِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ -: «إِذَا وَقَعَ الذُّبَابُ فِي طَعَامِ أَحَدِكُمْ فَامْقُلُوهُ ثُمَّ انْقُلُوهُ» الْحَدِيثَ، وَأَنَّهُ يَمُوتُ بِالْمَقْلِ فِي الطَّعَامِ سِيَّمَا الْحَارُّ مِنْهُ، وَلَوْ كَانَ مَوْتُهُ يُنَجِّسُ الطَّعَامَ لَمَا أُمِرَ بِهِ

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitab Taharat vol 1 p. 92

(قَوْلُهُ: وَمَوْتُ مَا لَا دَمَ فِيهِ كَالْبَقِّ وَالذُّبَابِ وَالزُّنْبُورِ وَالْعَقْرَبِ وَالسَّمَكِ وَالضُّفْدَعِ وَالسَّرَطَانِ لَا يُنَجِّسُهُ) أَيْ مَوْتُ حَيَوَانٍ لَيْسَ لَهُ دَمٌ سَائِلٌ فِي الْمَاءِ الْقَلِيلِ لَا يُنَجِّسُهُ وَقَدْ جَعَلَ فِي الْهِدَايَةِ هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةَ مَسْأَلَتَيْنِ فَقَالَ أَوَّلًا مَوْتُ مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ نَفْسٌ سَائِلَةٌ فِي الْمَاءِ لَا يُنَجِّسُهُ كَالْبَقِّ وَالذُّبَابِ وَالزَّنَابِيرِ وَالْعَقْرَبِ وَنَحْوِهَا ثُمَّ قَالَ وَمَوْتُ مَا يَعِيشُ فِي الْمَاءِ لَا يُفْسِدُهُ كَالسَّمَكِ وَالضُّفْدَعِ وَالسَّرَطَانِ وَقَدْ جَمَعَهُمَا قَوْلُ الْمُصَنِّفِ

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitab Taharat vol 1 p. 95

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ كُلَّ مَا لَا يُفْسِدُ الْمَاءَ لَا يُفْسِدُ غَيْرَ الْمَاءِ، وَهُوَ الْأَصَحُّ كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ وَالتُّحْفَةِ وَالْأَشْبَهُ بِالْفِقْهِ كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ لَكِنْ يَحْرُمُ أَكْلُ هَذِهِ الْحَيَوَانَاتِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ مَا عَدَا السَّمَكِ الْغَيْرِ الطَّافِي لِفَسَادِ الْغِذَاءِ وَخُبْثِهِ مُتَفَسِّخًا أَوْ غَيْرَهُ وَقَدْ قَدَّمْنَاهُ عَنْ التَّجْنِيسِ.

[8] For more details on alcohol contained products, then visit the link below.

https://jknfatawa.co.uk/islamic-ruling-on-alcohol-contained-products/

The Hadīth on Playing with Dice

The Hadīth on Playing with Dice

17th June 2020

 

Question: There is a Hadīth that was circulated that those who play dice have indeed disobeyed Allāh. Kindly elaborate on whether this is true or not and if playing a board game with dice is prohibited or not?

 

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, the Hadīth you are referring to is authentically established. The Arabic term used is nard which is loosely translated as dice, feeding the impression that all modern forms of board games with dice are by default prohibited. A detailed study of the various commentaries suggests that the dice game prohibited in the Hadīth refers to a particular form of a game that was played in those days with specific motives. I will present a few Ahādīth on the topic with a commentary which includes the definition, the differences amongst scholars and the reason for its prohibition. There are various forms of board games with dice today such as snakes and ladders, backgammon, monopoly, Ludo etc all of which are subjected to a specific set of game rules and played differently. To discuss each and every board game here is beyond the scope of our discussion as not all are similar in their ruling considering that they are all different. A summative overview of the conditions, therefore, will be presented towards the end of the discussion that will hopefully enable an individual Muslim to determine the permissibility and non-permissibility of particular board games.

To begin with, the Hadīth which you are referring to is as follows. Sayyidunā Abū Mūsa al-Ash’ari radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Whoever plays with nard (dice) has indeed disobeyed Allāh and his Messenger.”[1] In another narration the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, Whoever plays with nardasheer (dice) then it is as if he has immersed his hands inside the flesh and blood of a swine.”[2] Several terms have been reported in reference to the prohibition of dice such as; نَّرْدِ, نَّرْدَشِيرِ and كِعَابِ but the most common amongst them is the word نَّرْدِ. Nard was a type of game invented by the Persians, a cube-like shape made from wood with multiple sides similar to modern dice that was used for fortune-telling, an indication to one’s destiny or for gambling. Shihab Khafagi, a prominent lexicalist stated,

“….nard is what the Persians invented indicating to one’s destiny or an indication of one’s intellect interfering with acquiring (something) of high status.”[3]

Shaykh Zurqāni rahimahullah in his commentary of Muwatta explains why the Persians used to play nard,

“It is said that previously when they (Persians) observed into worldly affairs, they would use two methods; the first was that which relates to unanimously acquiesce on a matter and for that, they invented the nard so that the individual would know (what to do) by it, and the second was that which relates to advancing and strategic planning for which they invented chess (shatranj) so that the individual is able to perceive (something) by it and (perceive) the threats that could (potentially) arise from such similar moves.”[4]

Shaykh Zurqani rahimahullah further on expounds on the origin of the nard game as follows;

“It is said that the reason for its prohibition is because its founder was Sabūr Ibn Ardasheer the first of the kings of Sāsān (in Persia) because its cuboid shape represented the earth; the division of four sides was to resemble the four earthly seasons, thirty-men (playing it) represented thirty days, the black and white colour represented the day and night, its twelve houses represented twelve months of the year and the three cubes to represent the heavenly decrees in matters that were either in favour or against a human and what is (decreed) for him or not. These attributes with (earthly) causes by which a human being strives for and plays with it to gain something, results in him falling under the severe warning in his effort of reviving the Magian tradition and arrogance against Allāh.”[5]

Imām Shawkāni rahimahullah presents another reason why it was prohibited stating that nard also originated to represent astronomy in the shape of the sun and moon and (attach) other influential effects to it, knowing that all matters are decreed by Allāh Almighty and that a person’s acquisition has no interference in His decree. The player would, therefore, anticipate what was decreed for him by such games. It is thus for this reason that the player has disobeyed Allāh Almighty and His Messenger sallallahu alayhi wasallam and contaminated his hands by it with impurity (as if he has dipped his hands in the flesh of swine and blood).”[6]

The forgoing commentaries allude that nard was a pagan tradition used for fortune-telling and future prediction for the individual. Future predictions were made based on the earthy resemblances attached to this cube-like shape so to determine the outcome of one’s destiny in the world. The knowledge of one’s future destiny is amongst Allāh’s Almighty divine secrets that transcend human ability. Allāh Almighty and his beloved Messenger sallallahu alayhi wasallam severely reproach fortune-telling because of the individual attempting to interfere with Allāh’s Almighty divine destiny which is not allowed. Apart from the above, scholars have explained other reasons of its prohibition such as it causing dissent and animosity amongst people, hindering from Allāh’s Almighty remembrance and engaging the heart (with things other than Allāh Almighty) which are all prohibited by consensus.[7] Other reasons include that players used to gamble by betting against each other. If nard was played without the intention of gambling (and obviously without the intention of fortune-telling as was commonly practised amongst the Persians) then the scholars have differed. Mullah Ali Qāri rahimahullah a Hanafi Hadīth master maintains that nard itself entails gambling which is unconditionally prohibited.[8] This is the mainstream position of the Hanafi jurists who adduce the unconditional application of the Hadīth that prohibits it.[9] Contrarily, some scholars, for instance, Sa’īd ibn Musayyib rahimahullah only forbade it if gambling was involved otherwise not prohibited (and also that by playing one does not become heedless from the remembrance of Allāh Almighty). It is reported that the companion Ibn Mughaffal radhiyallahu anhu used to play this game with his wife.[10] Imām Qurtubi rahimahullah after discussing both views himself concludes that despite it was played primarily to gamble, its prohibition should be taken unconditionally as in, one cannot play it even if no gambling was involved.[11] Essentially he argues that the unconditional prohibition is more sound regardless if the players intended to gamble or not.

To summarise the above, the underpinning reasons why nard – commonly translated as dice – was prohibited can be reduced to one of two reasons;

  1. Nard was a type of game with its historic roots tracing back to the Persians. The Persians used to play nard for future prediction and fortune-telling So arguably, the unconditional prohibition was in particular reference to its common practice at the time.
  2. Many other harmful effects followed as a result of playing nard such as to gamble against other contestants and if not then it hindered from Allāh’s Almighty remembrance and lead to dissent amongst people.

Concerning the first point that, given the specific reason why people played with cube-like dice in those days, literal application of the Hadīth to unconditionally ban all forms of modern board games with dice is questionable considering that most board games do not involve fortune-telling but rather played for past time leisure. It is therefore essential to resort to the general Sharī῾ah guidelines to determine the legitimate status of modern-board games with dice. In this regard, Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani Sahib’s explanation in his famous commentary of Sahīh Muslim proves to be very useful wherein he expounds on the rules that generically apply to all modern-day games to determine their permissibility and prohibition. To summarise, he states that the Sharī῾ah does not prohibit individuals from physical (or mental) exercise to comfort the heart where it contains general benefit for people. It, however, forbids extremity and over-indulgence that causes harm to an individual be it in this world or in the next. The principle about games whether permitted or prohibited depends on the intention, purpose and weight of benefit and harm. Games that are beneficial like horse racing, swimming, archery, playing with family etc, with good intentions are permitted and at times desirable. Contrary, those that are harmful, sinful, evil intentions and hinder from the remembrance of Allāh Almighty are prohibited. Likewise, those that have been proscribed in the Hadīth such as chess and nard (as explained above) are prohibited by default. As for those that the Sharī῾ah has not categorically forbidden then;

  • If proven through experience that such games are detrimental and contain more harm than the benefit or hinder from Allāh’s Almighty remembrance then they are not permitted.
  • If it’s none of the above rather for mere leisure (with no benefit) then disliked (makrooh) but if the benefit can be derived therefrom for the sake of public welfare then it is permitted and at times preferable.[12]

One can also add to the above that the game must not be played for gambling nor involve anything unIslāmic (such as fortune-telling as described above or free mixing with opposite non-mahram genders etc).[13] To conclude our answer in light of the above explanation; modern-day board games with dice (with the exception of chess which is clearly forbidden in the Hadith) are not prohibited provided if;

  1. One does not overly indulge in it causing one to become heedless from Allāh’s Almighty remembrance or to neglect one’s obligations such as Salāh.
  2. Not harmful to one’s physical or mental well-being.
  3. If played due to pass time then it is disliked but not Haram. One must avoid habitually playing it if it serves no benefit.
  4. Not played to gamble against other contestants.
  5. Does not cause dissent or hatred between people.
  6. Does not involve anything as part of the game that conflicts with the fundamental Islamic values.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Abū Dawūd, No: 4938

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ مَيْسَرَةَ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي هِنْدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى الْأَشْعَرِيِّ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ: «مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ»

 

[2] Abū Dawūd, No: 4939

(وَعَنْ بُرَيْدَةَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – قَالَ: «مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدَشِيرِ فَكَأَنَّمَا صَبَغَ يَدَهُ فِي لَحْمِ خِنْزِيرٍ وَدَمِهِ»

[3] Khafagi, Sharh Durrah Ghawās, vol 1, p. 480

شرح دره غواص

(ويقولون للعبة الهندية) وهي معروفة، وضعها حكيم يسمى «صصة» لملك الهند يسمى «هيت» في مقابلة «النرد» الذي وضعه الفرس إشارة إلى القضاء والقدر، إشارة إلى أن للعقل دخلاً في نيل المراتب العلية

 

[4] Sharhu Zurqani alal Muwatta of Imām Malik, vol 4, p. 564

بِفَتْحِ النُّونِ وَإِسْكَانِ الرَّاءِ مَعْنَاهُ بِلُغَةِ الْفُرْسِ: حُلْوٌ، وَيُسَمَّى الْكِعَابَ وَالْأَرِقَ والنَّرْدَشِيرَ، قِيلَ: إِنَّ الْأَوَائِلَ لَمَّا نَظَرُوا فِي أُمُورِ الدُّنْيَا، وَجَدُوهَا عَلَى أُسْلُوبَيْنِ: أَحَدُهُمَا مَا يَجْرِي بِحُكْمِ الِاتِّفَاقِ، فَوَضَعُوا لَهُ النَّرْدَ لِتَشْعُرَ النَّفْسُ بِهِ. وَالثَّانِي: مَا يَجْرِي بِحُكْمِ السَّعْيِ، وَالتَّحَيُّلِ، فَوَضَعُوا لَهُ الشَّطْرَنْجَ، لِتَشْعُرَ النَّفْسُ بِذَلِكَ، وَتَنْهَضَ الْخَوَاطِرُ إِلَى عَمَلِ مِثْلِهِ مِنَ الْمَطْلُوبَاتِ، وَيُقَالُ: إِنَّ وَاضِعَ النَّرْدِ وَضَعَهُ عَلَى رَأْيِ أَصْحَابِ الْجَبْرِ، وَوَاضِعَ الشَّطْرَنْجِ وَضَعَهُ عَلَى رَأْيِ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ

 

[5] Sharhu Zurqani alal Muwatta of Imām Malik, vol 4, p. 565

وَقِيلَ: سَبَبُ حُرْمَتِهِ أَنَّ وَاضِعَهُ سَابُورُ بْنُ أَرْدَشِيرَ أَوَّلُ مُلُوكِ سَاسَانَ، شَبَّهَ رُقْعَتَهُ بِوَجْهِ الْأَرْضِ، وَالتَّقْسِيمَ الرُّبَاعِيَّ بِالْفُصُولِ الْأَرْبَعَةِ، وَالشُّخُوصَ الثَلَاثِينَ بِثَلَاثِينَ يَوْمًا، وَالسَّوَادَ وَالْبَيَاضَ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ، وَالْبُيُوتَ الِاثْنَيْ عَشَرَ بِشُهُورِ السَّنَةِ، وَالْكِعَابَ الثَّلَاثَةَ بِالْأَقْضِيَةِ السَّمَاوِيَّةِ فِي مَا لِلْإِنْسَانِ وَعَلَيْهِ، وَمَا لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَا عَلَيْهِ، وَالْخِصَالَ بِالْأَغْرَاضِ الَّتِي يَسْعَى الْإِنْسَانُ لِأَجْلِهَا، وَاللَّعِبَ بِهَا بِالْكَسْبِ، فَصَارَ مَنْ يَلْعَبُ بِهِ حَقِيقًا بِالْوَعِيدِ لِاجْتِهَادِهِ فِي إِحْيَاءِ سُنَّةِ الْمَجُوسِ الْمُسْتَكْبِرَةِ عَلَى اللَّهِ.

Faydhul Qadeer, vol 6, p. 219

(من لعب بالنرد فقد عصى الله ورسوله) وفي رواية مسلم ” من لعب بالنردشير فكأنما صنع يده في لحم الخنزير ودمه ” والنردشير هو النرد ومعناه الفرس حلو قيل: سبب حرمته أن واضعه سابور بن أزدشير أول ملوك ساسان شبه رقعته بوجه الأرض والتقسيم الرباعي بالفصول الأربعة والشخوص الثلاثين بثلاثين يوما والسواد والبياض بالليل والنهار والبيوت الاثني عشر بشهور السنة والكعاب الثلاثة بالأقضية السماوية فيما للإنسان وعليه وما ليس له ولا عليه والخصال بالأغراض التي يسعى الإنسان واللعب بها بالكسب فصار من يلعب بها حقيقا بالوعيد المفهوم من تشبيه أحد الأمرين بالآخر لاجتهاده في إحياء سنة المجوس المستكبرة على الله. وقد اتفق السلف على حرمة اللعب به ونقل ابن قدامة عليه الإجماع ولا يخلو عن نزاع قال الزمخشري: دخلت في زمن الحداثة على شيخ يلعب بالنرد مع آخر يعرف بازدشير فقلت الأزدشير النردشير بئس المولى وبئس العشير

 

[6] Shawkāni, Nayl al-Awtār, vol 8, p. 107

[بَابُ تَحْرِيمِ الْقِمَارِ وَاللَّعِبِ بِالنَّرْدِ وَمَا فِي مَعْنَى ذَلِكَ]

قَوْلُهُ: (مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدَشِيرِ) قَالَ النَّوَوِيُّ: النَّرْدَشِيرُ هُوَ النَّرْدُ عَجَمِيٌّ مُعَرَّبٌ، وَشِيرُ مَعْنَاهُ حُلْوٌ، وَكَذَا فِي النِّهَايَةِ، وَقِيلَ: هُوَ خَشَبَةٌ قَصِيرَةٌ ذَاتُ فُصُوصٍ يُلْعَبُ بِهَا. وَقِيلَ إنَّمَا سُمِّيَ بِذَلِكَ الِاسْمِ لِأَنَّ وَاضِعَهُ أَرْدَشِيرُ بْنُ بَابِكَ مِنْ مُلُوكِ الْفُرْسِ قَالَ النَّوَوِيُّ: وَهَذَا الْحَدِيثُ حُجَّةٌ لِلشَّافِعِيِّ وَالْجُمْهُورِ فِي تَحْرِيمِ اللَّعِبِ بِالنَّرْدِ. وَقَالَ أَبُو إِسْحَاقَ الْمَرْوَزِيِّ: يُكْرَهُ وَلَا يُحَرَّمُ. قِيلَ: وَسَبَبُ تَحْرِيمِهِ أَنَّ وَضْعَهُ عَلَى هَيْئَةِ الْفَلَكِ بِصُورَةِ شَمْسٍ وَقَمَرٍ وَتَأْثِيرَاتٍ مُخْتَلِفَةٍ تَحْدُثُ عِنْدَ اقْتِرَانَاتِ أَوْضَاعِهِ لِيَدُلَّ بِذَلِكَ عَلَى أَنَّ أَقْضِيَةَ الْأُمُورِ كُلِّهَا مُقَدَّرَةٌ بِقَضَاءِ اللَّهِ لَيْسَ لِلْكَسْبِ فِيهَا مَدْخَلٌ، وَلِهَذَا يَنْتَظِرُ اللَّاعِبُ بِهِ مَا يُقْضَى لَهُ بِهِ وَالتَّمْثِيلُ بِقَوْلِهِ ” فَكَأَنَّمَا صَبَغَ يَدَهُ فِي لَحْمِ خِنْزِيرٍ. . . إلَخْ ” فِيهِ إشَارَةٌ إلَى التَّحْرِيمِ لِأَنَّ التَّلَوُّثَ بِالنَّجَاسَاتِ مِنْ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ. وَقَوْلُهُ: ” فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ” تَصْرِيحٌ بِمَا يُفِيدُ التَّحْرِيمَ.

 

[7] Sharhu Zurqani alal Muwatta of Imām Malik, vol 4, p. 565

(فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهَ) ; لِأَنَّهُ يُوقِعُ الْعَدَاوَةَ، وَالْبَغْضَاءَ، وَيَصُدُّ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ، وَيَشْغَلُ الْقَلْبَ، فَيَحْرُمُ اللَّعِبُ بِهِ بِاتِّفَاقِ السَّلَفِ، بَلْ حَكَى بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَيْهِ الْإِجْمَاعَ وَنُوزِعَ.

 

[8] Mullah Ali Qāri, Mirqat Sharh al-Mishkāt, vol 7, p. 2856

[بَابُ التَّصَاوِيرِ]

(وَعَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى الْأَشْعَرِيِّ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – قَالَ: «مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ» ) : لِأَنَّهُ قِمَارٌ حَقِيقَةً أَوْ صُورَةً وَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ أَنَّهُ حَرَامٌ مُطْلَقًا (رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ، وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ) : وَكَذَا ابْنُ مَاجَهْ وَالْحَاكِمُ

 

[9] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Istihsan, vol 5 p. 127

وَيُكْرَهُ اللَّعِبُ بِالنَّرْدِ وَالشِّطْرَنْجِ وَالْأَرْبَعَةِ عَشْرٍ وَهِيَ لَعِبٌ تَسْتَعْمِلُهُ الْيَهُودُ لِأَنَّهُ قِمَارٌ أَوْ لَعِبٌ وَكُلُّ ذَلِكَ حَرَامٌ (أَمَّا) الْقِمَارُ فَلِقَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالأَنْصَابُ وَالأَزْلامُ رِجْسٌ} [المائدة: 90] وَهُوَ الْقِمَارُ كَذَا رَوَى ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَابْنُ سَيِّدِنَا عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ – وَرُوِيَ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ وَسَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ وَالشَّعْبِيِّ وَغَيْرِهِمْ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ – أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا الْمَيْسِرُ الْقِمَارُ كُلُّهُ حَتَّى الْجَوْزُ الَّذِي يَلْعَبُ بِهِ الصِّبْيَانُ وَعَنْ سَيِّدِنَا عَلِيٍّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ الشِّطْرَنْجُ مَيْسِرُ الْأَعَاجِمِ وَعَنْ النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ «مَا أَلْهَاكُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ مَيْسِرٌ» (وَأَمَّا) اللَّعِبُ فَلِقَوْلِهِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «كُلُّ لَعِبٍ حَرَامٌ إلَّا مُلَاعَبَةُ الرَّجُلِ امْرَأَتَهُ وَقَوْسَهُ وَفَرَسَهُ»

 

[10] Mullah Ali Qāri, Mirqat Sharh al-Mishkāt, vol 7, p. 2803

(وَالضَّرْبَ بِالْكِعَابِ) : بِكَسْرِ الْكَافِ جَمْعُ كَعْبٍ، وَهُوَ فُصُوصُ النَّرْدِ، وَيُضْرَبُ بِهَا عَلَى عَادَتِهِمْ، وَالْمُرَادُ النَّهْيُ عَنِ اللَّعِبِ بِالنَّرْدِ وَهُوَ حَرَامٌ كَرِهَهُ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – وَالصَّحَابَةُ. وَقِيلَ: كَانَ ابْنُ مُغَفَّلٍ يَلْعَبُ مَعَ امْرَأَتِهِ، وَرَخَصَّ فِيهِ ابْنُ الْمُسَيَّبِ عَلَى غَيْرِ قِمَارٍ، وَفِي الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ بِرِوَايَةِ أَحْمَدَ وَأَبِي دَاوُدَ وَابْنِ مَاجَهْ وَالْحَاكِمِ، عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى مَرْفُوعًا ” «مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ» “. وَفِي مَعْنَاهُ اللَّعِبُ بِالشِّطْرَنْجِ، وَهُوَ مَكْرُوهٌ عِنْدَنَا، مُبَاحٌ عِنْدَ الشَّافِعِيَّةِ بِشُرُوطٍ مُعْتَبَرَةٍ لَهُمْ

 

[11] Qurtubi, Ahkām al-Qurān, vol 8, p. 339

السَّابِعَةُ: قَالَ عُلَمَاؤُنَا: النَّرْدُ قِطَعٌ مَمْلُوءَةٌ مِنْ خَشَبِ الْبَقْسِ وَمِنْ عَظْمِ الْفِيلِ، وَكَذَا هُوَ الشِّطْرَنْجُ إِذْ هُوَ أَخُوهُ غُذِّيَ بِلَبَانِهِ. وَالنَّرْدُ هُوَ الَّذِي يُعْرَفُ بِالْبَاطِلِ «1»، وَيُعْرَفُ بِالْكِعَابِ وَيُعْرَفُ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ أَيْضًا بِالْأَرُنْ «2» ويعرف أيضا بالنرد شير. وَفِي صَحِيحِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قال: (من لعب بالنرد شير فَكَأَنَّمَا غَمَسَ يَدَهُ فِي لَحْمِ خِنْزِيرٍ وَدَمِهِ). قَالَ عُلَمَاؤُنَا: وَمَعْنَى هَذَا أَيْ هُوَ كَمَنْ غَمَسَ يَدَهُ فِي لَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ يُهَيِّئُهُ لِأَنْ يَأْكُلَهُ، وَهَذَا الْفِعْلُ فِي الْخِنْزِيرِ حَرَامٌ لَا يَجُوزُ، يُبَيِّنُهُ قَوْلُهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ) رَوَاهُ مَالِكٌ وَغَيْرُهُ مِنْ حَدِيثِ أَبِي مُوسَى الْأَشْعَرِيِّ وَهُوَ حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحٌ، وَهُوَ يُحَرِّمُ اللَّعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً، وَكَذَلِكَ الشِّطْرَنْجُ، لَمْ يَسْتَثْنِ وَقْتًا مِنْ وَقْتٍ وَلَا حَالًا مِنْ حَالٍ، وَأَخْبَرَ أَنَّ فَاعِلَ ذَلِكَ عَاصٍ لِلَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ، إِلَّا أَنَّهُ يَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الْمُرَادُ بِاللَّعِبِ بِالنَّرْدِ الْمَنْهِيِّ عَنْهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْقِمَارِ، لِمَا رُوِيَ مِنْ إِجَازَةِ اللَّعِبِ بِالشِّطْرَنْجِ عَنِ التَّابِعِينَ عَلَى غَيْرِ قِمَارٍ. وَحُمِلَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْعُمُومِ قِمَارًا وَغَيْرُ قِمَارٍ أَوْلَى وَأَحْوَطُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ…..

وَقَالَ أَبُو مُوسَى الْأَشْعَرِيُّ: لَا يلعب بالشطرنج إلا خاطئ. وسيل أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ عَنِ الشِّطْرَنْجِ فَقَالَ: دَعُونَا مِنْ هَذِهِ الْمَجُوسِيَّةِ. وَفِي حَدِيثٍ طَوِيلٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: (وَإِنَّ مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ وَالشِّطْرَنْجِ وَالْجَوْزِ وَالْكِعَابِ مَقَتَهُ اللَّهُ وَمَنْ جَلَسَ إِلَى مَنْ يَلْعَبُ بِالنَّرْدِ وَالشِّطْرَنْجِ لِيَنْظُرَ إِلَيْهِمْ مُحِيَتْ عَنْهُ حَسَنَاتُهُ كُلُّهَا وَصَارَ مِمَّنْ مَقَتَهُ اللَّهُ (. وَهَذِهِ الْآثَارُ كُلُّهَا تَدُلُّ عَلَى تَحْرِيمِ اللَّعِبِ بِهَا بِلَا قِمَارٍ، وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

 

[12] Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Takmilah Fathul Mulhim, Bāb Tahrīm La’ib bin-Nardasheer, vol 4, pp. 434-435.

 

[13] See Fatawa Mahmoodiyyah, vol 19, p. 538-539, Mufti Ebrahim Desai, Ask Imam, http://askimam.org/public/question_detail/13561 [accessed 15th June 2020]

 

Men Wearing Ring other than Silver

Men Wearing Ring other than Silver

9th June 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Are men allowed to wear rings other than silver eg. metal or steel, if not is their namaz accepted whilst wearing such a ring, and is there any punishment for doing so?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, it is prohibited[1] for a man to wear a ring[2] made of any material besides silver. The prophet sallalahu alaihi wa sallam has very sternly forbade the wearing of gold,[3] and other metal rings for men.

A person’s salah whilst wearing such a ring would be valid as the item itself is pure, but the sin of wearing the ring would still be upon him.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyya, kitab al hadhr wal ibaahah, bab fil lubs, vol 5, p 335

وَالتَّخَتُّمُ بِالذَّهَبِ حَرَامٌ فِي الصَّحِيحِ، كَذَا فِي الْوَجِيزِ لِلْكَرْدَرِيِّ.

[2] Ibn Nujaym, Al Bahr al raaiq, Kitaab al karahiya, fasl fil lubs, vol 8, p 217

قَالَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – (وَلَا يَتَحَلَّى الرَّجُلُ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةِ إلَّا بِالْخَاتَمِ وَالْمِنْطَقَةِ، وَحِلْيَةُ السَّيْفِ مِنْ الْفِضَّةِ) رَوَيْنَا، غَيْرَ أَنَّ الْخَاتَمَ وَمَا ذَكَرَ مُسْتَثْنًى تَحْقِيقًا لِمَعْنَى النَّمُوذَجِ وَالْفِضَّةِ؛ لِأَنَّهُمَا مِنْ جِنْسٍ وَاحِدٍ

[3] Shaami, Raddul Muhtaar, Kitabul hadhr wal ibaahah, bab al lubs vol 6, p 359

وَلَا يَتَخَتَّمُ) إلَّا بِالْفِضَّةِ لِحُصُولِ الِاسْتِغْنَاءِ بِهَا فَيَحْرُمُ (بِغَيْرِهَا كَحَجَرٍ) وَصَحَّحَ السَّرَخْسِيُّ

 

Cosmetic Products Containing Urea; Permissible to Use or Not?

Cosmetic Products Containing Urea; Permissible to Use or Not?

26th February 2020

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is using foot cream or any other cosmetics which contains Urea permissible? Urea contains traces of urine so if not permissible then what about soaps that contain animal fat or pig, is that permissible as well or not? 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

There are two parts to your query; urea substance and animal fat and pigs used in soaps. Regarding the first part, the cosmetic products and creams that contain urea ingredient are so to maintain the moisture on to the skin. Our body naturally produces and releases urea through sweat as well as through waste compound such as urine. Urea is a natural moisturiser for our skin that keeps the skin hydrated and healthy. People suffering from skin conditions such as dry skin and eczema do so because of the skin tissue breaking up. As a result, the skin surface releases moisture into the air and lacks water causing dryness and itchiness to the skin. Using emollient creams containing urea compensate for this predicament with a temporary solution by coating the skin surface with an instant moisturiser to rehydrate the skin. By mentioning urea, it gives the obvious impression that the urea ingredient can possibly be derived from animal urine. However, this is not always the case in cosmetic products as urea found in them is synthetically made in laboratories, using raw materials such as ammonia and carbon dioxide.[1]

So, from a Shar’ee viewpoint, there is no harm in using such creams containing synthetically formed substances such as urea as all are considered pure provided that no known impure ingredient is added. Should impure ingredients be added then one must see to it whether physical change has occurred or not. This leads onto the second part of your question that certain soaps contain impurity such as animal fat. If physical change has occurred whereby the traces of the impurity no longer exists then according to the view of Imām Muhammad rahimahullah, one of Imām Abu Haneefah’s rahimahullah senior students, the soap will be ruled as pure. Most Hanafi scholars have adopted this view due to public predicament.[2] This also applies to pig fat that when physical change occurs then the soap is permissible to use.[3]

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and Researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Some useful links on the topic

https://thenakedchemist.com/what-is-urea-and-its-benefits-in-skincare/

https://www.annmariegianni.com/ingredient-watch-list-urea-the-preservative-that-may-release-formaldehyde/

https://www.skin-remedies.com/urea-cream.html

 

[2] Ibn Humām, Fathul Qadeer, Kitāb at-Tahārah, Bāb al-Anjas wa Tatheer, vol 1 p. 202

وَكَذَا الْحِمَارُ إذَا مَاتَ فِي مُمْلِحَةٍ لَا يُؤْكَلُ الْمِلْحُ، وَهَذَا كُلُّهُ قَوْلُ أَبِي يُوسُفَ خِلَافًا لِمُحَمَّدٍ لِأَنَّ الرَّمَادَ أَجْزَاءٌ لِتِلْكَ النَّجَاسَةِ فَتَبْقَى النَّجَاسَةُ مِنْ وَجْهٍ فَالْتُحِقَتْ بِالنَّجِسِ مِنْ كُلِّ وَجْهٍ احْتِيَاطًا انْتَهَى.

وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْ الْمَشَايِخِ اخْتَارُوا قَوْلَ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَهُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ لِأَنَّ الشَّرْعَ رَتَّبَ وَصْفَ النَّجَاسَةِ عَلَى تِلْكَ الْحَقِيقَةِ، وَتَنْتَفِي الْحَقِيقَةُ بِانْتِفَاءِ بَعْضِ أَجْزَاءِ مَفْهُومِهَا فَكَيْفَ بِالْكُلِّ، فَإِنَّ الْمِلْحَ غَيْرُ الْعَظْمِ وَاللَّحْمِ، فَإِذَا صَارَ مِلْحًا تَرَتَّبَ حُكْمُ الْمِلْحِ وَنَظِيرُهُ فِي الشَّرْعِ النُّطْفَةُ نَجِسَةٌ وَتَصِيرُ عَلَقَةً وَهِيَ نَجِسَةٌ وَتَصِيرُ مُضْغَةً فَتَطْهُرُ، وَالْعَصِيرُ طَاهِرٌ فَيَصِيرُ خَمْرًا فَيَنْجَسُ وَيَصِيرُ خَلًّا فَيَطْهُرُ، فَعَرَفْنَا أَنَّ اسْتِحَالَةَ الْعَيْنِ تَسْتَتْبِعُ زَوَالَ الْوَصْفِ الْمُرَتَّبِ عَلَيْهَا. وَعَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ فَرَّعُوا الْحُكْمَ بِطَهَارَةِ صَابُونٍ صُنِعَ مِنْ زَيْتٍ نَجِسٍ،

See Maulana Khalid Saifullah Rahmani, Jadeed Fiqhi Masail vol 1, p. 121

 

[3] See Mufti Kifayatullah, Kifayatul Mufti, Kitāb al-Tahārah, fourth Bab of soap, vol 2, p. 277-284

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 50

[الْبَابُ السَّابِعُ فِي النَّجَاسَةِ وَأَحْكَامِهَا وَفِيهِ ثَلَاثَةُ فُصُولٍ]

[الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي تَطْهِيرِ الْأَنْجَاسِ]

الْحِمَارُ أَوْ الْخِنْزِيرُ إذَا وَقَعَ فِي الْمَمْلَحَةِ فَصَارَ مِلْحًا أَوْ بِئْرِ الْبَالُوعَةِ إذَا صَارَ طِينًا يَطْهُرُ عِنْدَهُمَا خِلَافًا لِأَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -. كَذَا فِي مُحِيطِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ……….جُعِلَ الدُّهْنُ النَّجِسُ فِي الصَّابُونِ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ. كَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Tahārah, Bāb al-Anjas, vol 1 p. 519

ثُمَّ هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةُ قَدْ فَرَّعُوهَا عَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ بِالطَّهَارَةِ بِانْقِلَابِ الْعَيْنِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى وَاخْتَارَهُ أَكْثَرُ الْمَشَايِخِ خِلَافًا لِأَبِي يُوسُفَ كَمَا فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ وَالْفَتْحِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا. وَعِبَارَةُ الْمُجْتَبَى: جَعْلُ الدُّهْنِ النَّجِسِ فِي صَابُونٍ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ وَالتَّغَيُّرُ يُطَهِّرُ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَيُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى. اهـ. وَظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّ دُهْنَ الْمَيْتَةِ كَذَلِكَ لِتَعْبِيرِهِ بِالنَّجِسِ دُونَ الْمُتَنَجِّسِ إلَّا أَنْ يُقَالَ هُوَ خَاصٌّ بِالنَّجِسِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْعَادَةَ فِي الصَّابُونِ وَضْعُ الزَّيْتِ دُونَ بَقِيَّةِ الْأَدْهَانِ تَأَمَّلْ، ثُمَّ رَأَيْت فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ مَا يُؤَيِّدُ الْأَوَّلَ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَعَلَيْهِ يَتَفَرَّعُ مَا لَوْ وَقَعَ إنْسَانٌ أَوْ كَلْبٌ فِي قِدْرِ الصَّابُونِ فَصَارَ صَابُونًا يَكُونُ طَاهِرًا لِتَبَدُّلِ الْحَقِيقَةِ. اهـ. ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْعِلَّةَ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ هِيَ التَّغَيُّرُ وَانْقِلَابُ الْحَقِيقَةِ وَأَنَّهُ يُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى كَمَا عُلِمَ مِمَّا مَرَّ، وَمُقْتَضَاهُ عَدَمُ اخْتِصَاصِ ذَلِكَ الْحُكْمِ بِالصَّابُونِ، فَيَدْخُلُ فِيهِ كُلُّ مَا كَانَ فِيهِ تَغَيُّرٌ وَانْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ وَكَانَ فِيهِ بَلْوَى عَامَّةٌ، فَيُقَالُ: كَذَلِكَ فِي الدِّبْسِ الْمَطْبُوخِ إذَا كَانَ زَبِيبُهُ مُتَنَجِّسًا وَلَا سِيَّمَا أَنَّ الْفَأْرَ يَدْخُلُهُ فَيَبُولُ وَيَبْعَرُ فِيهِ وَقَدْ يَمُوتُ فِيهِ، وَقَدْ بَحَثَ كَذَلِكَ بَعْضُ شُيُوخِ مَشَايِخِنَا فَقَالَ: وَعَلَى هَذَا إذَا تَنَجَّسَ السِّمْسِمُ ثُمَّ صَارَ طَحِينَةً يَطْهُرُ، خُصُوصًا وَقَدْ عَمَّتْ بِهِ الْبَلْوَى وَقَاسَهُ عَلَى مَا إذَا وَقَعَ عُصْفُورٌ فِي بِئْرٍ حَتَّى صَارَ طِينًا لَا يَلْزَمُ إخْرَاجُهُ لِاسْتِحَالَتِهِ.

 

 

Is Tallow Ingredient Pure?

Is Tallow Ingredient Pure?

16th February 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I use a fabric conditioner and I discovered it contains an ingredient called tallow. Upon contacting Unilever, a major company that deals with cosmetic products, they confirmed that it was an animal-derived product. My question is, would it be permissible to use such detergent product?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Based on my enquiries and research into the matter, animal-derived ingredient exists across many cosmetic and food products.[1] Animal ingredient comes in different forms under different names so the scope of permissibility depends on whether or not such an ingredient results in a significant “Chemical” change whereby it forms into something else (a new product, with different properties) (McMurry, Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition). A detailed answer is necessary which should hopefully not only answer the case in question but apply across other cosmetic products also that contain similar ingredients as well.

So to begin with, what is Tallow? Tallow[2] is derived from the animal fat that is made by rendering (melting) the suet, the white fatty layer that surrounds the meat or organ; kidney or loin, of an animal such as sheep, goat, cow or pig. It mainly consists of glyceryl esters, (such as Tri-Glycerides) of oleic, palmitic, stearic acids, linoleic and myristic acid. These terms commonly appear on the ingredient packet, so one must be aware that they are animal fat.[3] Tallow exists in a wide variety of products such as paints, soaps, shaving creams, comfort detergent as well as other personal care products.[4] The reason why they are used in products is so to bind the mixture of the other chemicals together.[5] In doing so it makes the product conducive to fulfilling its purpose.

There are two key issues relevant to its Islamic fiqh perspective; the ruling of the fat derived from animals whether pure or impure and secondly, if the substance is deemed impure, then does its ruling change when added into cosmetic products in addition to other chemicals. Regarding the first point, the flesh and fat of an animal are deemed impure unless it is slaughtered by severing the throat; with or without the recital of Almighty Allāh’s blessed name on it. Cutting the throat causes to drain out all of the blood in the animal which is the main source of the animal’s impurity. Once the blood is drained out, then the flesh and fat (as well as the bone and skin) become pure, though not permissible to eat if it is a non-Halāl animal or a Halāl animal that is slaughtered without Allāh’s name being mentioned on it.[6] Hence, if it is proven that the animal was slaughtered before harvesting its fat to be rendered down into Tallow then it is deemed pure. Pig, however, is an exception to this ruling as it is regarded “absolute impure” – najis al-ayn compared to other non-Halāl animals. Its flesh, fat, skin or any of its body parts remain impure even after it is slaughtered.[7]

If the animal was not slaughtered, then this leads to the second point that does the ruling change or not if it has undergone significant “chemical change”?

The mainstream Hanafi jurists view that any impurity that undergoes significant change whereby its entity (the very molecular structure) changes into something else then so does its ruling change. The common example cited is alcohol changing into vinegar which becomes Halāl to consume and not vice-versa. Another case example is that if soap was manufactured with impure oil then the soap remains pure and permissible to use, with the similar reason that the impurity changes as a result of the additional ingredients in the soap. This is known as tabdeel-mahiyyat actual physical and chemical change of molecular property that either becomes something else or it no longer retains its original property and molecular structure. This view was maintained by Imām Muhammad rahimahullah, who is from amongst the senior Hanafi Jurists, which the later Hanafi jurists adopted due to public predicament.[8] In Abideen Shami rahimahullah, a contemporary Hanafi jurist argues that this principle is not restricted to soap only but applicable in all instances where the actual chemical change occurs.[9] This includes modern cosmetic products whereby due to the change of molecular property with addition to other chemicals become pure and permissible to use.

What constitutes actual chemical change (in some cases physical change or quality change – Tabdeel sifat) is a topic in itself but what is important to know is that certain chemical changes can lead to a change of physical property, provided that it is significant enough whereby it is referred to something else. This can at times occur due to other chemical additives etc. Therefore, it can be safely stated that Tallow or any other animal fats found in cosmetic products are permissible to use due to a higher chance of it undergoing chemical and physical change due to other chemical additives.

The above was the fatwa position but from a personal piety perspective, it is preferable to use those detergent and cosmetic products that are not derived from nor contain animal fat.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] An example of food is margarine which contains natural fat from animals.

2.Tallow is molecule which is made up of mainly triglycerides and triesters (R,R’, R” = C11-C19 chains) (Animal fat), whose major constituents are derived from stearic and oleic acids. The Triglyceride can be broken down to simpler molecules by the process of “saponification”, which is the hydrolysis of the animal fat with an alkali. This normally occurs when the solid dry soap comes into contact with water. The alkalinity will come from the other suspended substances which the soap or cosmetic has been manufactured with. This is due to the LeBlanc Process which made Na2CO3, this process became commercially available in the 19 century. The end molecular products of the animal fats are a fatty aliphatic chain, the soap and a glycerol molecule. (McMurry J (2003), pg. 1027-1033). So the process of “Tabdeel-mahiyyat”, is evident. (Mufti Abu Bakar Karolia, Chemist)

[3] Some of these components can be derived from plants too but they are mostly obtained from animal fats. See the links below for more information on tallow.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tallow

https://blog.kettleandfire.com/what-is-tallow/

https://www.britannica.com/science/tallow

https://gentleworld.org/hidden-animal-fats/

https://www.thesun.co.uk/money/2311208/tallow-animal-fat-new-notes/

https://www.dummies.com/food-drink/recipes/vegetarian-vegan/hidden-animal-ingredients-in-foods/

[4] Same reference as above

[5] McMurry J, (2003), Organic Chemistry, Page 1027-1033, 6th Edition, Brooks/Cole

[6] According to some sources, manufacturing companies receive the animal flesh from slaughterhouses. See the links above.

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 86 – shamila

[فَصْلٌ بَيَانُ مَا يَقَعُ بِهِ التَّطْهِيرُ]

(وَمِنْهَا) الذَّكَاةُ فِي تَطْهِيرِ الذَّبِيحِ، وَجُمْلَةُ الْكَلَامِ فِيهَا أَنَّ الْحَيَوَانَ إنْ كَانَ مَأْكُولَ اللَّحْمِ فَذُبِحَ طَهُرَ بِجَمِيعِ أَجْزَائِهِ إلَّا الدَّمَ الْمَسْفُوحَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مَأْكُولَ اللَّحْمِ فَمَا هُوَ طَاهِرٌ مِنْ الْمَيْتَةِ، مِنْ الْأَجْزَاءِ الَّتِي لَا دَمَ فِيهَا، كَالشَّعْرِ وَأَمْثَالِهِ، يَطْهُرُ مِنْهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ عِنْدَنَا.وَأَمَّا الْأَجْزَاءُ الَّتِي فِيهَا الدَّمُ كَاللَّحْمِ وَالشَّحْمِ وَالْجِلْدِ فَهَلْ تَطْهُرُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، اتَّفَقَ أَصْحَابُنَا عَلَى أَنَّ جِلْدَهُ يَطْهُرُ بِالذَّكَاةِ وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ: لَا يَطْهُرُ وَجْهُ قَوْلِهِ أَنَّ الذَّكَاةَ لَمْ تُفِدْ حِلًّا فَلَا تُفِيدُ طُهْرًا وَهَذَا؛ لِأَنَّ أَثَرَ الذَّكَاةِ يَظْهَرُ فِيمَا وُضِعَ لَهُ أَصْلًا، – وَهُوَ حِلُّ تَنَاوُلِ اللَّحْمِ – وَفِي غَيْرِهِ تَبَعًا فَإِذَا لَمْ يَظْهَرْ أَثَرُهَا فِي الْأَصْلِ كَيْفَ يَظْهَرُ فِي التَّبَعِ؛ فَصَارَ كَمَا لَوْ ذَبَحَهُ مَجُوسِيٌّ.(وَلَنَا) مَا رُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «دِبَاغُ الْأَدِيمِ ذَكَاتُهُ» أَلْحَقَ الذَّكَاةَ بِالدِّبَاغِ، ثُمَّ الْجِلْدُ يَطْهُرُ بِالدِّبَاغِ كَذَا بِالذَّكَاةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الذَّكَاةَ تُشَارِكُ الدِّبَاغَ فِي إزَالَةِ الدِّمَاءِ السَّائِلَةِ، وَالرُّطُوبَاتِ النَّجِسَةِ، فَتُشَارِكُهُ فِي إفَادَةِ الطَّهَارَةِ، وَمَا ذُكِرَ مِنْ مَعْنَى التَّبَعِيَّةِ فَغَيْرُ سَدِيدٍ؛ لِأَنَّ طَهَارَةَ الْجِلْدِ حُكْمٌ مَقْصُودٌ فِي الْجِلْدِ، كَمَا أَنَّ تَنَاوُلَ اللَّحْمِ حُكْمٌ مَقْصُودٌ فِي اللَّحْمِ، وَفِعْلُ الْمَجُوسِيِّ لَيْسَ بِذَكَاةٍ؛ لِعَدَمِ أَهْلِيَّةِ الذَّكَاةِ، فَلَا يُفِيدُ الطَّهَارَةَ فَتَعَيَّنَ تَطْهِيرُهُ بِالدِّبَاغِ، وَاخْتَلَفُوا فِي طَهَارَةِ اللَّحْمِ وَالشَّحْمِ، ذَكَرَ الْكَرْخِيُّ فَقَالَ: كُلُّ حَيَوَانٍ يَطْهُرُ بِالدِّبَاغِ؛ يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، فَهَذَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَطْهُرُ لَحْمُهُ وَشَحْمُهُ وَسَائِرُ أَجْزَائِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْحَيَوَانَ اسْمٌ لِجُمْلَةِ الْأَجْزَاءِ.وَقَالَ بَعْضُ مَشَايِخِنَا وَمَشَايِخِ بَلْخٍ: إنَّ كُلَّ حَيَوَانٍ يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالدِّبَاغِ يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، فَأَمَّا اللَّحْمُ وَالشَّحْمُ وَنَحْوُهُمَا فَلَا يَطْهُرُ، وَالْأَوَّلُ أَقْرَبُ إلَى الصَّوَابِ؛ لِمَا مَرَّ أَنَّ النَّجَاسَةَ لِمَكَانِ الدَّمِ الْمَسْفُوحِ، وَقَدْ زَالَ بِالذَّكَاةِ.

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 189

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ مَا طَهُرَ جِلْدُهُ بِالدِّبَاغِ طَهُرَ بِالذَّكَاةِ لَحْمُهُ وَجِلْدُهُ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ مَأْكُولًا أَوْ لَا أَمَّا طَهَارَةُ جِلْدِهِ، فَهُوَ ظَاهِرُ الْمَذْهَبِ كَمَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَفِي النِّهَايَةِ أَنَّهُ اخْتِيَارُ بَعْضِ الْمَشَايِخِ وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ إنَّمَا يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ سُؤْرُهُ نَجِسًا اهـ. وَأَمَّا طَهَارَةُ لَحْمِهِ إذَا كَانَ غَيْرَ مَأْكُولٍ فَقَدْ اُخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ فَصَحَّحَ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَالْهِدَايَةِ وَالتَّجْنِيسِ طَهَارَتَهُ وَصَحَّحَ فِي الْأَسْرَارِ وَالْكِفَايَةِ وَالتَّبْيِينِ نَجَاسَتَهُ وَفِي الْمِعْرَاجِ أَنَّهُ قَوْلُ الْمُحَقِّقِينَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا وَفِي الْخُلَاصَةِ هُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ وَاخْتَارَهُ قَاضِي خان، وَفِي التَّبْيِينِ أَنَّهُ قَوْلُ أَكْثَرِ الْمَشَايِخِ، وَأَمَّا الْمُصَنِّفُ فَقَدْ اخْتَلَفَ كَلَامُهُ فَصَحَّحَ فِي الْكَافِي نَجَاسَتَهُ وَاخْتَارَ فِي الْكَنْزِ فِي الذَّبَائِحِ طَهَارَتَهُ وَسَنَتَكَلَّمُ عَلَيْهَا بِدَلَائِلِهَا وَبَيَانِ مَا هُوَ الْحَقُّ ثَمَّةَ إنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى لَكِنْ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنْ الْكُتُبِ أَنَّ الذَّكَاةَ إنَّمَا تُوجِبُ الطَّهَارَةَ فِي الْجِلْدِ وَاللَّحْمِ إذَا كَانَتْ مِنْ الْأَهْلِ فِي الْمَحَلِّ، وَهُوَ مَا بَيْنَ اللَّبَّةِ وَاللَّحْيَيْنِ، وَقَدْ سَمَّى بِحَيْثُ لَوْ كَانَ مَأْكُولًا يَحِلُّ أَكْلُهُ بِتِلْكَ الذَّكَاةِ فَذَبِيحَةُ الْمَجُوسِيِّ لَا تُوجِبُ الطَّهَارَةَ؛ لِأَنَّهَا إمَاتَةٌ وَقَدْ قَدَّمْنَا عَنْ مِعْرَاجِ الدِّرَايَةِ مَعْزِيًّا إلَى الْمُجْتَبَى أَنَّ ذَبِيحَةَ الْمَجُوسِيِّ وَتَارِكِ التَّسْمِيَةِ عَمْدًا تُوجِبُ الطَّهَارَةَ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مَأْكُولًا، وَكَذَا نَقَلَ صَاحِبُ الْمِعْرَاجِ فِي هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةِ الطَّهَارَةَ عَنْ الْقُنْيَةِ أَيْضًا هُنَا وَصَاحِبُ الْقُنْيَةِ هُوَ صَاحِبُ الْمُجْتَبَى، وَهُوَ الْإِمَامُ الزَّاهِدِيُّ الْمَشْهُورُ عِلْمُهُ وَفِقْهُهُ

[7] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 185

وَكُلُّ مَا يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ الذَّكَاةُ فَعَظْمُهُ لَا يَكُونُ نَجِسًا بِخِلَافِ الْآدَمِيِّ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ اهـ. وَكَذَا ذَكَرَ الْوَلْوَالِجِيُّ وَذَكَرَ فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ مَعْزِيًّا إلَى الذَّخِيرَةِ أَسْنَانَ الْكَلْبِ طَاهِرَةً وَأَسْنَانَ الْآدَمِيِّ نَجِسَةً؛ لِأَنَّ الْكَلْبَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ الذَّكَاةُ بِخِلَافِ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَالْآدَمِيِّ اهـ. وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ هَذَا كُلَّهُ عَلَى الْقَوْلِ بِطَهَارَةِ عَيْنِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ عَلَّلَهُ بِكَوْنِهِ يَطْهُرُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، وَأَمَّا عَلَى الْقَوْلِ بِنَجَاسَةِ عَيْنِهِ فَلَا تَعْمَلُ فِيهِ الذَّكَاةُ فَتَكُونُ أَسْنَانُهُ نَجِسَةً كَالْخِنْزِيرِ

 

[8] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 50

[الْبَابُ السَّابِعُ فِي النَّجَاسَةِ وَأَحْكَامِهَا وَفِيهِ ثَلَاثَةُ فُصُولٍ]

[الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي تَطْهِيرِ الْأَنْجَاسِ]

الْحِمَارُ أَوْ الْخِنْزِيرُ إذَا وَقَعَ فِي الْمَمْلَحَةِ فَصَارَ مِلْحًا أَوْ بِئْرِ الْبَالُوعَةِ إذَا صَارَ طِينًا يَطْهُرُ عِنْدَهُمَا خِلَافًا لِأَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -. كَذَا فِي مُحِيطِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ……….جُعِلَ الدُّهْنُ النَّجِسُ فِي الصَّابُونِ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ. كَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ

Muheet biryani, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 191 – shamila

ولكنا لا نفتي بنجاسة الصابون لأنا لا نفتي بنجاسة الدهن؛ لأن الأصل الطهارة، والنجاسة يعارض أمراً نادراً وقع، إنما نفتي بنجاسة الدهن، ولا نفتي بنجاسة الصابون؛ لأن الدهن قد تغير وصار شيئاً آخر، وقد ذكرنا أن من مذهب محمد رحمه الله أن النجس يصير طاهراً بالتغيير، يفتى فيه بقول محمد رحمه الله لمكان عموم البلوى.

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 394

وَفِي الْخُلَاصَةِ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى وَفِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ أَنَّهُ الْمُخْتَارُ؛ لِأَنَّ الشَّرْعَ رَتَّبَ وَصْفَ النَّجَاسَةِ عَلَى تِلْكَ الْحَقِيقَةِ وَتَنْتَفِي الْحَقِيقَةُ بِانْتِفَاءِ بَعْضِ أَجْزَاءِ مَفْهُومِهَا فَكَيْفَ بِالْكُلِّ فَإِنَّ الْمِلْحَ غَيْرُ الْعَظْمِ وَاللَّحْمِ فَإِذَا صَارَ مِلْحًا تَرَتَّبَ حُكْمُ الْمِلْحِ وَنَظِيرُهُ فِي الشَّرْعِ النُّطْفَةُ نَجِسَةٌ وَتَصِيرُ عَلَقَةً وَهِيَ نَجِسَةٌ وَتَصِيرُ مُضْغَةً فَتَطْهُرُ وَالْعَصِيرُ طَاهِرٌ فَيَصِيرُ خَمْرًا فَيُنَجَّسُ وَيَصِيرُ خَلًّا فَيَطْهُرُ فَعَرَفْنَا أَنَّ اسْتِحَالَةَ الْعَيْنِ تَسْتَتْبِعُ زَوَالَ الْوَصْفِ الْمُرَتَّبِ عَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ فَرَّعُوا الْحُكْمَ بِطَهَارَةِ صَابُونٍ صُنِعَ مِنْ زَيْتٍ نَجَسٍ اهـ. وَفِي الْمُجْتَبَى جَعْلُ الدُّهْنِ النَّجَسُ فِي صَابُونٍ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ وَالتَّغْيِيرُ يُطَهِّرُ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَيُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى

The similar ruling applies to if pig fat was found in soap and it is certain that it has undergone significant change then using the soap will be permissible. See Mufti Kifayatullah, Kifayatul Mufti, Kitāb al-Tahārah, fourth Bab of soap, vol 2, p. 277-284

 

[9] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Tahārah, Bāb al-Anjas, vol 1 p. 519

ثُمَّ هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةُ قَدْ فَرَّعُوهَا عَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ بِالطَّهَارَةِ بِانْقِلَابِ الْعَيْنِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى وَاخْتَارَهُ أَكْثَرُ الْمَشَايِخِ خِلَافًا لِأَبِي يُوسُفَ كَمَا فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ وَالْفَتْحِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا. وَعِبَارَةُ الْمُجْتَبَى: جَعْلُ الدُّهْنِ النَّجِسِ فِي صَابُونٍ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ وَالتَّغَيُّرُ يُطَهِّرُ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَيُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى. اهـ. وَظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّ دُهْنَ الْمَيْتَةِ كَذَلِكَ لِتَعْبِيرِهِ بِالنَّجِسِ دُونَ الْمُتَنَجِّسِ إلَّا أَنْ يُقَالَ هُوَ خَاصٌّ بِالنَّجِسِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْعَادَةَ فِي الصَّابُونِ وَضْعُ الزَّيْتِ دُونَ بَقِيَّةِ الْأَدْهَانِ تَأَمَّلْ، ثُمَّ رَأَيْت فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ مَا يُؤَيِّدُ الْأَوَّلَ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَعَلَيْهِ يَتَفَرَّعُ مَا لَوْ وَقَعَ إنْسَانٌ أَوْ كَلْبٌ فِي قِدْرِ الصَّابُونِ فَصَارَ صَابُونًا يَكُونُ طَاهِرًا لِتَبَدُّلِ الْحَقِيقَةِ. اهـ. ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْعِلَّةَ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ هِيَ التَّغَيُّرُ وَانْقِلَابُ الْحَقِيقَةِ وَأَنَّهُ يُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى كَمَا عُلِمَ مِمَّا مَرَّ، وَمُقْتَضَاهُ عَدَمُ اخْتِصَاصِ ذَلِكَ الْحُكْمِ بِالصَّابُونِ، فَيَدْخُلُ فِيهِ كُلُّ مَا كَانَ فِيهِ تَغَيُّرٌ وَانْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ وَكَانَ فِيهِ بَلْوَى عَامَّةٌ، فَيُقَالُ: كَذَلِكَ فِي الدِّبْسِ الْمَطْبُوخِ إذَا كَانَ زَبِيبُهُ مُتَنَجِّسًا وَلَا سِيَّمَا أَنَّ الْفَأْرَ يَدْخُلُهُ فَيَبُولُ وَيَبْعَرُ فِيهِ وَقَدْ يَمُوتُ فِيهِ، وَقَدْ بَحَثَ كَذَلِكَ بَعْضُ شُيُوخِ مَشَايِخِنَا فَقَالَ: وَعَلَى هَذَا إذَا تَنَجَّسَ السِّمْسِمُ ثُمَّ صَارَ طَحِينَةً يَطْهُرُ، خُصُوصًا وَقَدْ عَمَّتْ بِهِ الْبَلْوَى وَقَاسَهُ عَلَى مَا إذَا وَقَعَ عُصْفُورٌ فِي بِئْرٍ حَتَّى صَارَ طِينًا لَا يَلْزَمُ إخْرَاجُهُ لِاسْتِحَالَتِهِ.

قُلْت: لَكِنْ قَدْ يُقَالُ: إنَّ الدِّبْسَ لَيْسَ فِيهِ انْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ؛ لِأَنَّهُ عَصِيرٌ جَمَدَ بِالطَّبْخِ؛ وَكَذَا السِّمْسِمُ إذَا دُرِسَ وَاخْتَلَطَ دُهْنُهُ بِأَجْزَائِهِ فَفِيهِ تَغَيُّرُ وَصْفٍ فَقَطْ؛ كَلَبَنٍ صَارَ جُبْنًا، وَبُرٍّ صَارَ طَحِينًا، وَطَحِينٍ صَارَ خُبْزًا؛ بِخِلَافِ نَحْوِ خَمْرٍ صَارَ خَلًّا وَحِمَارٍ وَقَعَ فِي مَمْلَحَةٍ فَصَارَ مِلْحًا، وَكَذَا دُرْدِيُّ خَمْرٍ صَارَ طِرْطِيرًا وَعَذِرَةٌ صَارَتْ رَمَادًا أَوْ حَمْأَةً، فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ كُلَّهُ انْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ إلَى حَقِيقَةٍ أُخْرَى لَا مُجَرَّدُ انْقِلَابِ وَصْفٍ كَمَا سَيَأْتِي – وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ –

 

Accepting Gifts from No-Muslims

Accepting Gifts from No-Muslims

16th February 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to accept gifts from Non-Muslims?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to the above query, it is permissible to accept gifts from non-Muslims,[1] as long as the gift is halal and it is from a permissible source.[2] Sayyiduna Anas radhiyallahu anhu narrates that a Jew once brought a sheep to the Noble Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. He accepted the gift and ate from it.[3]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Gul-e-Maryam        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Muheet Al Burhani,Kitab Karhiyya,Vol 5,Pg 367

وفي «عيون المسائل» : رجل أهدى إلى إنسان أو أضافه إن كان غالب ماله من حرام لا ينبغي أن يقبل ويأكل من طعامه ما لم يخبر أن ذلك المال حلال استقرضه أو ورثه، وإن كان غالب ماله من حلال فلا بأس بأن يقبل ما لم يتبين له أن ذلك من الحرام؛ وهذا لأن أموال الناس لا تخلو عن قليل حرام وتخلو عن كثيره، فيعتبر الغالب ويبنى الحكم عليه

 

[2] Fatawa Hindiyya,Kitab Karhiyya,Vol 5,Pg 342

أَهْدَى إلَى رَجُلٍ شَيْئًا أَوْ أَضَافَهُ إنْ كَانَ غَالِبُ مَالِهِ مِنْ الْحَلَالِ فَلَا بَأْسَ إلَّا أَنْ يَعْلَمَ بِأَنَّهُ حَرَامٌ، فَإِنْ كَانَ الْغَالِبُ هُوَ الْحَرَامَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ لَا يَقْبَلَ الْهَدِيَّةَ، وَلَا يَأْكُلَ الطَّعَامَ إلَّا أَنْ يُخْبِرَهُ بِأَنَّهُ حَلَالٌ وَرِثْتُهُ أَوْ اسْتَقْرَضْتُهُ مِنْ رَجُلٍ، كَذَا فِي الْيَنَابِيعِ.

 

[3] Fathul Bari,Chapter on Accepting Gifts from Mushrikeen,Vol 5,Pg 231,Hadith No. 2617

أَنَّ أُكَيْدِرَ دُومَةَ أَهْدَى لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثَوْبَ حَرِيرٍ فَأَعْطَاهُ عَلِيًّا فَقَالَ شَقِّقْهُ خُمُرًا بَيْنَ الْفَوَاطِمِ فَيُسْتَفَادُ مِنْهُ أَنَّ الْحُلَّةَ الَّتِي ذَكَرَهَا عَلِيٌّ فِي الْبَابِ الَّذِي قَبْلَهُ هِيَ هَذِهِ الَّتِي أَهْدَاهَا أُكَيْدِرٌ وَسَيَأْتِي الْمُرَادُ بِالْفَوَاطِمِ فِي اللِّبَاسِ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى ثَانِيهَا حَدِيثُ أَنَسٍ أَيْضًا أَنَّ يَهُودِيَّةً أَتَتِ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِشَاةٍ مَسْمُومَةٍ فَأَكَلَ مِنْهَا الْحَدِيثَ وَسَيَأْتِي شَرْحُهُ فِي غَزْوَةِ خَيْبَرَ مِنَ الْمَغَازِي وَاسْمُ الْيَهُودِيَّةِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ زَيْنَبُ وَقَدِ اخْتُلِفَ فِي إِسْلَامِهَا كَمَا سَيَأْتِي
قَوْلُهُ فَأَكَلَ مِنْهَا فَجِيءَ بِهَا زَادَ مُسْلِمٌ وَأَحْمَدُ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ مِنَ الْوَجْهِ الْمَذْكُورِ هُنَا فَأَكَلَ مِنْهُ 

Is Accepting an egg Donation allowed in Islām or not?

Is Accepting an egg Donation allowed in Islām or not?

23rd January 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I am a 38 year old woman and been married for two years but not been able to conceive in that time. After undergoing medical investigations/treatment, doctors have advised me that I am not able to conceive due to a lack of eggs and that the only option would be egg donation, which would be from Spain.  My query is, is egg donation allowed under any circumstances in Islam?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, Islām is very strict concerning procuring a third-party’s semen or an egg for childbirth. As a point of principle, it is only the husband who has the right to inseminate his wife’s egg and similarly, the wife to receive her husband’s semen to fertilise her egg. This is so to prevent a third-party’s semen (or an egg) from mixing with the couple’s egg or semen. [1] There is a prophetic narration wherein the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “It is not permissible for a man who believes in Allāh and the last day to irrigate his water (inseminate) in tillage other than his own.”[2] Although this statement was made in a particular context, its application is generic which means that it is not permissible for the husband to implant his semen into another woman’s egg other than his wife’s egg. Implanting his semen in an anonymous egg received from Spain falls under this remit of prohibition as he is irrigating his semen in an egg other than his own wife’s egg. Therefore, it is not permissible to receive an egg donation to conceive a child.

As a recommendation, as Muslims, we must ultimately place our trust in Allāh Almighty and continue supplicating to Him as He is the One who bestows His creation with children. Nothing falls outside of His control and power. I would recommend the following Dua to you.

رَبِّ هَبْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ ذُرِّيَّةً طَيِّبَةً إِنَّكَ سَمِيعُ الدُّعَاءِ

Trans: O My Lord! Bestow upon me pure offsprings (children) from you. Verily You are the All-Hearer of supplication. (3:38)

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Sarakhsi, al-Mabsoot, vol 13 p. 146

[بَاب الِاسْتِبْرَاءِ]

وَالْحِكْمَةُ فِي ذَلِكَ تَعَرُّفُ بَرَاءَةِ الرَّحِمِ وَصِيَانَةُ مَاءِ نَفْسِهِ عَنْ الْخَلْطِ بِمَاءِ غَيْرِهِ وَالتَّحَرُّزُ عَنْ أَنْ يَصِيرَ مَاؤُهُ سَاقِيًا زَرْعَ غَيْرِهِ وَلَكِنَّ الْحُكْمَ يَثْبُتُ بِثُبُوتِ عِلَّتِهِ

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Istihsan, vol 5 p. 120

[كِتَابُ الِاسْتِحْسَانِ]

وَالْأَصْلُ فِيهِ مَا رُوِيَ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ «قَالَ فِي سَبَايَا أَوْطَاسٍ أَلَا لَا تُوطَأُ الْحَبَالَى حَتَّى يَضَعْنَ وَلَا الْحَيَالَى حَتَّى يُسْتَبْرَأْنَ بِحَيْضَةٍ» وَلِأَنَّ فِيهِ خَوْفَ اخْتِلَاطِ الْمِيَاهِ وَقَدْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – «مَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاَللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَلَا يَسْقِيَنَّ مَاءَهُ زَرْعَ غَيْرِهِ» وَكَذَا فِيهِ وَهُمْ ظُهُورُ الْحَبَلِ بِهَا فَيَدَّعِيه وَيَسْتَحِقُّهَا فَيَتَبَيَّنُ أَنَّهُ يَسْتَمْتِعُ بِمِلْكِ الْغَيْرِ.

 

[2] Abu Dawood, No: 2158

بَابٌ فِي وَطْءِ السَّبَايَا

حَدَّثَنَا النُّفَيْلِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، حَدَّثَنِي يَزِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي حَبِيبٍ، عَنْ أَبِي مَرْزُوقٍ، عَنْ حَنَشٍ الصَّنْعَانِيِّ، عَنْ رُوَيْفِعِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ، قَالَ: قَامَ فِينَا خَطِيبًا، قَالَ: أَمَا إِنِّي لَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِلَّا مَا سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: يَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ، قَالَ: «لَا يَحِلُّ لِامْرِئٍ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَنْ يَسْقِيَ مَاءَهُ زَرْعَ غَيْرِهِ» – يَعْنِي: إِتْيَانَ الْحَبَالَى – «وَلَا يَحِلُّ لِامْرِئٍ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَنْ يَقَعَ عَلَى امْرَأَةٍ مِنَ السَّبْيِ حَتَّى يَسْتَبْرِئَهَا، وَلَا يَحِلُّ لِامْرِئٍ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَنْ يَبِيعَ مَغْنَمًا حَتَّى يُقْسَمَ».

 

Ibn Battal’s commentary of Saheeh al-Bukhari, vol 6 p. 358

بَاب هَلْ يُسَافِرُ بِالْجَارِيَةِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَسْتَبْرِئَهَا

ومعلوم أن من سنته أن الحائل لا توطأ حتى تحيض حيضة؛ خشية أن تكون حاملاً، وأن الحامل لا توطأ حتى تضع؛ لئلا يسقى ماءه زرع غيره، فلما كان الاستبراء أمانة ارتفعت فيه الحكومة، وفى هذا حجة لمن لم يوجب المواضعة على البائع، وهو قول جماعة فقهاء الأمصار غير ربيعة ومالك بن أنس، فإنهما أوجبا المواضعة فى الجوارى المرتفعات المتخذات للوطء خاصة،

 

 

Men Tattooing their Arms

Men Tattooing their Arms

15th July 2019

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question:  The Hadith prohibiting tattoos specifies women and not men. What is the evidence to suggest that tattoos are impermissible for men?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In reference to your query the prohibition of tattoos in Islām is the same for both men and women. There is a hadith reported from Sayyidunā Abū Hurairah radhiyallahu anhu that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam forbade tattooing with specifying women.[1] The gender specificity here was because in those days, this practice was more common amongst women than men. This ruling applies to all permanent tattoos made on the body via needles and ink. As a point of principle, where there exists a common underlying cause (illa), the ruling applies generically. [2] Now since the application of tattoos is a painful process, putting oneself in unnecessary pain is not allowed in Islām for anyone be it male or female.

Moreover, its prohibition lies in that fact that tattooing results in changing the natural creation of Allāh Almighty.[3] As this same reasoning is present when men get tattooed, the ruling of prohibition applies to them also. [4]

[Allāh Knows Best]

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah       Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] Imam Bukhari, Kitab Al-Libaas, Baab Al – washimaat, vol 7, pg 166,

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنْ هَمَّامٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «العَيْنُ حَقٌّ» وَنَهَى عَنِ الوَشْمِ حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ بَشَّارٍ: حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ: حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، قَالَ: ذَكَرْتُ لِعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَابِسٍ، حَدِيثَ مَنْصُورٍ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، فَقَالَ: سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْ أُمِّ يَعْقُوبَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، مِثْلَ حَدِيثِ مَنْصُورٍ

[2] Usool al-shashi,Fasl fi Mutaliqaat Al-nusoos, pg 104

وَأما دلَالَة النَّص فَهِيَ مَا علم عِلّة للْحكم الْمَنْصُوص عَلَيْهِ لُغَة لَا اجْتِهَادًا وَلَا استنباطاوَحكم هَذَا النَّوْع عُمُوم الحكم الْمَنْصُوص عَلَيْهِ لعُمُوم علته

ثمَّ دلَالَة النَّص بِمَنْزِلَة النَّص حَتَّى صَحَّ إِثْبَات الْعقُوبَة بِدلَالَة النَّص

[3] Qari, Mulla Ali, Miraqaat al Mafaatih, Kitaab Al libaas, vol 8, p227, Dar al Kotob al Ilmiyyah

والنهي عن ألوشر والوشم لما فيهما من تغيير خلق الله ذكره القاضي وغيره من الشراح

[4] Asqalani, Ibn Hajar,Fathul Bari, Kitab Al Libas, vol 10 p372

قَوْلُهُ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْوَاشِمَاتِ جَمْعُ وَاشِمَةٍ بِالشِّينِ الْمُعْجَمَةِ وَهِيَ الَّتِي تَشِمُ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِمَاتِ جَمْعُ مُسْتَوْشِمَةٍ وَهِيَ الَّتِي تَطْلُبُ الوشم وَنقل بن التَّيْنِ عَنِ الدَّاوُدِيِّ أَنَّهُ قَالَ الْوَاشِمَةُ الَّتِي يُفْعَلُ بِهَا الْوَشْمُ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِمَةُ الَّتِي تَفْعَلُهُ وَرَدَ عَلَيْهِ ذَلِكَ وَسَيَأْتِي بَعْدَ بَابَيْنِ مِنْ وَجْهٍ آخَرَ عَنِ مَنْصُورٍ بِلَفْظِ الْمُسْتَوْشِمَاتِ وَهُوَ بِكَسْرِ الشِّينِ الَّتِي تَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ وَبِفَتْحِهَا الَّتِي تَطْلُبُ ذَلِكَ وَلِمُسْلِمٍ مِنْ طَرِيقِ مُفَضَّلِ بْنِ مُهَلْهَلٍ عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ وَالْمَوْشُومَاتِ وَهِيَ مَنْ يُفْعَلُ بِهَا الْوَشْمُ قَالَ أَهْلُ اللُّغَةِ الْوَشْمُ بِفَتْحٍ ثُمَّ سُكُونٍ أَنْ يُغْرَزَ فِي الْعُضْوِ إِبْرَةٌ أَوْ نَحْوُهَا حَتَّى يَسِيلَ الدَّمُ ثُمَّ يُحْشَى بِنَوْرَةٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهَا فَيَخْضَرُّ وَقَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ فِي السُّنَنِ الْوَاشِمَةُ الَّتِي تَجْعَلُ الْخِيلَانَ فِي وَجْهِهَا بِكُحْلٍ أَوْ مِدَادٍ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِمَةُ الْمَعْمُولُ بِهَا انْتَهَى وَذُكِرَ الْوَجْهُ لِلْغَالِبِ وَأَكْثَرُ مَا يَكُونُ فِي الشَّفَةِ وَسَيَأْتِي عَنْ نَافِعٍ فِي آخِرِ الْبَابِ الَّذِي يَلِيهِ أَنَّهُ يَكُونُ فِي اللِّثَةِ فَذِكْرُ الْوَجْهَ لَيْسَ قَيْدًا وَقَدْ يَكُونُ فِي الْيَدِ وَغَيْرِهَا مِنَ الْجَسَدِ وَقَدْ يُفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ نَقْشًا وَقَدْ يُجْعَلُ دَوَائِرَ وَقَدْ يُكْتَبُ اسْمُ الْمَحْبُوبِ وَتَعَاطِيهِ حَرَامٌ بِدَلَالَةِ اللَّعْنِ كَمَا فِي حَدِيثِ الْبَابِ وَيَصِيرُ الْمَوْضِعُ الْمَوْشُومُ نَجِسًا لِأَنَّ الدَّمَ انْحَبَسَ فِيهِ فَتَجِبُ إِزَالَتُهُ إِنْ أَمْكَنَتْ وَلَوْ بِالْجَرْحِ إِلَّا إِنْ خَافَ مِنْهُ تَلَفًا أَوْ شَيْنًا أَوْ فَوَاتَ مَنْفَعَةِ عُضْوٍ فَيَجُوزُ إِبْقَاؤُهُ وَتَكْفِي التَّوْبَةُ فِي سُقُوطِ الْإِثْمِ وَيَسْتَوِي فِي ذَلِكَ الرَّجُلُ وَالْمَرْأَةُ

Medicine Containing Ethanol Alcohol

Medicine Containing Ethanol Alcohol

                    13th July 2018

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to drink cough medicine containing ethanol alcohol? Is the ruling the same if found in other products like cosmetic products and so on?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The key issue to your query is the legal status of using ethanol alcohol. Ethanol (or Ethyl) is produced from the process of fermentation, which is the chemical breakdown of sugar by yeast. Its derivative sources are mostly fruits and vegetation products, commonly used for recreational purposes. Ethanol can be found in variety of sources such as medicinal applications, chemical solvents, anti-septic, household cleaning and cosmetic products and potentially in certain foods and drinks.  It is the key ingredient for all alcohol beverages, giving all alcohols its intoxicating effect. Ethanol is an intoxicating agent and albeit it is present in certain food (such as vanilla extract) and drinks as an additive and medicine such as cough medicine relatively in small quantity, it still holds its intoxicating properties. Its purpose as a food additive is to enhance the flavour of food extracts whilst in medicine, it is there to preserve the product.  When ethanol is denatured – adding substances such as gasoline after it is separated from water – it loses its intoxicating properties and no longer fit for consumption due to its toxic nature. It is this denatured ethanol that is used in fuel, antiseptic, solvents and cosmetic products.[1]

From the Islamic Shar’ee perspective, ethanol is not impure so long as it isn’t derived from grapes, dates and raisins. It is however intoxicating in nature (this is before it is denatured) and to consume anything intoxicating is prohibited due to the prophetic tradition, all intoxicating products are harām. On the basis of this, any food, drink, or medicine containing ethanol as an additive will not be permissible to consume. If it is known that source of ethanol is from grapes, dates or raisins then it is rendered impure and hence, not permissible. Consuming it for medicinal purpose is only permitted if the illness is unbearable, no alternative medicine exists and as advised by a reliable doctor; a Muslim or the one who respects Muslim values at the least.  All non-consumable products such as antiseptic, solvents and cosmetic ones that contain denatured ethanol are permissible to use as they are not considered impure due to the chemical process and non-derivatives of grapes, dates and raisins.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Some useful links for further information on ethanol

https://www.chemicalsafetyfacts.org/ethanol/

https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-ethanol-formula-structure-uses.html

http://www.gm-bg.com/eng/products/food_drink

https://healthfully.com/cold-medicines-contain-alcohol-5554043.html