Giving Zakāt to my Son in-law who is Studying

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

 Question: Can I give Zakāt to my son in law who wants to study? I give my Zakāt every year in Ramadhan and he will only start studying around June. Is it ok for me not to disclose it to him that it is Zakāt money? He does work but earns a low salary which goes into his necessities and he does not have the Nisab amount.

  

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference your query, the conditions for one to be eligible for Zakāt is that they do not possess any additional savings or assets equal or above the Nisab threshold. Assets do not include basic necessities such as house, furniture, clothing etc. If a person earns less than the Nisab amount or is using all of his earnings for basic necessities, will be eligible for Zakāt.[1] If your son in law fulfils these conditions then you may give your Zakāt to him and doing so will be more rewarding.[2]

The next matter concerns delaying ones Zakāt. One should refrain from delaying their payment of Zakāt for more than one year as doing so without a valid excuse is sinful.[3] As your Zakāt will only be delayed by a few months, there is no harm in doing so. You may also choose not to disclose it to him either and can give it in the name of a gift provided at the time of giving, you made the intention of Zakāt in your heart.

 

Allāh Knows Best

 

 

Written by:  Apa Sumayyah Begum          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam        

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] , Al Bahr al Raiq, Kitabuz Zakāt, vol 2, p 258

وَالْأَوْلَى أَنْ يُفَسَّرَ الْفَقِيرُ بِمَنْ لَهُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ كَمَا فِي النُّقَايَةِ أَخْذًا مِنْ قَوْلِهِمْ يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَى مَنْ يَمْلِكُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرَ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ تَامٍّ، وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرِقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ، وَلَا خِلَافَ فِي أَنَّهُمَا صِنْفَانِ هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ؛

 

Raddul Muhtaar, Kitabuz Zakāt, vol 2, p 339

 أَيْ مَصْرِفِ الزَّكَاةِ وَالْعُشْرِ، وَأَمَّا خُمُسُ الْمَعْدِنِ فَمَصْرِفُهُ كَالْغَنَائِمِ (هُوَ فَقِيرٌ، وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ) أَيْ دُونَ نِصَابٍ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ نَامٍ مُسْتَغْرِقٍ فِي الْحَاجَةِ.(وَمِسْكِينٌ مَنْ لَا شَيْءَ لَهُ) عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ، – لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {أَوْ مِسْكِينًا ذَا مَتْرَبَةٍ} [البلد: ١٦]- وَآيَةُ السَّفِينَةِ لِلتَّرَحُّمِ

 

Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitabuz Zakāt, vol 1, p 187

(مِنْهَا الْفَقِيرُ) وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرُ نَامٍ وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرَقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ فَلَا يُخْرِجُهُ عَنْ الْفَقِيرِ مِلْكُ نُصُبٍ كَثِيرَةٍ غَيْرِ نَامِيَةٍ إذَا كَانَتْ مُسْتَغْرَقَةً بِالْحَاجَةِ كَذَا فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ. التَّصَدُّقُ عَلَى الْفَقِيرِ الْعَالِمِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ التَّصَدُّقِ عَلَى الْجَاهِلِ كَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ.

 

[2] Al Bahr al Raaiq, Kitab uz Zakāt, vol2, p262

قَوْلُهُ وَأَصْلِهِ، وَإِنْ عَلَا وَفَرْعِهِ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ) بِالْجَرِّ أَيْ لَا يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ إلَى أَبِيهِ وَجَدِّهِ، وَإِنْ عَلَا، وَلَا إلَى وَلَدِهِ وَوَلَدِ وَلَدِهِ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَنْفَعَةَ لَمْ تَنْقَطِعْ عَنْ الْمِلْكِ مِنْ كُلِّ وَجْهٍ كَمَا قَدَّمَهُ فِي تَعْرِيفِ الزَّكَاةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ عَلَيْهِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ رَقَبَةً وَمَنْفَعَةً، وَلَمْ يُوجَدْ فِي الْأُصُولِ وَالْفُرُوعِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ مَنْفَعَةً وَإِنْ وَجَدَ رَقَبَةً، وَفِي عَبْدِهِ وُجِدَ الْإِخْرَاجُ مَنْفَعَةً لَا رَقَبَةً كَذَا فِي الْمُسْتَصْفَى، وَفِيهِ إشَارَةٌ إلَى أَنَّ هَذَا الْحُكْمَ لَا يَخُصُّ الزَّكَاةَ بَلْ كُلُّ صَدَقَةٍ وَاجِبَةٍ لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُهَا لَهُمْ كَأَحَدِ الزَّوْجَيْنِ كَالْكَفَّارَاتِ وَصَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ وَالنُّذُورِ، وَقُيِّدَ بِأَصْلِهِ وَفَرْعِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ مَنْ سِوَاهُمْ مِنْ الْقَرَابَةِ يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ لَهُمْ، وَهُوَ أَوْلَى لِمَا فِيهِ مِنْ الصِّلَةِ مَعَ الصَّدَقَةِ كَالْإِخْوَةِ وَالْأَخَوَاتِ وَالْأَعْمَامِ وَالْعَمَّاتِ وَالْأَخْوَالِ وَالْخَالَاتِ الْفُقَرَاءِ وَلِهَذَا قَالَ فِي الْفَتَاوَى الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ: يَبْدَأُ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ بِالْأَقَارِبِ ثُمَّ الْمَوَالِي ثُمَّ الْجِيرَانِ

 

[3] Kasani, Badai Sanaai Kitabuz Zakāt vol 2 pg 272

قَوْلُهُ فَيَأْثَمُ بِتَأْخِيرِهَا إلَخْ) ظَاهِرُهُ الْإِثْمُ بِالتَّأْخِيرِ وَلَوْ قَلَّ كَيَوْمٍ أَوْ يَوْمَيْنِ لِأَنَّهُمْ فَسَّرُوا الْفَوْرَ بِأَوَّلِ أَوْقَاتِ الْإِمْكَانِ. وَقَدْ يُقَالُ الْمُرَادُ أَنْ  لَا يُؤَخِّرَ  إلَى الْعَامِ الْقَابِلِ لِمَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ عَنْ الْمُنْتَقَى بِالنُّونِ إذَا لَمْ يُؤَدِّ حَتَّى مَضَى حَوْلَانِ فَقَدْ أَسَاءَ وَأَثِمَ اهـ فَتَأَمَّلْ

ADHD and the Rules of Fasting

16th April 2024

 

Question: I have a question for a friend. She has a 12 year old daughter who has ADHD with a very low IQ and she wanted to know the Islamic ruling for her daughter in regards to fasting. She started her periods recently and is now considered Balighah. She wanted to know whether fasting was still necessary for her or not.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Before clarifying the Islamic ruling of fasting for her daughter, ADHD must be first understood and its implications on worship. ADHD is the acronym for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder which is a neurodevelopmental disorder, a type of mental health condition that relates to inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity in a person’s everyday life. According to many studies, it affects the part of the brain responsible for solving problems, planning, understanding others’ actions, and controlling our impulses. When that part of the brain is affected, ADHD patients struggle to focus on organizing and finishing specific tasks and to control their behaviour around others. The cause of it can be due to multiple reasons such as genetics and brain chemistry, being born prematurely or with low birth weights or with epilepsy or brain damage, environmental causes, brain injuries and so forth. ADHD is generally treated with medication, behavioural therapy or a combination of both.

ADHD symptoms can be broadly divided into two main categories;

  • Inattentiveness: short attention span, daydreaming, careless mistakes, forgetfulness, losing things, easily distracted, difficulty in listening or carrying out instructions, difficulty in organizing tasks and lack of attention to details.
  • Hyperactivity and impulsiveness: fidgeting or being unable to sit still, lots of physical movement or talking, acting impulsively or recklessly, interrupting conversations, agitation, impatience, mood swings and irritability.[1]

We learn from the aforementioned ADHD symptoms that their working memory is impaired causing to occasionally forget, have difficulty in remembering clear instructions and discharging them correctly. They are more likely to struggle in self-monitoring their tasks and occasionally show signs of mood swings and frustrations as of which, they require external support and reminders from others. This is not to suggest they are unable to distinguish between right and wrong nor unable to comprehend basic instructions. Rather they mainly struggle to maintain focus on fulfilling specific tasks and solving problems independently.

From the Shariah perspective, this resembles to somewhat sahw and khata; excessive mistakes and forgetfulness. For instance, forgetting that they are fasting, need reminding occasionally not to eat, become irritated due to long hours of fasting, struggle to remember the detail rules of fasting, intentions shifting and end up mistakenly breaking their fast before the iftar time or continuing eating after suhur ending.

Concerning the girl in question, so long as she can understand basic instructions, able to distinguish between right and wrong and communicate at the minimum level, she must observe the Ramadhan fasts because her intellectual sanity is still considered intact and possesses some element of strength to fast.[2] If she occasionally forgets she is fasting or becomes agitated then her parents must support her and occasionally remind her of her fasts. If she ends up breaking it due to forgetfulness then she may continue fasting without the need for Qadha, but if she remembered but broke it unintentionally due to her mental state then only Qadha is necessary, not Kaffarah.[3]

If her mental condition fluctuates occasionally between sanity and insanity but is not unremitting as in, occasionally she may behave insanely otherwise normally she can communicate and understand basic instructions then the obligation of fasting is not dropped. If it so happens that she becomes permanently insane in that her cognitive capacity becomes totally impaired to the extent she can no longer distinguish between right from wrong, not able to comprehend speech, her actions and words are disrupted and so forth then the obligation of fasting is dropped.[4]

The above clarifies the Islamic legal perspective and as a recommendation, the mother must consult an experienced upright Muslim therapist to help treat her mental condition and control her behaviour so to adequately manage her fasts. Parents must also ensure their daughter is taking the prescribed medicines upon the doctor’s advice outside of the fasting hours if possible.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] What is ADHD: Everything you need to know about ADHD (2023), Available at: What Are ADHD Symptoms and How Do They Affects People? (verywellhealth.com) [accessed 10th April 2024]

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) (2021), Available at: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) | Mental Health Foundation [accessed 10th April 2024]

 

Signs of Inattentive ADHD and How to Treat it (2024), Available at: Inattentive ADHD Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment (verywellhealth.com) [accessed 10th April 2024]

 

[2] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb Sawm, vol 2, p. 277

وَفِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَأَمَّا الْعَقْلُ فَهَلْ هُوَ مِنْ شَرَائِطِ الْوُجُوبِ وَكَذَا الْإِفَاقَةُ وَالْيَقَظَةُ قَالَ عَامَّةُ مَشَايِخِنَا: لَيْسَتْ مِنْ شَرَائِطِ الْوُجُوبِ بَلْ مِنْ شَرَائِطِ وُجُوبِ الْأَدَاءِ مُسْتَدِلِّينَ بِوُجُوبِ الْقَضَاءِ عَلَى الْمُغْمَى عَلَيْهِ وَالنَّائِمِ بَعْدَ الْإِفَاقَةِ وَالِانْتِبَاهِ بَعْدَ مُضِيِّ بَعْضِ الشَّهْرِ أَوْ كُلِّهِ وَكَذَا الْمَجْنُونُ إذَا أَفَاقَ فِي بَعْضِ الشَّهْرِ

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Sawm, vol 2, p. 88

وَأَمَّا الْعَقْلُ فَهَلْ هُوَ مِنْ شَرَائِطِ الْوُجُوبِ وَكَذَا الْإِفَاقَةُ، وَالْيَقَظَةُ؟ قَالَ عَامَّةُ مَشَايِخِنَا: إنَّهَا لَيْسَتْ مِنْ شَرَائِطِ الْوُجُوبِ، وَيَجِبُ صَوْمُ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى الْمَجْنُونِ وَالْمُغْمَى عَلَيْهِ وَالنَّائِمِ لَكِنْ أَصْلُ الْوُجُوبِ لَا وُجُوبُ الْأَدَاءِ بِنَاءً عَلَى أَنَّ عِنْدَهُمْ الْوُجُوبُ نَوْعَانِ: أَحَدُهُمَا أَصْلُ الْوُجُوبِ وَهُوَ اشْتِغَالُ الذِّمَّةِ بِالْوَاجِبِ وَأَنَّهُ ثَبَتَ بِالْأَسْبَابِ لَا بِالْخِطَابِ، وَلَا تُشْتَرَطُ الْقُدْرَةُ لِثُبُوتِهِ بَلْ ثَبَتَ جَبْرًا مِنْ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى شَاءَ الْعَبْدُ، أَوْ أَبَى، وَالثَّانِي: وُجُوبُ الْأَدَاءِ وَهُوَ إسْقَاطُ مَا فِي الذِّمَّةِ وَتَفْرِيغُهَا مِنْ الْوَاجِبِ، وَأَنَّهُ ثَبَتَ بِالْخِطَابِ وَتُشْتَرَطُ لَهُ الْقُدْرَةُ عَلَى فَهْمِ الْخِطَابِ وَعَلَى أَدَاءِ مَا تَنَاوَلَهُ الْخِطَابُ، لِأَنَّ الْخِطَابَ لَا يَتَوَجَّهُ إلَى الْعَاجِزِ عَنْ فَهْمِ الْخِطَابِ وَلَا إلَى الْعَاجِز عَنْ فِعْلِ مَا تَنَاوَلَهُ الْخِطَابُ، وَالْمَجْنُونُ لِعَدَمِ عَقْلِهِ، أَوْ لِاسْتِتَارِهِ، وَالْمُغْمَى عَلَيْهِ، وَالنَّائِمُ لِعَجْزِهِمَا عَنْ اسْتِعْمَالِ عَقْلِهِمَا عَاجِزُونَ عَنْ فَهْمِ الْخِطَابِ وَعَنْ أَدَاءِ مَا تَنَاوَلَهُ الْخِطَابُ، فَلَا يَثْبُتُ وُجُوبُ الْأَدَاءِ فِي حَقِّهِمْ وَيَثْبُتُ أَصْلُ الْوُجُوبِ فِي حَقِّهِمْ، لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَعْتَمِدُ الْقُدْرَةَ بَلْ يَثْبُتُ جَبْرًا.

وَتَقْرِيرُ هَذَا الْأَصْلِ مَعْرُوفٌ فِي أُصُولِ الْفِقْهِ، وَفِي الْخِلَافِيَّاتِ، وَقَالَ أَهْلُ التَّحْقِيقِ مِنْ مَشَايِخِنَا بِمَا وَرَاءَ النَّهْرِ: إنَّ الْوُجُوبَ فِي الْحَقِيقَةِ نَوْعٌ وَاحِدٌ وَهُوَ وُجُوبُ الْأَدَاءِ فَكُلُّ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْأَدَاءِ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْوُجُوبِ وَمَنْ لَا فَلَا وَهُوَ اخْتِيَارُ أُسْتَاذِي الشَّيْخِ الْأَجَلِّ الزَّاهِدِ عَلَاءِ الدِّينِ رَئِيسِ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ السَّمَرْقَنْدِيِّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ –

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb Sawm, vol 1, p. 202

(الْبَابُ الرَّابِعُ فِيمَا يُفْسِدُ، وَمَا لَا يُفْسِدُ) . وَالْمُفْسِدُ عَلَى نَوْعَيْنِ (النَّوْعُ الْأَوَّلُ مَا يُوجِبُ الْقَضَاءَ دُونَ الْكَفَّارَةِ) . إذَا أَكَلَ الصَّائِمُ أَوْ شَرِبَ أَوْ جَامَعَ نَاسِيًا لَمْ يُفْطِرْ، وَلَا فَرْقَ بَيْنَ الْفَرْضِ وَالنَّفَلِ كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ. وَلَوْ قِيلَ لِرَجُلٍ يَأْكُلُ إنَّك صَائِمٌ، وَهُوَ لَا يَتَذَكَّرُ فَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ يَفْسُدُ صَوْمُهُ هَكَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ.

لَوْ أَكَلَ مُكْرَهًا أَوْ مُخْطِئًا عَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ دُونَ الْكَفَّارَةِ كَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ. الْمُخْطِئُ هُوَ الذَّاكِرُ لِلصَّوْمِ غَيْرُ الْقَاصِدِ لِلْفِطْرِ إذَا أَكَلَ أَوْ شَرِبَ هَكَذَا فِي النَّهْرِ الْفَائِقِ. وَالنَّاسِي عَكْسُهُ، هَكَذَا فِي النِّهَايَةِ وَالْبَحْرِ الرَّائِقِ.

 Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Sawmvol 2 p. 395

بَابُ مَا يُفْسِدُ الصَّوْمَ وَمَا لَا يُفْسِدُهُ الْفَسَادُ

وَالْبُطْلَانُ فِي الْعِبَادَاتِ سِيَّانِ (إذَا أَكَلَ الصَّائِمُ أَوْ شَرِبَ أَوْ جَامَعَ) حَالَ كَوْنِهِ (نَاسِيًا) فِي الْفَرْضِ وَالنَّفَلِ قَبْلَ النِّيَّةِ أَوْ بَعْدَهَا عَلَى الصَّحِيحِ بَحْرٌ عَنْ الْقُنْيَةِ إلَّا أَنْ يُذَكَّرَ فَلَمْ يَتَذَكَّرْ وَيُذَكِّرُهُ لَوْ قَوِيًّا وَإِلَّا وَلَيْسَ عُذْرًا فِي حُقُوقِ الْعِبَادِ

(وَقَوْلُهُ: إذَا أَكَلَ) شَرْطٌ جَوَابُهُ قَوْلُهُ الْآتِي لَمْ يُفْطِرْ كَمَا سَيُنَبِّهُ عَلَيْهِ الشَّارِحُ (قَوْلُهُ: نَاسِيًا) أَيْ لِصَوْمِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ ذَاكِرٌ لِلْأَكْلِ وَالشُّرْبِ وَالْجِمَاعِ مِعْرَاجٌ……… (قَوْلُهُ: إلَّا أَنْ يُذَكَّرْ فَلَمْ يَتَذَكَّرْ) أَيْ إذَا أَكَلَ نَاسِيًا فَذَكَّرَهُ إنْسَانٌ بِالصَّوْمِ وَلَمْ يَتَذَكَّرْ فَأَكَلَ فَسَدَ صَوْمُهُ فِي الصَّحِيحِ خِلَافًا لِبَعْضِهِمْ ظَهِيرِيَّةٌ؛ لِأَنَّ خَبَرَ الْوَاحِدِ فِي الدِّيَانَاتِ مَقْبُولٌ، فَكَانَ يَجِبُ أَنْ يَلْتَفِتَ إلَى تَأَمُّلِ الْحَالِ لِوُجُودِ الْمُذَكَّرِ بَحْرٌ.

قُلْت: لَكِنْ لَا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ وَهُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ كَمَا فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة عَنْ النِّصَابِ وَقَدْ نَسَبُوا هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةَ إلَى أَبِي يُوسُفَ وَنَسَبَ إلَيْهِ الْقُهُسْتَانِيُّ فَسَادَ الصَّوْمِ بِالنِّسْيَانِ مُطْلَقًا وَلَمْ أَرَهُ لِغَيْرِهِ وَسَيَأْتِي مَا يَرُدُّهُ

 

[4] Mawsoo’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah vol 16, p. 99

الْجُنُونُ فِي اللُّغَةِ: مَصْدَرُ جُنَّ الرَّجُل بِالْبِنَاءِ لِلْمَجْهُول، فَهُوَ مَجْنُونٌ: أَيْ زَال عَقْلُهُ أَوْ فَسَدَ، أَوْ دَخَلَتْهُ الْجِنُّ، وَجَنَّ الشَّيْءَ عَلَيْهِ: سَتَرَهُ. وَأَمَّا فِي الاِصْطِلاَحِ فَقَدْ عَرَّفَهُ الْفُقَهَاءُ وَالأُْصُولِيُّونَ بِعِبَارَاتٍ مُخْتَلِفَةٍ مِنْهَا:

أَنَّهُ اخْتِلاَل الْعَقْل بِحَيْثُ يَمْنَعُ جَرَيَانَ الأَْفْعَال وَالأَْقْوَال عَلَى نَهْجِهِ إِلاَّ نَادِرًا.

وَقِيل: الْجُنُونُ اخْتِلاَل الْقُوَّةِ الْمُمَيِّزَةِ بَيْنَ الأْشْيَاءِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَالْقَبِيحَةِ الْمُدْرِكَةِ لِلْعَوَاقِبِ بِأَنْ لاَ تَظْهَرَ آثَارُهَا، وَأَنْ تَتَعَطَّل أَفْعَالُهَا.

وَعَرَّفَهُ صَاحِبُ الْبَحْرِ الرَّائِقِ بِأَنَّهُ: اخْتِلاَل الْقُوَّةِ الَّتِي بِهَا إِدْرَاكُ الْكُلِّيَّاتِ.

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq vol 3, p. 241

(قَوْلُهُ وَالْمَجْنُونُ) قَالَ فِي التَّلْوِيحِ: الْجُنُونُ اخْتِلَالُ الْقُوَّةِ الْمُمَيِّزَةِ بَيْنَ الْأُمُورِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَالْقَبِيحَةِ الْمُدْرِكَةِ لِلْعَوَاقِبِ، بِأَنْ لَا تَظْهَرَ آثَارُهُ وَتَتَعَطَّلُ أَفْعَالُهَا، إمَّا لِنُقْصَانِ جَبَلٍ عَلَيْهِ دِمَاغُهُ فِي أَصْلِ الْخِلْقَةِ، وَإِمَّا لِخُرُوجِ مِزَاجِ الدِّمَاغِ عَنْ الِاعْتِدَالِ بِسَبَبِ خَلْطٍ أَوْ آفَةٍ، وَإِمَّا لِاسْتِيلَاءِ الشَّيْطَانِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِلْقَاءِ الْخَيَالَاتِ الْفَاسِدَةِ إلَيْهِ بِحَيْثُ يَفْرَحُ وَيَفْزَعُ مِنْ غَيْرِ مَا يَصْلُحُ سَبَبًا.

 

Mawsoo’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah vol 16, p. 101

فَالْجُنُونُ إِنْ كَانَ مُمْتَدًّا سَقَطَ مَعَهُ وُجُوبُ الْعِبَادَاتِ فَلاَ تُشْغَل بِهَا ذِمَّتُهُ، وَإِنْ كَانَ غَيْرَ مُمْتَدٍّ وَهُوَ طَارِئٌ لَمْ يَمْنَعِ التَّكْلِيفَ وَلاَ يَنْفِي أَصْل الْوُجُوبِ؛ لأَِنَّ الْوُجُوبَ بِالذِّمَّةِ، وَهِيَ ثَابِتَةٌ، وَلِذَلِكَ يَرِثُ وَيَمْلِكُ، وَإِنْ كَانَ غَيْرَ مُمْتَدٍّ، وَكَانَ أَصْلِيًّا فَحُكْمُهُ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ حُكْمُ الْمُمْتَدِّ؛ لأَِنَّهُ نَاطَ الإِْسْقَاطَ بِالْكُل مِنَ الاِمْتِدَادِ وَالأَْصَالَةِ، وَقَال أَبُو يُوسُفَ: حُكْمُهُ حُكْمُ الطَّارِئِ فَيُنَاطُ الإِْسْقَاطُ بِالاِمْتِدَادِ

Mawsoo’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah vol 16, p. 99

وَالْفَرْقُ بَيْنَ الْجُنُونِ وَالْعَتَهِ، أَنَّ الْمَعْتُوهَ قَلِيل الْفَهْمِ مُخْتَلِطُ الْكَلاَمِ، فَاسِدُ التَّدْبِيرِ، لَكِنْ لاَ يَضْرِبُ وَلاَ يَشْتُمُ بِخِلاَفِ الْمَجْنُونِ.

وَصَرَّحَ الأُْصُولِيُّونَ بِأَنَّ حُكْمَ الْمَعْتُوهِ حُكْمُ الصَّبِيِّ الْمُمَيِّزِ، إِلاَّ أَنَّ الدَّبُوسِيَّ قَال: تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْعِبَادَاتُ احْتِيَاطًا، وَقَال صَدْرُ الإِْسْلاَمِ: إِنَّ الْعَتَهَ نَوْعُ جُنُونٍ فَيَمْنَعُ أَدَاءَ الْحُقُوقِ جَمِيعًا .

 

How Should a Creditor Calculate Zakāt on the Previous Years?

2nd April 2024

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I just wanted to ask that someone owes me money and agreed to pay me and they haven’t paid me for a few years. When I calculate Zakāt on it, do I have to keep paying Zakāt on the same money every year until they pay me back or just pay it all at once upon receiving the whole amount?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to the above query, if you lent somebody money and you are certain that they will pay you then you must pay Zakāt on the previous years since the time you loaned them your money.[1] You could calculate the previous year’s Zakāt either after they return the money to you or pay yearly before they return the money to you.[2] Zakāt will be calculated at 2.5% of the amount you lent so for instance, if you lent them £1000 then you would pay £25 Zakāt but there is some details regarding this. If you decide to pay Zakāt altogether of the previous years after receiving the full amount then the Zakāt amount will be subtracted every year from the original loaned money. For instance, if the person decides to pay you after three years and thereafter you calculate Zakāt on those three years then the first year you will pay £25 from £1000, the second year you will pay £24.37 from £975 and third year £23.76 from £950.63 and so forth. This is because each year Zakāt is deemed as a valid debt which is deducted every year from the original amount.[3] If you however decide to pay Zakāt every year before receiving the full amount then you pay £25 every year regardless because no debt was incurred each year.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Zulaikha Yasir         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam    

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] رد المختار جلد ٢ ص ٣٠٥

(ﻭ) اﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ اﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ: ﻗﻮﻱ، ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ، ﻭﺿﻌﻴﻒ؛ (ﻓﺘﺠﺐ) ﺯﻛﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺇﺫا ﺗﻢ ﻧﺼﺎﺑﺎ ﻭﺣﺎﻝ اﻟﺤﻮﻝ، ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻓﻮﺭا ﺑﻞ (ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪﻳﻦ) اﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻛﻘﺮﺽ

 

[2] البحر الرائق جلد ٢ ص ٢٢٣

 قَسَّمَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ الدَّيْنَ عَلَى ثَلَاثَةِ أَقْسَامٍ: قَوِيٌّ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ الْقَرْضِ، وَمَالُ التِّجَارَةِ، وَمُتَوَسِّطٌ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ مَا لَيْسَ لِلتِّجَارَةِ كَثَمَنِ ثِيَابِ الْبِذْلَةِ وَعَبْدِ الْخِدْمَةِ وَدَارِ السُّكْنَى، وَضَعِيفٌ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ مَا لَيْسَ بِمَالٍ كَالْمَهْرِ وَالْوَصِيَّةِ، وَبَدَلِ الْخُلْعِ وَالصُّلْحِ عَنْ دَمِ الْعَمْدِ وَالدِّيَةِ، وَبَدَلِ الْكِتَابَةِ وَالسِّعَايَةِ فَفِي الْقَوِيِّ تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ إذَا حَالَ الْحَوْلُ، وَيَتَرَاخَى الْقَضَاءُ إلَى أَنْ يَقْبِضَ أَرْبَعِينَ دِرْهَمًا فَفِيهَا دِرْهَمٌ، وَكَذَا فِيمَا زَادَ بِحِسَابِهِ، وَفِي الْمُتَوَسِّطِ لَا تَجِبُ مَا لَمْ يَقْبِضْ نِصَابًا، وَيُعْتَبَرُ لِمَا مَضَى مِنْ الْحَوْلِ فِي صَحِيحِ الرِّوَايَةِ، وَفِي الضَّعِيفِ لَا تَجِبُ مَا لَمْ يَقْبِضْ نِصَابًا وَيَحُولُ الْحَوْلُ بَعْدَ الْقَبْضِ عَلَيْهِ،

 

 

[3] Burhanuddin Marghinani, Kitab Zakāt, Vol 1, p. 95

والمراد به دين له مطالب من جهة العباد حتى لا يمنع دين النذر والكفارة ودين الزكاة مانع حال بقاء النصاب لأنه ينتقص به النصاب،

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Mistakenly Eating Suhur after Subhu Sadiq

14th March 2024

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I am a recently reverted Muslim. I fasted this Ramadhān however, I ate my morning meal between Fajr and sunrise instead of before Fajr. I only learned today that this was an error, and suhoor must take place before Fajr. Is my fasting invalidated, and does it necessitate expiation?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, if the fast is not broken deliberately but was instead broken due to a confusion in timing as is evident in this case, the fast will be deemed invalid but will not necessitate an expiation.[1]I it will simply require a single Qadha fast to be made up later.[2]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Samrena Kashaf         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam        

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Imam Kasani, Badai Sinai, Kitabus Sawm, Vol. 2, page 100

وَلَوْ تَسَحَّرَ عَلَى ظَنِّ أَنَّ الْفَجْرَ لَمْ يَطْلُعْ فَإِذَا هُوَ طَالِعٌ أَوْ أَفْطَرَ عَلَى ظَنِّ أَنَّ الشَّمْسَ قَدْ غَرَبَتْ فَإِذَا هِيَ لَمْ تَغْرُبْ فَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ وَلَا كَفَّارَةَ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُفْطِرْ مُتَعَمِّدًا بَلْ خَاطِئًا أَلَا تَرَى أَنَّهُ لَا إثْمَ عَلَيْهِ

[2] Ibn Humam, Fathul Qadeer, Kitabus Sawm, Vol.2, page 372

قَالَ (وَإِذَا تَسَحَّرَ وَهُوَ يَظُنُّ أَنَّ الْفَجْرَ لَمْ يَطْلُعْ فَإِذَا هُوَ قَدْ طَلَعَ، أَوْ أَفْطَرَ وَهُوَ يَرَى أَنَّ الشَّمْسَ قَدْ غَرَبَتْ فَإِذَا هِيَ لَمْ تَغْرُبْ أَمْسَكَ بَقِيَّةَ يَوْمِهِ) قَضَاءً لِحَقِّ الْوَقْتِ بِالْقَدْرِ الْمُمْكِنِ أَوْ نَفْيًا لِلتُّهْمَةِ (وَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ) لِأَنَّهُ حَقٌّ مَضْمُونٌ بِالْمِثْلِ، كَمَا فِي الْمَرِيضِ وَالْمُسَافِرِ (وَلَا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ) لِأَنَّ الْجِنَايَةَ قَاصِرَةٌ لِعَدَمِ الْقَصْدِ،

(قَوْلُهُ لِأَنَّ الْجِنَايَةَ قَاصِرَةٌ) لَيْسَ هُنَا جِنَايَةٌ أَصْلًا لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَقْصِدْ وَقَدْ صَرَّحُوا بِعَدَمِ الْإِثْمِ عَلَيْهِ، اللَّهُمَّ إلَّا أَنْ يُرَادَ أَنَّ عَدَمَ تَثَبُّتِهِ إلَى أَنْ يَسْتَيْقِنَ جِنَايَةٌ فَيَكُونُ الْمُرَادُ جِنَايَةُ عَدَمِ التَّثَبُّتِ لَا جِنَايَةُ الْإِفْطَارِ كَمَا قَالُوا فِي الْقَتْلِ الْخَطَأِ لَا إثْمَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ، وَالْمُرَادُ إثْمُ الْقَتْلِ، وَصَرَّحَ بِأَنَّ فِيهِ إثْمَ تَرْكِ الْعَزِيمَةِ وَالْمُبَالَغَةِ فِي التَّثَبُّتِ حَالَ الرَّمْيِ

Ibn Abideen, Raddul Muhtar, Kitabus Sawm, Vol.2, page 405

لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ ظَنَّ الطُّلُوعَ وَأَكَلَ مَعَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ تَبَيَّنَ صِحَّةَ ظَنِّهِ، فَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ وَلَا كَفَّارَةَ؛ لِأَنَّهُ بَنَى الْأَمْرَ عَلَى الْأَصْلِ فَلَمْ تَكْمُلْ الْجِنَايَةُ فَلَوْ قَالَ ظَنَّهُ لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهَارًا لَكَانَ أَوْلَى وَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ؛ لِأَنَّ غَلَبَةَ الظَّنِّ كَالْيَقِينِ بَحْرٌ. وَأَجَابَ فِي النَّهْرِ بِأَنَّهُ قَيَّدَ بِاللَّيْلِ لِيُطَابِقَ قَوْلَهُ أَوْ تَسَحَّرَ. اهـ.

 

 

Does Monetary Debt Affect Zakāt on Gold?

13th March 2024

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I currently have a debt of £20,000. I have £15,000 worth of gold in my possession which I do not intend to sell off to pay of my debt. Do I still need to pay Zakāt on the gold or is it waivered due to the debt?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Concerning your query, firstly note that there is a contemporary view about debt that immediate debts known as short-term debts; i.e. those that need to be paid back within the next 12 months can be waivered from your Zakāt calculation. As for long-term debts which do not need to be paid back within the next 12 months but after that, are not waivered and Zakāt must be paid on them. This is evident by the principle of a person who has not yet paid the mahr to his wife, if he intends on paying it within the next 12 months then it can be waivered from his Zakāt but if he intends do give it after 12 months then he must pay Zakāt on it. In your case, if the debt is to be paid off in the next 12 months, then it can be deducted from your Zakāt, but if there was an agreement of paying off your debt after 12 months then it will not be deducted from Zakāt calculation.[1] Despite of you not intending to sell your gold to pay off the debt, Islamically, gold silver and cash all fall under the same category of ruling. In other words, even by possessing gold and also being in debt in cash that overwhelms the value of gold would legally affect the Zakāt rulings on gold (or silver) and hence will be waivered if paid within 12 months that is.[2]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Maulana Hafiz Mahmud Ali        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Zakāt, vol 2, p. 261

(فَارِغٍ عَنْ دَيْنٍ لَهُ مُطَالِبٌ مِنْ جِهَةِ الْعِبَادِ)

سَوَاءٌ كَانَ لِلَّهِ كَزَكَاةٍ وَخَرَاجٍ أَوْ لِلْعَبْدِ، وَلَوْ كَفَالَةً أَوْ مُؤَجَّلًا، وَلَوْ صَدَاقَ زَوْجَتِهِ الْمُؤَجَّلَ لِلْفِرَاقِ

(قَوْلُهُ أَوْ مُؤَجَّلًا إلَخْ)

عَزَاهُ فِي الْمِعْرَاجِ إلَى شَرْحِ الطَّحَاوِيِّ، وَقَالَ: وَعَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ لَا يُمْنَعُ. وَقَالَ الصَّدْرُ الشَّهِيدُ: لَا رِوَايَةَ فِيهِ، وَلِكُلٍّ مِنْ الْمَنْعِ وَعَدَمِهِ وَجْهٌ.

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Zakāt, vol 2, p. 6

وَعَلَى هَذَا يُخْرَجُ مَهْرُ الْمَرْأَةِ فَإِنَّهُ يَمْنَعُ وُجُوبَ الزَّكَاةِ عِنْدَنَا مُعَجَّلًا كَانَ أَوْ مُؤَجَّلًا؛ لِأَنَّهَا إذَا طَالَبَتْهُ يُؤَاخَذُ بِهِ، وَقَالَ بَعْضُ مَشَايِخِنَا: إنَّ الْمُؤَجَّلَ لَا يَمْنَعُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ غَيْرُ مُطَالَبٍ بِهِ عَادَةً، فَأَمَّا الْمُعَجَّلُ فَيُطَالَبُ بِهِ عَادَةً فَيَمْنَعُ، وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ: إنْ كَانَ الزَّوْجُ عَلَى عَزْمٍ مِنْ قَضَائِهِ يَمْنَعُ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَى عَزْمِ الْقَضَاءِ لَا يَمْنَعُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَعُدُّهُ دَيْنًا وَإِنَّمَا يُؤَاخَذُ الْمَرْءُ بِمَا عِنْدَهُ فِي الْأَحْكَامِ.

 

Also visit previous fatwa on Zakāt on long-term debts: https://jknfatawa.co.uk/Zakāt-on-long-term-loans/

 

[2] Tabyyeen al-Haqaiq Sharh Kanz Daqaiq, Kitab Zakāt, vol 1, p. 255

[شُرُوط وُجُوبهَا]

وَإِنْ كَانَ مَالُهُ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ الدَّيْنِ زَكَّى الْفَاضِلَ إذَا بَلَغَ نِصَابًا لِفَرَاغِهِ عَنْ الدَّيْنِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ نُصُبٌ يَصْرِفُ الدَّيْنَ إلَى أَيْسَرِهَا قَضَاءً. مِثَالُهُ: إذَا كَانَ لَهُ دَرَاهِمُ وَدَنَانِيرُ، وَعُرُوضٌ لِلتِّجَارَةِ وَسَوَائِمُ مِنْ الْإِبِلِ، وَمِنْ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ، وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ يَسْتَغْرِقُ الْجَمِيعَ فَلَا زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ،

A Family Member Paying for My Zakat and for My Qurbani

5th March 2024

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Traditionally, my father has paid for my Zakāt and my grandad pays for my Qurbani. Once I started earning myself, I feared these won’t be accepted if done on my behalf, however both would like to continue as is. I currently:

  • transfer the zakat amount to my father’s bank without his approval
  • pay for an additional Qurbani myself via an online charity (which I have heard is not permissible), as I don’t know of any alternatives and my family won’t allow me to pay towards the one, they usually organise.

If you could you shed some light on this would be useful to know the rulings around this.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, as a general ruling to note that it is permissible for another person to pay Zakāt on your behalf. In this case, if your father or grandfather wish to pay for your Zakāt then it will be fulfilled with the condition that they notify you prior to paying it or you had prior awareness of them paying it on your behalf.[1] If they pay for it without your knowledge or you did not consent to it, then your Zakāt will not be fulfilled.[2] It is not necessary for you to transfer additional Zakāt money onto him without his knowledge if you knew that he has already paid for your Zakāt.

With regards to Qurbani, a person who possesses the required Nisab during the Qurbani days must offer Qurbani whether themselves or someone performing it on their behalf. The obligation of Qurbani is fulfilled if members of your family pay for the sacrifice on your behalf, regardless if they pay for it from their own wealth or not. An additional Qurbani from yourself is therefore not required. It is always commendable to arrange your own Qurbani but not necessary for its validity. It should be noted that when Qurbani is wajib, then the same principle in Zakāt i.e. consent is required unless they customarily perform Qurbani on your behalf whilst you being aware of it (in which case it will be fulfilled).[3]

Lastly, it is permissible for you to use an online charity to pay for your Qurbani as long as one has done sufficient research to ensure the reliability of the charity.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Samrena Kashaf          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam    

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Abideen, Raddul Muhtar, Kitab-uz Zakat, Vol. 2, page 268

ثُمَّ قَالَ فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة أَوْ وُجِدَتْ دَلَالَةُ الْإِذْنِ بِالْخَلْطِ كَمَا جَرَتْ الْعَادَةُ بِالْإِذْنِ مِنْ أَرْبَابِ الْحِنْطَةِ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ؛ وَكَذَلِكَ الْمُتَوَلِّي إذَا كَانَ فِي يَدِهِ أُوقِيَّاتٌ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ وَخَلَطَ غَلَّاتِهَا ضَمِنَ وَكَذَلِكَ السِّمْسَارُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَثْمَانَ أَوْ الْبَيَّاعُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَمْتِعَةَ يَضْمَنُ.

قَالَ فِي التَّجْنِيسِ: وَلَا عُرْفَ فِي حق السَّمَاسِرَةِ وَالْبَيَّاعِينَ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ وَالْأَمْتِعَةِ اهـ وَيَتَّصِلُ بِهَذَا الْعَالِمُ إذَا سَأَلَ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ شَيْئًا وَخَلَطَ يَضْمن

قُلْت: وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَنَّهُ لَوْ وُجِدَ الْعُرْفُ فَلَا ضَمَانَ لِوُجُودِ الْإِذْنِ حِينَئِذٍ دَلَالَةً. وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ عِلْمِ الْمَالِكِ بِهَذَا الْعُرْفِ لِيَكُونَ إذْنًا مِنْهُ دَلَالَةً

 

[2] Ibn Nujaym, Bahrur Raiq, Kitab-uz Zakat, Vol.2, page 226-227

وَلَوْ أَدَّى زَكَاةَ غَيْرِهِ بِغَيْرِ أَمْرِهِ فَبَلَغَهُ فَأَجَازَ لَمْ يَجُزْ؛ لِأَنَّهَا وَجَدَتْ نَفَاذًا عَلَى الْمُتَصَدِّقِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مِلْكُهُ، وَلَمْ يَصِرْ نَائِبًا عَنْ غَيْرِهِ فَنَفَذَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَلَوْ تَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ بِأَمْرِهِ جَازَ وَيَرْجِعُ بِمَا دَفَعَ عِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَشْتَرِطْ الرُّجُوعَ كَالْأَمْرِ بِقَضَاءِ الدَّيْنِ وَعِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ لَا رُجُوعَ لَهُ إلَّا بِالشَّرْطِ، وَتَمَامُهُ

فِي الْخَانِيَّة

[3] Imam Kasani, Badai Sinai, Kitubut Tudhiya, Vol.5, page 67

(وَمِنْهَا) أَنَّهُ تُجْزِئُ فِيهَا النِّيَابَةُ فَيَجُوزُ لِلْإِنْسَانِ أَنْ يُضَحِّيَ بِنَفْسِهِ وَبِغَيْرِهِ بِإِذْنِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا قُرْبَةٌ تَتَعَلَّقُ بِالْمَالِ فَتُجْزِئُ فِيهَا النِّيَابَةُ كَأَدَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ وَصَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ؛ وَلِأَنَّ كُلَّ أَحَدٍ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى مُبَاشَرَةِ الذَّبْحِ بِنَفْسِهِ خُصُوصًا النِّسَاءَ، فَلَوْ لَمْ تَجُزْ الِاسْتِنَابَةُ لَأَدَّى إلَى الْحَرَجِ، وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ الْمَأْذُونُ مُسْلِمًا أَوْ كِتَابِيًّا، حَتَّى لَوْ أَمَرَ مُسْلِمٌ كِتَابِيًّا أَنْ يَذْبَحَ أُضْحِيَّتَهُ يَجْزِيهِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكِتَابِيَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الذَّكَاةِ إلَّا أَنَّهُ يُكْرَهُ؛ لِأَنَّ التَّضْحِيَةَ قُرْبَةٌ وَالْكَافِرُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرْبَةِ لِنَفْسِهِ فَتُكْرَهُ إنَابَتُهُ فِي إقَامَةِ الْقُرْبَةِ لِغَيْرِهِ، وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ الْإِذْنُ نَصًّا أَوْ دَلَالَةً؛.

Can A Divorcee Suffering from Depression Come out During Iddah?

17th February 2024

 

Question: A woman is observing her Iddah of divorce and has a toddler. She is alone and suffers from mental health concerns (anxiety and episodes of depression and sometimes cannot get out of bed in the mornings and is becoming very withdrawn). Is its permissible for such a lady to,  

  1. Go out for walks (accompanied) to get fresh air for her mental health?
  2. Take her toddler out for walks for fresh air and to toddler classes?
  3. To attend family gatherings?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Concerning your case in question, as a general rule, a divorced woman is required by the Shariah to observe a waiting period (of three menses – Iddah) in the same accommodation she lived with her husband. She is not permitted to leave her home nor relocate elsewhere to observe her Iddah without a genuine excuse. The Quran and as well as the Hadith are explicit on this matter. Allāh Almighty states, Do not drive them (wives) from their homes and neither should they (wives) should exit the home…”[1] It is reported that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam once divorced Sayyidah Hafsah radhiyallahu anha, after which she went to her family (to observe her iddah). Allāh Almighty revealed the above verse (instructing the women to observe their waiting period in the husband’s accommodation). The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam was instructed however to retract from the divorce and take her back as his wife due to her piety.[2] In light of the above evidences, the Hanafi jurists have deduced that under normal circumstances it is obligatory for a female divorcee to observe her Iddah in the current home she is living in. The laws of Iddah are the rights of Allāh Almighty so leaving the home or relocating elsewhere without necessity is a violation of Allāh’s rights.[3] The Shariah does however consider exceptional circumstances where due to genuine reasons she is permitted to emerge or relocate elsewhere to complete her Iddah. Genuine excuses include; the fear of house collapsing, fear over her wealth perishing, living in a rented accommodation and does not have the means to pay the rent, is forcibly driven out of the home by her husband or has no financial support and hence must emerge to earn for herself. Jurists have also included other reasons such as being fearful at night of living by herself alone in the house.[4]

With reference to the case of depression then the classical jurists have not made any explicit mentioning of this. It will therefore depend on the degree of depression she is suffering. Below are some recommendations.

  1. Minor distress does not justify leaving the home.
  2. Family members should visit her often to give her company to reduce her anxiety level. In that way there is no need for her to leave her accommodation to visit them. They should offer to take her toddler out for walks or to classes during her Iddah period.
  3. She should seek counselling therapy from a professional in which case it would be permissible for her to leave the home to visit a therapist.
  4. If the anxiety level is so extreme that staying home for a longer period will trigger her anxieties and prove harmful to her mental well-being and to the child and there is no one to support her then she may emerge from her home out of necessity. She should primarily stay in the garden for fresh air but if this is not sufficient, then she can walk for a certain distance only to the need that is required. This is justified under the principle of necessity as in when one’s physical or mental well-being is at severe risk and no available alternative exists then prohibited matters become permissible and constraint situations beget flexibility but only to the extent that is necessary.[5]

In summary, the general default position is that a divorcee cannot leave her home during her Iddah except due to necessity. In the aforesaid case, family members should often visit her to support her and her child. If her depressive state is so extreme that staying home will prove harmful to her mental well-being and to her child and there is no one to support her then she can come out due to necessity for fresh-air. She must then immediately return home and not to stay out longer than necessary.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Surah Talaq [65:1]

[2] Ibn Katheer vol 8, p. 142

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ ثَوَابِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ الْهُبَارِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا أَسْبَاطُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ: طَلَّقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَفْصَةَ، فَأَتَتْ أَهْلَهَا، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ، عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: {يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ} فَقِيلَ لَهُ: رَاجِعْهَا فَإِنَّهَا صَوَّامَةٌ قَوَّامَةٌ، وَهِيَ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكَ وَنِسَائِكَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ.

 

[3] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 3 p. 205 – shamila

فَصْلٌ فِي أَحْكَامُ الْعِدَّةِ

فَإِنْ كَانَتْ مُعْتَدَّةً مِنْ نِكَاحٍ صَحِيحٍ وَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ مُطَلَّقَةٌ بَالِغَةٌ عَاقِلَةٌ مُسْلِمَةٌ وَالْحَالُ حَالُ الِاخْتِيَارِ فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَخْرُجُ لَيْلًا وَلَا نَهَارًا سَوَاءٌ كَانَ الطَّلَاقُ ثَلَاثًا أَوْ بَائِنًا أَوْ رَجْعِيًّا أَمَّا فِي الطَّلَاقِ الرَّجْعِيِّ فَلِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {لا تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِنْ بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلا يَخْرُجْنَ إِلا أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ} [الطلاق: 1] قِيلَ فِي تَأْوِيلِ قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {إِلا أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ} [الطلاق: 1] إلَّا أَنْ تَزْنِيَ فَتَخْرُجَ لِإِقَامَةِ الْحَدِّ عَلَيْهَا، وَقِيلَ: الْفَاحِشَةُ هِيَ الْخُرُوجُ نَفْسُهُ أَيْ إلَّا أَنْ يَخْرُجْنَ فَيَكُونَ خُرُوجُهُنَّ فَاحِشَةً، نَهَى اللَّهُ تَعَالَى الْأَزْوَاجَ عَنْ الْإِخْرَاجِ وَالْمُعْتَدَّاتِ عَنْ الْخُرُوجِ وقَوْله تَعَالَى {أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنْتُمْ} [الطلاق: 6] وَالْأَمْرُ بِالْإِسْكَانِ نَهْيٌ عَنْ الْإِخْرَاجِ وَالْخُرُوجِ وَلِأَنَّهَا زَوْجَتُهُ بَعْدَ الطَّلَاقِ الرَّجْعِيِّ لِقِيَامِ مِلْكِ النِّكَاحِ مِنْ كُلِّ وَجْهٍ فَلَا يُبَاحُ لَهَا الْخُرُوجُ كَمَا قَبْلَ الطَّلَاقِ إلَّا أَنَّ بَعْدَ الطَّلَاقِ لَا يُبَاحُ لَهَا الْخُرُوجُ وَإِنْ أُذِنَ لَهَا بِالْخُرُوجِ بِخِلَافِ مَا قَبْلَ الطَّلَاقِ.

لِأَنَّ حُرْمَةَ الْخُرُوجِ بَعْدَ الطَّلَاقِ لِمَكَانِ الْعِدَّةِ وَفِي الْعِدَّةِ حَقُّ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فَلَا يَمْلِكُ إبْطَالَهُ بِخِلَافِ مَا قَبْلَ الطَّلَاقِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْحُرْمَةَ ثَمَّةَ لِحَقِّ الزَّوْجِ خَاصَّةً فَيَمْلِكُ إبْطَالَ حَقِّ نَفْسِهِ بِالْإِذْنِ بِالْخُرُوجِ، وَلِأَنَّ الزَّوْجَ يَحْتَاجُ إلَى تَحْصِينِ مَائِهِ وَالْمَنْعُ مِنْ الْخُرُوجِ طَرِيقُ التَّحْصِينِ لِلْمَاءِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْخُرُوجَ يُرِيبُ الزَّوْجَ أَنَّهُ وَطِئَهَا غَيْرُهُ فَيَشْتَبِهُ النَّسَبُ إذَا حَبِلَتْ.

وَأَمَّا فِي الطَّلَاقِ الثَّلَاثِ أَوْ الْبَائِنِ فَلِعُمُومِ النَّهْيِ وَمِسَاسِ الْحَاجَةِ إلَى تَحْصِينِ الْمَاءِ عَلَى مَا بَيَّنَّا.

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 3 p. 535- 6 shamila

(وَلَا تَخْرُجُ مُعْتَدَّةُ رَجْعِيٍّ وَبَائِنٌ) بِأَيِّ فُرْقَةٍ كَانَتْ عَلَى مَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ وَلَوْ مُخْتَلِعَةً عَلَى نَفَقَةِ عِدَّتِهَا فِي الْأَصَحِّ اخْتِيَارٌ، أَوْ عَلَى السُّكْنَى فَيَلْزَمُهَا أَنْ تَكْتَرِيَ بَيْتَ الزَّوْجِ مِعْرَاجٌ (لَوْ حُرَّةً) أَوْ أَمَةً مُبَوَّأَةً وَلَوْ مِنْ فَاسِدٍ (مُكَلَّفَةً مِنْ بَيْتِهَا أَصْلًا) لَا لَيْلًا وَلَا نَهَارًا وَلَا إلَى صَحْنِ دَارٍ فِيهَا مَنَازِلُ لِغَيْرِهِ وَلَوْ بِإِذْنِهِ لِأَنَّهُ حَقُّ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى.

(قَوْلُهُ: بِأَيِّ فُرْقَةٍ كَانَتْ إلَخْ) أَيْ وَلَوْ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ كَتَقْبِيلِهَا ابْنَ زَوْجِهَا بَحْرٌ عَنْ الْبَدَائِعِ. قَالَ فِي النَّهْرِ: قَيَّدَ بِمُعْتَدَّةِ الطَّلَاقِ، لِأَنَّ مُعْتَدَّةَ الْوَطْءِ لَا تُمْنَعُ مِنْ الْخُرُوجِ كَالْمُعْتَدَّةِ عَنْ عِتْقٍ وَنِكَاحٍ فَاسِدٍ وَوَطْءٍ بِشُبْهَةٍ إلَّا إذَا مَنَعَهَا لِتَحْصِينِ مَائِهِ كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ.

(قَوْلُهُ: أَصْلًا) تَعْمِيمٌ لِقَوْلِهِ لَا تَخْرُجُ، وَبَيَّنَهُ بِقَوْلِهِ لَا لَيْلًا وَلَا نَهَارًا. (قَوْلُهُ: فِيهَا مَنَازِلُ لِغَيْرِهِ) أَيْ غَيْرِ الزَّوْجِ، بِخِلَافِ مَا إذَا كَانَتْ لَهُ فَإِنَّ لَهَا أَنْ تَخْرُجَ إلَيْهَا وَتَبِيتَ فِي أَيِّ مَنْزِلٍ شَاءَتْ لِأَنَّهَا تُضَافُ إلَيْهَا بِالسُّكْنَى زَيْلَعِيٌّ. (قَوْلُهُ: وَلَوْ بِإِذْنِهِ) تَعْمِيمٌ أَيْضًا لِقَوْلِهِ وَلَا تَخْرُجُ، حَتَّى إنَّ الْمُطَلَّقَةَ رَجْعِيًّا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مَنْكُوحَةً حُكْمًا لَا تَخْرُجُ مِنْ بَيْتِ الْعِدَّةِ.

 

[4] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 4 p. 451

وَأَمَّا فِي حَالَةِ الضَّرُورَةِ فَإِنْ اُضْطُرَّتْ إلَى الْخُرُوجِ مِنْ بَيْتِهَا بِأَنْ خَافَتْ سُقُوطَ مَنْزِلِهَا أَوْ خَافَتْ عَلَى مَتَاعِهَا أَوْ كَانَ الْمَنْزِلُ بِأُجْرَةٍ وَلَا تَجِدُ مَا تُؤَدِّيهِ فِي أُجْرَتِهِ فِي عِدَّةِ الْوَفَاةِ فَلَا بَأْسَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ أَنْ تَنْتَقِلَ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ تَقْدِرُ عَلَى الْأُجْرَةِ لَا تَنْتَقِلُ، وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمَنْزِلُ لِزَوْجِهَا وَقَدْ مَاتَ عَنْهَا فَلَهَا أَنْ تَسْكُنَ فِي نَصِيبِهَا إنْ كَانَ نَصِيبُهَا مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا تَكْتَفِي بِهِ فِي السُّكْنَى وَتَسْتَتِرُ عَنْ سَائِرِ الْوَرَثَةِ مِمَّنْ لَيْسَ بِمَحْرَمٍ لَهَا، وَإِنْ كَانَ نَصِيبُهَا لَا يَكْفِيهَا أَوْ خَافَتْ عَلَى مَتَاعِهَا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا بَأْسَ أَنْ تَنْتَقِلَ،

وَإِذَا انْتَقَلَتْ لِعُذْرٍ يَكُونُ سُكْنَاهَا فِي الْبَيْتِ الَّذِي انْتَقَلَتْ إلَيْهِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ كَوْنِهَا فِي الْمَنْزِلِ الَّذِي انْتَقَلَتْ مِنْهُ فِي حُرْمَةِ الْخُرُوجِ عَنْهُ؛ لِأَنَّ الِانْتِقَالَ مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ إلَيْهِ كَانَ لِعُذْرٍ فَصَارَ الْمَنْزِلُ الَّذِي انْتَقَلَتْ إلَيْهِ كَأَنَّهُ مَنْزِلُهَا مِنْ الْأَصْلِ فَلَزِمَهَا الْمُقَامُ فِيهِ حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ الْعِدَّةُ،

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 10 p. 365-367

(وَتَعْتَدَّانِ) أَيْ مُعْتَدَّةُ طَلَاقٍ وَمَوْتٍ (فِي بَيْتٍ وَجَبَتْ فِيهِ) وَلَا يَخْرُجَانِ مِنْهُ (إلَّا أَنْ تُخْرَجَ أَوْ يَتَهَدَّمَ الْمَنْزِلُ، أَوْ تَخَافُ) انْهِدَامَهُ، أَوْ (تَلَفَ مَالِهَا، أَوْ لَا تَجِدَ كِرَاءَ الْبَيْتِ) وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ الضَّرُورَاتِ فَتَخْرُجُ لِأَقْرَبِ مَوْضِعٍ إلَيْهِ، وَفِي الطَّلَاقِ إلَى حَيْثُ شَاءَ الزَّوْجُ

قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ: وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ مَدَارَ حِلِّ خُرُوجِهَا بِسَبَبِ قِيَامِ شُغْلِ الْمَعِيشَةِ فَيَتَقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهِ، فَمَتَى انْقَضَتْ حَاجَتُهَا لَا يَحِلُّ لَهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ صَرْفُ الزَّمَانِ خَارِجَ بَيْتِهَا. اهـ. وَبِهَذَا انْدَفَعَ قَوْلُ الْبَحْرِ إنَّ الظَّاهِرَ مِنْ كَلَامِهِمْ جَوَازُ خُرُوجِ الْمُعْتَدَّةِ عَنْ وَفَاةٍ نَهَارًا وَلَوْ كَانَ عِنْدَهَا نَفَقَةٌ، وَإِلَّا لَقَالُوا: لَا تَخْرُجُ الْمُعْتَدَّةُ عَنْ طَلَاقٍ، أَوْ مَوْتٍ إلَّا لِضَرُورَةٍ فَإِنَّ الْمُطَلَّقَةَ تَخْرُجُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ لَيْلًا، أَوْ نَهَارًا اهـ.

وَوَجْهُ الدَّفْعِ أَنَّ مُعْتَدَّةَ الْمَوْتِ لَمَّا كَانَتْ فِي الْعَادَةِ مُحْتَاجَةً إلَى الْخُرُوجِ لِأَجْلِ أَنْ تَكْتَسِبَ لِلنَّفَقَةِ قَالُوا: إنَّهَا تَخْرُجُ فِي النَّهَارِ وَبَعْضِ اللَّيْلِ، بِخِلَافِ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ. وَأَمَّا الْخُرُوجُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ فَلَا فَرْقَ فِيهِ بَيْنَهُمَا كَمَا نَصُّوا عَلَيْهِ فِيمَا يَأْتِي، فَالْمُرَادُ بِهِ هُنَا غَيْرُ الضَّرُورَةِ، وَلِهَذَا بَعْدَمَا أَطْلَقَ فِي كَافِي الْحَاكِمِ مَنْعَ خُرُوجِ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ

( لُهُ: وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ)

مِنْهُ مَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ: لَوْ خَافَتْ بِاللَّيْلِ مِنْ أَمْرِ الْمَيِّتِ وَالْمَوْتِ وَلَا أَحَدَ مَعَهَا لَهَا التَّحَوُّلُ – وَالْخَوْفُ شَدِيدٌ – وَإِلَّا فَلَا

 

[5] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 10 p. 365

وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ الضَّرُورَاتِ فَتَخْرُجُ لِأَقْرَبِ مَوْضِعٍ إلَيْهِ، وَفِي الطَّلَاقِ إلَى حَيْثُ شَاءَ الزَّوْجُ

وَأَمَّا الْخُرُوجُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ فَلَا فَرْقَ فِيهِ بَيْنَهُمَا كَمَا نَصُّوا عَلَيْهِ فِيمَا يَأْتِي، فَالْمُرَادُ بِهِ هُنَا غَيْرُ الضَّرُورَةِ، وَلِهَذَا بَعْدَمَا أَطْلَقَ فِي كَافِي الْحَاكِمِ مَنْعَ خُرُوجِ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ

 

It is permitted for a Mufti to take into consideration specific cases in order to grant leniency in extreme circumstances like Ibn Abideen Shami allowing a divorcee to emerge to earn for herself when necessary.

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 10 p. 362

مُطْلَبٌ: الْحَقُّ أَنَّ عَلَى الْمُفْتِي أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي خُصُوصِ الْوَقَائِعِ.

قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ: وَالْحَقُّ أَنَّ عَلَى الْمُفْتِي أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي خُصُوصِ الْوَقَائِعِ، فَإِنْ عَلِمَ فِي وَاقِعَةٍ عَجْزَ هَذِهِ الْمُخْتَلِعَةِ عَنْ الْمَعِيشَةِ إنْ لَمْ تَخْرُجْ أَفْتَاهَا بِالْحِلِّ، وَإِنْ عَلِمَ قُدْرَتَهَا أَفْتَاهَا بِالْحُرْمَةِ اهـ وَأَقَرَّهُ فِي النَّهْرِ والشُّرُنبُلالِيَّة.

Ibn Nujaym, al-Ashbah wa Nazair, p. 72-73

أَنَّ الْأَمْرَ إذَا ضَاقَ اتَّسَعَ، وَإِذَا اتَّسَعَ ضَاقَ

مَا أُبِيحَ لِلضَّرُورَةِ يُقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهَا

 

 

Zakāt on Stolen Gold

13th February 2024

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: My query is about 2 months after my Zakat due date my gold got stolen and I haven’t paid Zakat on it yet. Do I still need to pay Zakāt on the gold or not? And does it depend on whether all of the gold was stolen or a portion of it was stolen? 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

In reference to your query, as a general note Zakāt must be paid immediately after owning the Nisab (minimum threshold) of all Zakatable assets that last for one lunar year. In your case where the gold was stolen and Zakat was not yet paid for this gold, then if all of the gold was stolen then Zakāt will be waived from that person. In other words, Zakāt is now pardoned. However, if some portion of the gold was stolen then Zakāt must be calculated on the remainder potion. The amount of Zakāt payable will now be deducted from the original calculation.[1]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]  

Written by:  Apa Sumayya Qazi          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb Zakāt, vol 1, p. 198

مَسَائِلُ شَتَّى فِي الزَّكَاةِ

وَإِنْ هَلَكَ الْمَالُ بَعْدَ وُجُوبِ الزَّكَاةِ سَقَطَتْ الزَّكَاةُ، وَفِي هَلَاكِ الْبَعْضِ يَسْقُطُ بِقَدْرِهِ هَكَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ.

Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Kitāb Zakāt,  vol 2 p. 666

المبحث الرابع ـ هلاك المال بعد وجوب الزكاة

للفقهاء رأيان في سقوط الزكاة بعد وجوبها وهلاك المال:

1 – فقال الحنفية (3): إن هلك المال بعد وجوب الزكاة، سقطت الزكاة؛ كما أنه يسقط العشر وخراج المقاسمة؛ لأن الواجب جزء من النصاب، وتحقيقاً للتيسير، فإن الزكاة وجبت بقدرة مُيسِّرة أي بقاء اليسر إلى وقت أداء الزكاة، فيسقط الواجب بهلاك محله، سواء تمكن من الأداء أم لا؛ لأن الشرع علق الوجوب بقدرة ميسرة، والمعلق بقدرة ميسرة لا يبقى بدونها، والقدرة الميسرة هنا هي وصف النماء، لا النصاب.