Deceased Leaving Behind a Wife, 4 Sons, 2 Daughters & Siblings

Deceased Leaving Behind a Wife, 4 Sons, 2 Daughters & Siblings

             20th May 2022

 

Question: Kindly provide us with the Islamic guidelines to the following scenario. Person passed away leaving behind his Wife and 4 sons and 2 daughters and one brother and one sister. He doesn’t have parents as both passed away before him. Who gets what share?

 

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: Thank for your question. In reference to your case scenario, firstly the deceased’s wealth will be used towards the burial costs of the deceased, thereafter any bequests made shall be fulfilled from 1/3 of the remaining wealth. Whatever remains thereafter shall be then distributed amongst their legal heirs in the following manner. The entire estate shall be divided into 80 equal parts. The wife shall be given one-tenth (1/8th) of the share and the residue 70 parts will be divided by 10 shares; each son inheriting double the share of a daughter and each daughter receiving a single share. In other words, each son receiving 14 shares from 70 and each daughter receiving 7 shares.  This will be then used to calculate the total share from the value of the estate. Due to the existing sons, the brother and sister shall not receive any share.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 

JKN Fatawa Department 

 

Semen Exiting After Urinating

Semen Exiting After Urinating

16th May 2022

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I have a question do you need to repeat the ghusl if residue of the actual semen comes out after urinating and not before?

 

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer: Thank for your query. In reference to your query, when a person becomes impure, he should thoroughly clean his private parts to ensure that any residue semen exits the body before commencing. In your case where semen has come out after urinating, then if ghusl has already been performed then repeating it would not be necessary.[1] Any Salah performed with wudhu in the interim of performing ghusl and using the bathroom, will not need to be repeated. Moreover, if you had used the bathroom, slept or walked for a short while before performing ghusl then repeating the ghusl will not be necessary.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitabut Taharah, vol 1, p

اغتسل من الجنابة قبل أن يبول أو ينام وصلى ثم خرج بقية المني فعليه أن يغتسل عندهما خلافا لأبي يوسف – رحمه الله تعالى – ولكن لا يعيد تلك الصلاة في قولهم جميعا. كذا في الذخيرة ولو خرج بعد ما بال أو نام أو مشى لا يجب عليه الغسل اتفاقا. كذا في التبيين

 

Divorce in Menses

Divorce in Menses

16th May 2022

                                                                                                                  

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I query regarding talak whilst my wife was on her menses. From what I have read that the divorce doesn’t count as she has to be in a state of purity for the talak to count. What is the view of the Hanafi school of thought regarding this matter?

 

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: Thank for your query. In reference to your query, a divorce issued whilst the wife is in her menses is valid and effective.[1] However, this is not the correct method of divorcing one’s wife and also a sin.[2] The jurists advise that if the husband issued a revocable divorce (1 r 2 divorces) then to take her back into marriage until her period finishes and then issue a new divorce if he wishes to divorce her again. This was the same advice that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam gave to Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar radhiyallahu anhu who divorced his wife once in her menses and instructed her to retract from the divorce and then issue another divorce in her purity if he so wishes.[3]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Raddul Muhtar, kitabul talaaq, vol 3, p233/234

قوله وتجب رجعتها) أي الموطوءة المطلقة في الحيض (قوله على الأصح) مقابله قول القدوري إنها مستحبة لأن المعصية وقعت فتعذر ارتفاعها، ووجه الأصح قوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – لعمر في حديث ابن عمر في الصحيحين «مر ابنك فليراجعها» حين طلقها في حالة الحيض، فإنه يشتمل على وجوبين: صريح وهو الوجوب على عمر أن يأمر وضمني وهو ما يتعلق بابنه عند توجيه الصيغة إليه فإن عمر نائب فيه عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فهو كالمبلغ، وتعذر ارتفاع المعصية لا يصلح صارفا للصيغة عن الوجوب لجواز إيجاب رفع أثرها وهو العدة وتطويلها إذ بقاء الشيء بقاء ما هو أثره من وجه فلا تترك الحقيقة، وتمامه في الفتح (قوله رفعا للمعصية) بالراء، وهي أولى من نسخة الدال ط أي لأن الدفع بالدال لما لم يقع والرفع بالراء للواقع والمعصية هنا

وقعت، والمراد رفع أثرها وهو العدة وتطويلها كما علمت لأن رفع الطلاق بعد وقوعه غير ممكن.
(قوله فإذا طهرت طلقها إن شاء) ظاهر عبارته أنه يطلقها في الطهر الذي طلقها في حيضه، وهو موافق لما ذكره الطحاوي، وهو رواية عن الإمام لأن أثر الطلاق انعدم بالمراجعة فكأنه لم يطلقها في هذه الحيضة فيسن تطليقها في طهرها لكن المذكور في الأصل وهو ظاهر الرواية كما في الكافي وظاهر المذهب، وقول الكل كما في فتح القدير إنه إذا راجعها في الحيض أمسك عن طلاقها حتى تطهر ثم تحيض ثم تطهر فيطلقها ثانية. ولا يطلقها في الطهر الذي يطلقها في حيضه لأنه بدعي، كذا في البحر والمنح، وعبارة المصنف تحتمله. اهـ. ح. ويدل لظاهر الرواية حديث الصحيحين «مر ابنك فليراجعها ثم ليمسكها حتى تطهر ثم تحيض فتطهر، فإن بدا له أن يطلقها فليطلقها قبل أن يمسها فتلك العدة كما أمر الله عز وجل» بحر. قال في الفتح: ويظهر من لفظ الحديث تقييد الرجعة بذلك الحيض الذي أوقع فيه، وهو المفهوم من كلام الأصحاب إذا تؤمل.
فلو لم يفعل حتى طهرت تقررت المعصية. اهـ. وقد يقال: هذا ظاهر على رواية الطحاوي، أما على المذهب فينبغي أن لا تقرر المعصية حتى يأتي الطهر الثاني بحر قلت: وفيه نظر، فإنه حيث كان ذلك هو المفهوم من حديث وكلام الأصحاب يحمل المذهب عليه، فتأمل (قوله قيد بالطلاق) أي في قوله أو في حيض موطوءة، والمراد أيضا بالطلاق الرجعي احتراز عن البائن فإنه بدعي في ظاهر الرواية وإن كان في الطهر كما مر

[2]  Kitab ut Talaq, Fatawa Hindiyyah, vol 1, p349

والبدعي) من حيث الوقت أن يطلق المدخول بها وهي من ذوات الأقراء في حالة الحيض أو في طهر جامعها فيه وكان الطلاق واقعا ويستحب له أن يراجعها والأصح أن الرجعة واجبة هكذا في الكافي

 

[3] Bukhari, No. 5252

بَابُ إِذَا طُلِّقَتِ الحَائِضُ تَعْتَدُّ بِذَلِكَ الطَّلاَقِ

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: طَلَّقَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ امْرَأَتَهُ وَهِيَ حَائِضٌ، فَذَكَرَ عُمَرُ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ: «لِيُرَاجِعْهَا» قُلْتُ: تُحْتَسَبُ؟ قَالَ: فَمَهْ؟ وَعَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: «مُرْهُ فَلْيُرَاجِعْهَا» قُلْتُ: تُحْتَسَبُ؟ قَالَ: أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ عَجَزَ وَاسْتَحْمَقَ،

Deceased’s Estate Distributed after Many Years

Deceased’s Estate Distributed after Many Years

11th May 2022

 

Question: My Father passed away in 2007 leaving a property in which all us siblings are living in. He left behind wife, 3 sons and 2 daughters. The property value at the time of his death was £200,000. At the time due to family circumstances, we were unable to distribute the shares from his property. This year, we have now decided to sell the property and distribute the value between us according to the Islamic shares. As we are already familiar with the Islamic shares, my question is should the shares be calculated according to the current market value i.e. £400,000 or from £200,000?

 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your case scenario, the property in question must be distributed in accordance to the current market value i.e. £400,000 between the beneficiaries according to their Islamic shares. In principle, all of the beneficiaries are eligible to the usufruct of the estate left by your father. This means that whatever additional gain accrues on the property then they will receive that also. In this case, when the property share has not been distributed and its market value has increased to £400,000, their Islamic shares will now be calculated according to this value..[1]

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Sharikah, vol 4 p. 325

[فَصْلٌ فِي الشَّرِكَةِ الْفَاسِدَةِ]

وَكَذَا لَوْ اجْتَمَعَ إخْوَةٌ يَعْمَلُونَ فِي تَرِكَةِ أَبِيهِمْ وَنَمَا الْمَالُ فَهُوَ بَيْنَهُمْ سَوِيَّةً، وَلَوْ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْعَمَلِ وَالرَّأْيِ

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Sharikah, vol 4 p. 307

[تَنْبِيهٌ] يَقَعُ كَثِيرًا فِي الْفَلَّاحِينَ وَنَحْوِهِمْ أَنَّ أَحَدَهُمْ يَمُوتُ فَتَقُومُ أَوْلَادُهُ عَلَى تَرِكَتِهِ بِلَا قِسْمَةٍ وَيَعْمَلُونَ فِيهَا مِنْ حَرْثٍ وَزِرَاعَةٍ وَبَيْعٍ وَشِرَاءٍ وَاسْتِدَانَةٍ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ، وَتَارَةً يَكُونُ كَبِيرُهُمْ هُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَلَّى مُهِمَّاتِهِمْ وَيَعْمَلُونَ عِنْدَهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَكُلُّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْإِطْلَاقِ وَالتَّفْوِيضِ، لَكِنْ بِلَا تَصْرِيحٍ بِلَفْظِ الْمُفَاوَضَةِ وَلَا بَيَانِ جَمِيعِ مُقْتَضَيَاتِهَا مَعَ كَوْنِ التَّرِكَةِ أَغْلَبُهَا أَوْ كُلُّهَا عُرُوضٌ لَا تَصِحُّ فِيهَا شَرِكَةُ الْعَقْدِ، وَلَا شَكَّ أَنَّ هَذِهِ لَيْسَتْ شَرِكَةَ مُفَاوَضَةٍ، خِلَافًا لِمَا أَفْتَى بِهِ فِي زَمَانِنَا مَنْ لَا خِبْرَةَ لَهُ بَلْ هِيَ شَرِكَةُ مِلْكٍ كَمَا حَرَّرْته فِي تَنْقِيحِ الْحَامِدِيَّةِ. ثُمَّ رَأَيْت التَّصْرِيحَ بِهِ بِعَيْنِهِ فِي فَتَاوَى الْحَانُوتِيِّ، فَإِذَا كَانَ سَعْيُهُمْ وَاحِدًا وَلَمْ يَتَمَيَّزْ مَا حَصَّلَهُ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ بِعَمَلِهِ يَكُونُ مَا جَمَعُوهُ مُشْتَرَكًا بَيْنَهُمْ بِالسَّوِيَّةِ وَإِنْ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْعَمَلِ وَالرَّأْيِ كَثْرَةً وَصَوَابًا كَمَا أَفْتَى بِهِ فِي الْخَيْرِيَّةِ، وَمَا اشْتَرَاهُ أَحَدُهُمْ لِنَفْسِهِ يَكُونُ لَهُ وَيَضْمَنُ حِصَّةَ شُرَكَائِهِ مِنْ ثَمَنِهِ إذَا دَفَعَهُ مِنْ الْمَالِ الْمُشْتَرَكِ، وَكُلُّ مَا اسْتَدَانَهُ أَحَدُهُمْ يُطَالَبُ بِهِ وَحْدَهُ.

 

Do Nasal Inhaler and Vicks Cream Break the Fast?

Do Nasal Inhaler and Vicks Cream Break the Fast?

11th March 2022

 

Question:  I have bad hay fever so whilst fasting, I used a Vicks nasal inhaler then I later realised that maybe I shouldn’t use it and stopped immediately.
Can I use the nasal inhaler while fasting or not? The nasal inhaler doesn’t pump any gas but just has like some small piece that has a smell that clears the nose. Also what is the ruling on applying Vicks cream onto the nose or just under the nose whilst fasting?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, the nasal inhaler is used to clear the sinus to give temporary relief for blocked nose caused by hay fever. The inhaler contains discernible particles that may or may not reach to the back of the nose (nasopharynx connected to the throat)  depending on whether the nasal inhaler is administered correctly or not.[1] If it is more than likely that the discernible particles of the inhaler reach the throat and into the stomach then, the fast will break for which only Qadha is required and not kaffarah (continues fast for 60 days).[2] This is because in principle anything that reaches the stomach irrespective of its quantity and size breaches the essential criterion of fasting. If on the contrary, it is administered in a manner that it remains in the nose and does not reach the throat then the fast does not break because the particles would not have reached the stomach which is essential for the fast to break.[3] It is important to note that something merely reaching the throat is not sufficient for the fast to break. The throat, like the mouth and nose is an avenue that leads to the stomach. The agent must reach the stomach via these cavities in order for the fast to break.[4] We recommend consulting your GP to verify the likelihood possibility of the particles reaching the throat and the stomach, otherwise we strongly recommend avoid using it altogether whilst fasting. If it is possible to use it outside of the fast times then that would be better.

In regards to applying Vicks cream whilst fasting then that is permissible whether applied onto the nose or near to the nostrils even if its strong smell can be felt in the throat. The strong sense does not contain discernible particles unlike the nasal inhaler hence, it resembles smelling perfumes or antimony that is applied to the eyes and felt in the throat and yet does not legally break the fast. [5]

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] NHS, Decongestants, available at Decongestants – NHS (www.nhs.uk) [accessed 9th March 2022]

Smith, Y. How to use the nasal Sprays correctly, available at How to Use Nasal Sprays Correctly (news-medical.net) [accessed 9th March 2022]

Smith, Y. Nasal Sprays for Allergies, available at Nasal Sprays for Allergies (news-medical.net) [accessed 9th March 2022]

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Sawm, vol 2 p. 402

بَابُ مَا يُفْسِدُ الصَّوْمَ وَمَا لَا يُفْسِدُهُ

(أَوْ احْتَقَنَ أَوْ اسْتَعَطَ) فِي أَنْفِهِ شَيْئًا (أَوْ أَقْطَرَ فِي أُذُنِهِ دُهْنًا أَوْ دَاوَى جَائِفَةً أَوْ آمَّةً) فَوَصَلَ الدَّوَاءُ حَقِيقَةً إلَى جَوْفِهِ وَدِمَاغِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ: أَوْ احْتَقَنَ أَوْ اسْتَعَطَ) كِلَاهُمَا بِالْبِنَاءِ لِلْفَاعِلِ مِنْ حَقَنَ الْمَرِيضُ دَوَاءَهُ بِالْحُقْنَةِ وَاحْتُقِنَ بِالضَّمِّ غَيْرُ جَائِزٍ وَإِنَّمَا الصَّوَابُ حُقِنَ أَوْ عُولِجَ بِالْحُقْنَةِ وَالسَّعُوطُ الدَّوَاءُ الَّذِي صُبَّ فِي الْأَنْفِ وَأَسْعَطَهُ إيَّاهُ وَلَا يُقَالُ: اُسْتُعِطَ مَبْنِيًّا لِلْمَفْعُولِ مِعْرَاجٌ، وَعَدَمُ وُجُوبِ الْكَفَّارَةِ فِي ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْأَصَحُّ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مُوجِبُ الْإِفْطَارِ صُورَةً وَمَعْنًى وَالصُّورَةُ الِابْتِلَاعُ كَمَا فِي الْكَافِي وَهِيَ مُنْعَدِمَةٌ وَالنَّفْعُ الْمُجَرَّدُ عَنْهَا يُوجِبُ الْقَضَاءَ فَقَطْ إمْدَادٌ

Burhanudeen Mahmud b. Ahmad, Muheet Burhani Kitāb al-Sawm, vol 2, p. 383

الفصل الرابع فيما يفسد الصوم وما لا يفسد صومه

وإذا استعط، أو أقطر في أذنه، إن كان شيئاً يتعلق به صلاح البدن، نحو الدهن والدواء يفسد صومه من غير كفارة، وإن كان شيئاً لا يتعلق به صلاح البدن كالماء قال مشايخنا: ينبغي أن لا يفسد صومه، إلا أن محمداً رحمه الله: لم يفصل بينما يتعلق به صلاح البدن، وبينما لا يتعلق.

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Sawm, vol 1, p. 204

النَّوْعُ الْأَوَّلُ مَا يُوجِبُ الْقَضَاءَ دُونَ الْكَفَّارَةِ

وَمَنْ احْتَقَنَ أَوْ اسْتَعَطَ أَوْ أَقْطَرَ فِي أُذُنِهِ دُهْنًا أَفْطَرَ، وَلَا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ هَكَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ، وَلَوْ دَخَلَ الدُّهْنُ بِغَيْرِ صُنْعِهِ فَطَّرَهُ كَذَا فِي مُحِيطِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ.

 

[3] Mufti Mahmud al Hassan Gangohi, Fatawa Mahmoodiyyah, Ch. What breaks the fast and what does not, vol 10, p.139

 

[4] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Sawm, vol 2 p. 93

[فَصْلٌ أَرْكَان الصِّيَام]

وَمَا وَصَلَ إلَى الْجَوْفِ أَوْ إلَى الدِّمَاغِ عَنْ الْمَخَارِقِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ كَالْأَنْفِ وَالْأُذُنِ وَالدُّبُرِ بِأَنْ اسْتَعَطَ أَوْ احْتَقَنَ أَوْ أَقْطَرَ فِي أُذُنِهِ فَوَصَلَ إلَى الْجَوْفِ أَوْ إلَى الدِّمَاغِ فَسَدَ صَوْمُهُ، أَمَّا إذَا وَصَلَ إلَى الْجَوْفِ فَلَا شَكَّ فِيهِ لِوُجُودِ الْأَكْلِ مِنْ حَيْثُ الصُّورَةِ.

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Sawm, vol 2 p. 402

بَابُ مَا يُفْسِدُ الصَّوْمَ وَمَا لَا يُفْسِدُهُ

(أَوْ احْتَقَنَ أَوْ اسْتَعَطَ) فِي أَنْفِهِ شَيْئًا (أَوْ أَقْطَرَ فِي أُذُنِهِ دُهْنًا أَوْ دَاوَى جَائِفَةً أَوْ آمَّةً) فَوَصَلَ الدَّوَاءُ حَقِيقَةً إلَى جَوْفِهِ وَدِمَاغِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ: فَوَصَلَ الدَّوَاءُ حَقِيقَةً) أَشَارَ إلَى أَنَّ مَا وَقَعَ فِي ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ مِنْ تَقْيِيدِ الْإِفْسَادِ بِالدَّوَاءِ الرَّطْبِ مَبْنِيٌّ عَلَى الْعَادَةِ مِنْ أَنَّهُ يَصِلُ وَإِلَّا فَالْمُعْتَبَرُ حَقِيقَةُ الْوُصُولِ، حَتَّى لَوْ عَلِمَ وُصُولَ الْيَابِسِ أَفْسَدَ أَوْ عَدَمَ وُصُولِ الطَّرِيِّ لَمْ يُفْسِدْ وَإِنَّمَا الْخِلَافُ إذَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ يَقِينًا فَأَفْسَدَ بِالطَّرِيِّ حُكْمًا بِالْوُصُولِ نَظَرًا إلَى الْعَادَةِ وَنَفَيَاهُ كَذَا أَفَادَهُ فِي الْفَتْحِ.

قُلْت: وَلَمْ يُقَيِّدُوا الِاحْتِقَانَ وَالِاسْتِعَاطَ وَالْإِقْطَارَ بِالْوُصُولِ إلَى الْجَوْفِ لِظُهُورِهِ فِيهَا وَإِلَّا فَلَا بُدَّ مِنْهُ حَتَّى لَوْ بَقِيَ السَّعُوطُ فِي الْأَنْفِ وَلَمْ يَصِلْ إلَى الرَّأْسِ لَا يُفْطِرُ، وَيُمْكِنُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الدَّوَاءُ رَاجِعًا إلَى الْكُلِّ تَأَمَّلْ

قَوْلُهُ: إلَى جَوْفِهِ وَدِمَاغِهِ) لَفٌّ وَنَشْرٌ مُرَتَّبٌ قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ: وَالتَّحْقِيقُ أَنَّ بَيْنَ جَوْفِ الرَّأْسِ وَجَوْفِ الْمَعِدَةِ مَنْفَذًا أَصْلِيًّا فَمَا وَصَلَ إلَى جَوْفِ الرَّأْسِ يَصِلُ إلَى جَوْفِ الْبَطْنِ. اهـ. ط.

[5] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Sawm, vol 2 p. 395

بَابُ مَا يُفْسِدُ الصَّوْمَ وَمَا لَا يُفْسِدُهُ

وَلَا يُتَوَهَّمُ أَنَّهُ كَشَمِّ الْوَرْدِ وَمَائِهِ وَالْمِسْكِ لِوُضُوحِ الْفَرْقِ بَيْنَ هَوَاءٍ تَطَيَّبَ بِرِيحِ الْمِسْكِ وَشِبْهِهِ وَبَيْنَ جَوْهَرِ دُخَانٍ وَصَلَ إلَى جَوْفِهِ بِفِعْلِهِ إمْدَادٌ….

(قَوْلُهُ: وَإِنْ وَجَدَ طَعْمَهُ فِي حَلْقِهِ) أَيْ طَعْمَ الْكُحْلِ أَوْ الدُّهْنِ كَمَا فِي السِّرَاجِ وَكَذَا لَوْ بَزَقَ فَوَجَدَ لَوْنَهُ فِي الْأَصَحِّ بَحْرٌ قَالَ فِي النَّهْرِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَوْجُودَ فِي حَلْقِهِ أَثَرٌ دَاخِلٌ مِنْ الْمَسَامِّ الَّذِي هُوَ خَلَلُ الْبَدَنِ وَالْمُفْطِرُ إنَّمَا هُوَ الدَّاخِلُ مِنْ الْمَنَافِذِ لِلِاتِّفَاقِ عَلَى أَنَّ مَنْ اغْتَسَلَ فِي مَاءٍ فَوَجَدَ بَرْدَهُ فِي بَاطِنِهِ أَنَّهُ لَا يُفْطِرُ

Also see Darul-Ifta Darul Uloom Deoband available at Can I use Vicks and Vicks VapoRub in fasting? (darulifta-deoband.com) [accessed 9th March 2022]

 

 

Wife Asking for a Divorce if Her Husband Refuses Intimacy

Wife Asking for a Divorce if Her Husband Refuses Intimacy

21st February 2021

 

Question: My husband does not sexually satisfy me. He fell asleep on me on our wedding night (the very first time I was intimate with someone). I have spoken to him and claims he tries harder and also exercises. He refuses to come near me and claims I shouldn’t be complaining and I should be grateful. He has no regrets for sleeping on me when I have the urge. I have to go to him for intimacy at least once every 3 to 4 months otherwise he isn’t bothered at all. Can I apply for divorce on this basis? Isn’t intimacy my right also and how often should a couple be intimate?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your case in question, as a point of principle intimacy in marriage is a shared right between the husband and wife. Just as the husband has natural urges then so does his wife. The Hanafi jurists mention that responding to intimacy when desired is wajib, which suggests that neither can the wife refuse intimacy when her husband demands it except during her menses, post-natal bleeding, during Ramadhān fasts and Ihram, and neither can he refuse when she demands it. The husband otherwise becomes sinful for refusing and will be accountable before Allāh Almighty.[1] Intimacy in marriage, as Imam Nawwawi rahimahullah explains, becomes a form of worship and rewarding when done to fulfil his wife’s needs which falls under kind social treatment towards her just as Allāh Almighty commands it. It is also rewarding with the intention of having pious children and protecting oneself from an unlawful relationship and unlawful gaze.[2] Refusing intimacy with her would inevitably lead to her suffering harm for neglecting her fundamental right.[3]

Thus, in your case if what you have stated is true then he becomes sinful for refusing intimacy with you if approaching once in 3 or 4 months is not sufficient. There is no prescribed period as to how often every couple must engage in intimacy as this varies between the natural urges of every couple. What is important is not to refuse without a valid reason and to engage in intimacy enough to protect themselves from unlawful relationship. Imam Ghazali rahimahullah however recommends every couple to be intimate at least once every four nights but this is not obligatory.[4] What I would initially recommend is consider marriage counselling or request a reliable family member to mediate between you both. Despite that, if he still remains reluctant towards you and expresses no interest in being intimate with you except once every three to four months which is not sufficient for your needs being fulfilled then as a last resort you may ask him to divorce you. If he still refuses then you can approach a reliable Shariah Council to dissolve your marriage.[5]

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Nikah, vol 2 p. 331

فَصْلٌ بَيَانُ حُكْمِ النِّكَاحِ

وَهَذَا الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ حِلُّ الِاسْتِمْتَاعِ مُشْتَرَكٌ بَيْنَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ، فَإِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ كَمَا تَحِلُّ لِزَوْجِهَا، فَزَوْجُهَا يَحِلُّ لَهَا قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: {لا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَلا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ} [الممتحنة: 10] ، وَلِلزَّوْجِ أَنْ يُطَالِبَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ مَتَى شَاءَ إلَّا عِنْدَ اعْتِرَاضِ أَسْبَابٍ مَانِعَةٍ مِنْ الْوَطْءِ كَالْحَيْضِ وَالنِّفَاسِ وَالظِّهَارِ وَالْإِحْرَامِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ، وَلِلزَّوْجَةِ أَنْ تُطَالِبَ زَوْجَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ؛ لِأَنَّ حِلَّهُ لَهَا حَقُّهَا كَمَا أَنَّ حِلَّهَا لَهُ حَقُّهُ، وَإِذَا طَالَبَتْهُ يَجِبُ عَلَى الزَّوْجِ، وَيُجْبَرُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَالزِّيَادَةُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ تَجِبُ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُ، وَبَيْنَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى مِنْ بَابِ حُسْنِ الْمُعَاشَرَةِ وَاسْتِدَامَةِ النِّكَاحِ، فَلَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا، وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ.

Mowsu’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah, vol 44, p. 13

وَلِلزَّوْجِ أَنْ يُطَالِبَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ مَتَى شَاءَ إِلاَّ عِنْدَ اعْتِرَاضِ أَسْبَابٍ مَانِعَةٍ مِنَ الْوَطْءِ كَالْحَيْضِ وَالنِّفَاسِ وَالظِّهَارِ وَالإِحْرَامِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ. وَلِلزَّوْجَةِ أَنْ تُطَالِبَ زَوْجَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ، لأَنَّ حِلَّهُ لَهَا حَقُّهَا، كَمَا أَنَّ حِلَّهَا لَهُ حَقُّهُ

 

Mowsu’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah, vol 44, p. 36

لِلْحَنَفِيَّةِ وَقَوْلٌ لِبَعْضِ الشَّافِعِيَّةِ، وَهُوَ أَنَّ لِلزَّوْجَةِ مُطَالَبَةَ زَوْجِهَا بِالْوَطْءِ، لأَِنَّ حِلَّهُ لَهَا حَقُّهَا، كَمَا أَنَّ حِلَّهَا لَهُ حَقُّهُ. وَإِذَا طَالَبَتْهُ بِهِ فَإِنَّهُ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ وَيُجْبَرُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً، وَالزِّيَادَةُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ دِيَانَةً فِيمَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى مِنْ بَابِ حُسْنِ الْمُعَاشَرَةِ وَاسْتِدَامَةِ النِّكَاحِ، وَلاَ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ، وَقَالُوا: يَأْثَمُ الزَّوْجُ إِذَا تَرَكَ مَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ دِيَانَةً مُتَعَنِّتًا مَعَ الْقُدْرَةِ عَلَى الْوَطْءِ.

 

[2] Nawwawi, Sharhul Muslim, vol 7, p. 92

باب بَيَانِ أَنَّ اسْمَ الصَّدَقَةِ يَقَعُ عَلَى كُلِّ نَوْعٍ مِنْ الْمَعْرُوفِ

 وَفِي هَذَا دَلِيلٌ عَلَى إِنَّ الْمُبَاحَاتِ تَصِيرُ طَاعَاتٍ بِالنِّيَّاتِ الصَّادِقَاتِ، فَالْجِمَاعُ يَكُونُ عِبَادَةً إِذَا نَوَى بِهِ قَضَاءَ حَقِّ الزَّوْجَةِ وَمُعَاشَرَتَهَا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ الَّذِي أَمَرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِهِ، أَوْ طَلَبَ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ، أَوْ إِعْفَافَ نَفْسِهِ أَوْ إِعْفَافَ الزَّوْجَةِ، وَمَنْعَهُمَا جَمِيعًا مِنَ النَّظَرِ إِلَى حَرَامٍ أَوِ الْفِكْرِ فِيهِ أَوِ الْهَمِّ بِهِ أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْمَقَاصِدِ الصَّالِحَةِ

 

[3] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Nikah, vol 2 p. 334

فَصْلٌ وِلَايَةُ التَّأْدِيبِ لِلزَّوْجِ إذَا لَمْ تُطِعْهُ

قِيلَ يُخَوِّفُهَا بِالْهَجْرِ أَوَّلًا وَالِاعْتِزَالِ عَنْهَا، وَتَرْكِ الْجِمَاعِ وَالْمُضَاجَعَةِ، فَإِنْ تَرَكَتْ وَإِلَّا هَجَرَهَا لَعَلَّ نَفْسَهَا لَا تَحْتَمِلُ الْهَجْرَ، ثُمَّ اُخْتُلِفَ فِي كَيْفِيَّةِ الْهَجْرِ قِيلَ يَهْجُرُهَا بِأَنْ لَا يُجَامِعَهَا، وَلَا يُضَاجِعَهَا عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ، وَقِيلَ يَهْجُرُهَا بِأَنْ لَا يُكَلِّمَهَا فِي حَالِ مُضَاجَعَتِهِ إيَّاهَا لَا أَنْ يَتْرُكَ جِمَاعَهَا وَمُضَاجَعَتَهَا؛ لِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ حَقٌّ مُشْتَرَكٌ بَيْنَهُمَا، فَيَكُونُ فِي ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ الضَّرَرِ مَا عَلَيْهَا، فَلَا يُؤَدِّبَهَا بِمَا يَضُرُّ بِنَفْسِهِ، وَيُبْطِلُ حَقَّهُ،

 

[4] Al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Deen, Kitab Adab Nikah, vol 2, p. 50

وَيَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَأْتِيَهَا فِي كُل أَرْبَعِ لَيَالٍ مَرَّةً، فَهُوَ أَعْدَلُهُ، إِذْ عَدَدُ النِّسَاءِ أَرْبَعَةٌ، فَجَازَ التَّأْخِيرُ إِلَى هَذَا الْحَدِّ. نَعَمْ، يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَزِيدَ أَوْ يَنْقُصَ بِحَسَبِ حَاجَتِهَا فِي التَّحْصِينِ، فَإِنَّ تَحْصِينَهَا وَاجِبٌ عَلَيْهِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ لاَ يَثْبُتُ الْمُطَالَبَةُ بِالْوَطْءِ، وَذَلِكَ لِعُسْرِ الْمُطَالَبَةِ وَالْوَفَاءِ.

 

[5] Majmu’atul Qawaneen Islami, Muslim Personal Law, Husband neglecting his Marital Obligations, Article 327,  p. 242,

 

This is also the view of Shaykhul Islām ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah, Mowsu’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah, vol 44, p. 38

ثُمَّ قَال ابْنُ تَيْمِيَّةَ: وَحُصُول الضَّرَرِ لِلزَّوْجَةِ بِتَرْكِ الْوَطْءِ مُقْتَضٍ لِلْفَسْخِ بِكُل حَالٍ، سَوَاءٌ كَانَ بِقَصْدٍ مِنَ الزَّوْجِ أَوْ بِغَيْرِ قَصْدٍ، وَلَوْ مَعَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَعَجْزِهِ، كَالنَّفَقَةِ وَأَوْلَى لِلْفَسْخِ بِتَعَذُّرِهِ فِي الإِيلاَءِ إِجْمَاعًا

 

A Person with Stammer Praying Salāh

A Person with Stammer Praying Salāh

16th February 2022

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I have a case where I’m the only Muslim with this disorder. Only 1% of the human population has this disorder. I reverted 2 months ago and haven’t missed a single prayer, Alhamdulillah. But I’m afraid this stutter is going to mess with my Iman. I have a neurological stammer and I struggle with some words in Salah. Sometimes words don’t even come out in Salah. I’m depressed and it takes me 20min (sometimes more) to pray fajr. I’m terrified that my prayers aren’t accepted because of this and I need a ruling on my disorder because there’s no ruling on it. Such as I say Alawatu instead of Salawatu and Irata instead of Sirata and much more. Should I carry on in this manner? Or should I struggle my hardest to say the word. Should I repeat the words if I don’t say it properly or just carry on with the prayer. This neurological stammer is really affecting my life. Outside when I start working it takes me 20-30 min to pray each prayer. Salah Is supposed to take maximum 5-10 minutes and it’s supposed to be peaceful. Please advise.

 

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

We cordially congratulate you for your steadfastness and zeal for Ibadah and pray that Allāh Almighty creates ease for you, Ameen. Concerning your problem, it is important to understand that Allāh Almighty has created everyone with different abilities and strengths, and He tests his creation differently in accordance to their natural strength. A believer is rewarded on the account of their patience, struggle and steadfastness. In your case, struggling with recitation is also a reward for you. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “An expert in the Quran will be in the company of the noble and pious angels, and the one who stutters and recites and it is difficult upon him (to recite correctly in spite of excessive attempts to recite correctly) will receive double reward.”[1]

As for your Salāh is concerned, then primarily the recitation must be in Arabic even if it requires some struggle. There is no need for you to worry about your previous prayers after exerting all of your best efforts as the Qur’an states that “Allah does not burden a soul more than it can bear.”[2] If the struggle is so severe that you are unable to recite in Arabic then there is scope of permissibility to recite in a language you are familiar with.[3] You may follow this ruling temporarily to assist you until you are able to recite fluently in Arabic, otherwise if you can recite even a small portion then you must recite in Arabic despite the stammer. As for leading the Salāh then you must avoid doing so,[4] because one of the conditions of leading includes being able to recite fluently as the Imam is responsible for the Salāh of the congregants.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, Pg.  269

باب فضيلة حافظ القران

عن عائشة قالت قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الماهر بالقرآن مع السفرة الكرام البررة والذي يقرأ القرآن ويتتعتع فيه وهو عليه شاق له أجران

[2] Quran [2:286]

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb fi shurut as salaah, vol 1 p.69

وأما حد القراءة فنقول تصحيح الحروف أمر لا بد منه فإن صحح الحروف بلسانه ولم يسمع نفسه لا يجوز وبه أخذ عامة المشايخ هكذا في المحيط وهو المختار. هكذا في السراجية وهو الصحيح. هكذا في النقاية وعلى هذا نحو التسمية على الذبيحة والاستثناء في اليمين والطلاق والعتاق والإيلاء والبيع.

ولا تجوز القراءة بالفارسية إلا بعذر عند أبي يوسف ومحمد رحمهما الله وبه يفتى.

[4] Ibn Nujaym, Al Bahr al Raa’iq, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb al imamah, Al Ahaqqu bil imamah fis Salaah vol 1 p.368

قوله ثم الأقرأ) محتمل لشيئين أحدهما أن يكون المراد به أحفظهم للقرآن وهو المتبادر، الثاني أحسنهم تلاوة للقرآن باعتبار تجويد قراءته وترتيلها وقد اقتصر العلامة تلميذ المحقق ابن الهمام في شرح زاد الفقير عليه

 

Applying Hair Dye and Eye Lash lifts During Ihram

Applying Hair Dye and Eye Lash lifts During Ihram

8th February 2022

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

 Question: My question is regarding beautification in umrah and Hajj. I am aware umrah must be done in your purest form with no perfume and make up. However, is umrah valid if you have your hair dyed/coloured and is umrah valid if you have brows tinted which is temporary and like colouring or dying your hair.  Will the umrah be valid with a lash lift? Lash lift is the perming of lashes which curls and gives the lashes a lift temporarily. None of these things prevent wudu or water being penetrated but as these are a form of changing one’s natural creation? I want to know if umrah will still be valid with this or not?

 

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

Eyebrow tinting is a technique used to semi-permanently colour the brow hairs. It combines two effects – it colours the hairs themselves but also slightly stains the skin underneath for an extra effect. The stain of colour on the skin provides an element of filling in thinner spaces within the brow. The stain lasts approximately one week while the actual colour on the hair strands will grow out over the course of two to four weeks.[1] An eyelash lift is a cosmetic technique performed at a beauty salon that claims to lift, curl and define your lashes. The procedure involves coating the lashes with adhesive and curling them around rollers. After the eyelashes are curled, chemical solutions are applied to the lashes to create a long-lasting curl. The eyelash lift usually lasts around one to two months.[2]

Generally, such beautifications have no bearing on the validity of Ihram of Umrah and Hajj so long as the hair dye and the dye used in eyebrow tinting and substance used in a lash lift do not coat the hair, eyebrows or eyelashes and water is able to penetrate those areas, otherwise if they do then the Tawaf of Umrah or in Hajj will not be valid.[3] As a precaution, we do advise to verify with the beautician to ensure these substances any dye do not form a coating layer that prevents water from penetrating just in case they do.

Regarding the ruling of taghyeer (alteration) – changing one’s natural creation that Allāh Almighty made a person upon does not apply in the above-mentioned scenarios. Taghyeer is a result of permanent change to one’s natural outlook for embellishment to any bodily part either by adding or removing something which is prohibited. If it is a temporary beautification then it is not prohibited on the account of taghyeer.[4]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Rebecca, A., 2022. Everything You Need to Know About Eyebrow Tinting. [online] Byrdie. Available at: <https://www.byrdie.com/eyebrow-tinting-facts-5073824> [Accessed 22 January 2022].

 

[2]  L’Oréal Paris. 2022. What Is a Lash Lift? – L’Oréal Paris. [online] Available at: <https://www.lorealparisusa.com/beauty-magazine/makeup/eye-makeup/what-is-a-lash-lift> [Accessed 22 January 2022].

 

[3] Al- Muheet al Burhani, Kitabul Hajj, vol 2, p. 464

وفي «الجامع الصغير» : طاف لعمرته، وسعى على غير الوضوء له حل بمكة أعاد الطواف ويسعى، وإنما أعاد السعي؛ لأن السعي وإن صح مع الحدث بوصف التمام؛ لأنه لا تعلق له بالبيت، إلا أن السعي تابع للطواف ومرتب عليه، ألا ترى أنه لا يعد قربة بدون الطواف، وقد أمر بإعادة السعي بطريق التبعية؟ وإن رجع إلى أهله، ولم يعد يصير حلالاً وعليه الدم لإدخال النقصان في طواف العمرة، وليس عليه للسعي شيء،

 

Al Bahr al Ra’iq , Kitabul Hajj, Vol 3, Pg 21

(قوله: والصدر) بالجر عطف على القدوم فتجب صدقة لو طاف محدثا ودم لو جنبا فقد سووا بين طواف القدوم وبين طواف الصدر مع أن الأول سنة والثاني واجب، وأجاب عنه في الهداية بأن طواف القدوم يصير واجبا أيضا بالشروع، وأقره الشارحون، وقد يقال إن ما وجب ابتداء قبل الشروع أقوى مما وجب بالشروع فينبغي عدم المساواة قيد بترك الطهارة للطواف؛ لأن السعي محدثا أو جنبا لا يوجب شيئا سواء كان سعي عمرة أو حج؛ لأنه عبادة تؤدى لا في المسجد الحرام والأصل أن كل عبادة تؤدى لا في المسجد في أحكام المناسك فالطهارة ليست بواجبة لها كالسعي والوقوف بعرفة والمزدلفة ورمي الجمار بخلاف الطواف فإنه عبادة تؤدى في المسجد فكانت الطهارة واجبة فيه كذا في الفتاوى الظهيرية.

 

 

[4] Mufti Muhamad Uthman Shabir, Ahkaam Jarahatul Tajmeel fi Fiqhil Islami, Pg 11

حرم اسلام الوشم والوسم والقشر ما لا فيها من تغيير الخلقة الاصلية بما هو باق وتعذيب إلانسان بلا ضرورة . وأجاز الاستعمال ما لا يكون باقيا من األصباغ كالكحل و الحناء والكتم والحمرة وغير ذلك

 

Imam Qurtubi, Tafseer Qurtubi, Vol 5, Pg 393

وهذه الأمور كلها قد شهدت الأحاديث بلعن فاعلها وأنها من الكبائر ، واختلف في المعنى الذي نهى لأجلها ، فقيل : لأنها من باب التدليس ، وقيل : من باب تغيير خلق الله تعالى كما قال ابن مسعود ، وهو أصح ، وهو يتضمن المعنى الأول ، ثم قيل : هذا المنهي عنه إنما هو فيما يكون باقياً ؛ لأنه من باب تغيير خلق الله تعالى ، فأما مالا يكون باقياً كالكحل والتزين به للنساء فقد أجاز العلماء ذلك “ انتهى من “.

 

Does a Presumably Deceased Husband’s Nikah Still Remain Intact After Discovering He was Alive?

Does a Presumably Deceased Husband’s Nikah Still Remain Intact After Discovering He was Alive?

                       6th January 2022

  

Question: I need your guidance regarding an urgent matter. The problem is that few years back my brother’s family lived in Canada. My brother had a plane crash and the authorities reported him dead. So, his family returned back to Pakistan. My parents married me to my sister-in-law (after completing her iddah). She had 1 son and 1 daughter from her previous marriage. Now after 1 year the embassy reported that my brother is alive and survived the crash but was in comma since then. Now my question is, what is the legal status of my marriage? Also, she is pregnant with my baby girl so who will be the legal father?

 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In reference to your case in question, if what you have said is true to its very nature then due to the complex nature of your query, there are a number of factors that must be addressed namely the announcement of her husband’s death, his right to reclaiming his wife after he is discovered to be alive and the legal father of the new baby girl.

As for the first issue about the announcement of her husband’s death, then the general ruling is that post-death injunctions only apply once a person’s death has been confirmed after thorough investigation of a person’s living status. Such confirmed report must be based on sound evidence that establishes near certainty of their death and not founded on mere assumptions. Near certainty can be established either by reliable witnesses or from the reports of such existential calamities that leave little scope of survival. If the authority’s report of her former husband’s death due to a plane crash was convincing enough to accept then it was reasonable to consider him dead as usually the chances of surviving a plane crash is extremely rare.[1] As of which all post death injunctions such as inheritance distribution, grace period of four months and ten days etc will apply.

The second issue is now that after a year the embassy notified the family that her former husband was alive all this time but was in a coma, most probably in a vegetative state and receiving treatment, if this is confirmed and the report can be trusted after investigation then the scholars of the four madhabs have differed as to which husband does she belong to (see footnote).[2] The standard position in the Hanafi school is that her first Nikah remains intact. Which means that she must return back to her former husband and her second Nikah to his younger brother becomes automatically annulled.[3] This ruling is based on Sayyiduna Umar’s radhiyallahu anhu judgment during his reign of Khilafat where a man was abducted by a group of Jinns and became unknown whether he was alive or not. Sayyiduna Umar radhiyallahu anhu issued an injunction for his wife to wait for four years during which if he returned then they can reunite and live as married couple otherwise he will be presumed dead. Her husband did not return during that time and so presuming him to be dead, she observed the post-death grace period of four months and ten days and thereafter remarried to someone else. After remarrying, her former husband suddenly  returned and upon seeing his wife with another man, he went to Khalif Umar radhiyallahu anhu and related the entire incident to him. In one narration Sayyiduna Umar radhiyallahu anhu gave him the choice between returning to his wife or reclaim his mahr back (so she can continue living with her second husband).[4] However, in another version Sayyiduna Umar radhiyallahu anhu retracted from this view in favour of Sayyiduna Ali radhiyallahu anhu who maintained that her former husband has rights over her so she must return back to him and separate from her second husband. She will be entitled to the mahr of her second husband due to the permissibility of intimacy and also observe a separate waiting period from her second husband before reuniting with her former husband. The underlying rational of this view is that the Quran prohibits men from marrying women in the wedlock of someone else. As her former Nikah was not broken, she is still in her previous marriage.[5]

The underpinning ruling of the above is similar to your situation as in, when her former husband was discovered to be alive then he has more rights over her because their nikah was still intact. As a result, your marriage with her shall be automatically annulled. Remember that to end the marriage, her husband must either divorce her or agree to a Khula – wife returning her mahr in exchange of releasing herself from his marriage – in order to remarry elsewhere otherwise she sill remains in his wedlock.

The third issue is that she must now observe a waiting period before returning back to her former husband as indicated in the fatwa of Sayyiduna Ali radhiyallahu anhu. This is because by her consummating lawfully with another man, the waiting period is so to cleanse her womb which is three menses. But if she is pregnant like in your case, then she must not consummate with him until child birth so not to mix his seminal fluid with the child she is already conceiving.[6] This leads on to the final point as to who is considered to be this new baby’s legitimate father that she is now conceiving. The soundest opinion is that her second husband, which is you, will be considered the child’s legal father Islamically which means that the child’s lineage will be attributed to you.[7]

Having said the above, a final note on this is that such sensitive matters must be treated with wisdom. As she rightfully belongs to her first husband, no one can take that right away from him. She can no longer continue with any conjugal relationship with her second husband. Her second husband however, becomes responsible for financially maintaining his new born child.

 

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Mafqood, vol 6 p. 462-463

قُلْت: وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّ هَذَا غَيْرُ خَارِجٍ عَنْ ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ أَيْضًا، بَلْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ إلَيْهِ مِنْ الْقَوْلِ بِالتَّقْدِيرِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ فَسَّرَهُ فِي شَرْحِ الْوَهْبَانِيَّةِ بِأَنْ يَنْظُرَ وَيَجْتَهِدَ وَيَفْعَلَ مَا يَغْلِبُ عَلَى ظَنِّهِ فَلَا يَقُولُ بِالتَّقْدِيرِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَرِدْ بِهِ الشَّرْعُ بَلْ يَنْظُرُ فِي الْأَقْرَانِ وَفِي الزَّمَانِ وَالْمَكَانِ وَيَجْتَهِدُ، ثُمَّ نَقَلَ عَنْ مُغْنِي الْحَنَابِلَةِ حِكَايَتَهُ عَنْ الشَّافِعِيِّ وَمُحَمَّدٍ، وَأَنَّهُ الْمَشْهُورُ عَنْ مَالِكٍ وَأَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَأَبِي يُوسُفَ. وَقَالَ الزَّيْلَعِيُّ: لِأَنَّهُ يَخْتَلِفُ بِاخْتِلَافِ الْبِلَادِ وَكَذَا غَلَبَةُ الظَّنِّ تَخْتَلِفُ بِاخْتِلَافِ الْأَشْخَاصِ فَإِنَّ الْمِلْكَ الْعَظِيمَ إذَا انْقَطَعَ خَبَرُهُ يَغْلِبُ عَلَى الظَّنِّ فِي أَدْنَى مُدَّةٍ أَنَّهُ قَدْ مَاتَ اهـ وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَنَّهُ يَجْتَهِدُ وَيُحَكِّمُ الْقَرَائِنَ الظَّاهِرَةَ الدَّالَّةَ عَلَى مَوْتِهِ وَعَلَى هَذَا يُبْتَنَى عَلَى مَا فِي جَامِعِ الْفَتَاوَى حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَإِذَا فُقِدَ فِي الْمُهْلِكَةِ فَمَوْتُهُ غَالِبٌ فَيُحْكَمُ بِهِ، كَمَا إذَا فُقِدَ فِي وَقْتِ الْمُلَاقَاةِ مَعَ الْعَدُوِّ أَوْ مَعَ قُطَّاعِ الطَّرِيقِ، أَوْ سَافَرَ عَلَى الْمَرَضِ الْغَالِبُ هَلَاكُهُ، أَوْ كَانَ سَفَرُهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ وَمَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ حُكِمَ بِمَوْتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ الْغَالِبُ فِي هَذِهِ الْحَالَاتِ وَإِنْ كَانَ بَيْنَ احْتِمَالَيْنِ، وَاحْتِمَالُ مَوْتِهِ نَاشِئٌ عَنْ دَلِيلٍ لَا احْتِمَالَ حَيَاتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ هَذَا الِاحْتِمَالَ كَاحْتِمَالِ مَا إذَا بَلَغَ الْمَفْقُودُ مِقْدَارَ مَا لَا يَعِيشُ عَلَى حَسَبِ مَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْمِقْدَارِ نَقْلٌ مِنْ الْغُنْيَةِ اهـ مَا فِي جَامِعِ الْفَتَاوَى.

 

[2] According to the famous view of the Maliki school, her first husband cannot claim any rights over her as she now belongs to her second husband. According to the Shafi’ee school, like the Hanafi school, her second Nikah will be automatically annulled and must return back to her former husband after completing a cleansing waiting period from her second husband. According to the soundest opinion of the Hanbali school, her first husband can claim rights over her if her second marriage was not consummated. If she consummated her second marriage then her first husband will be given a choice to either to take her back or release her by reclaiming his mahr in order to remain with her second husband.

 

Mawsoo’atul Fiqhiyyat Kuwaitiyyah, vol 38, p. 279 – shamila

وَعِنْدَ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ أَنَّ الْمَفْقُودَ إِنْ عَادَ قَبْل نِكَاحِ زَوْجَتِهِ غَيْرَهُ، فَهِيَ زَوْجَتُهُ، وَهَذَا هُوَ الْقَوْل الْمَشْهُورُ الْمَعْمُول بِهِ، فَإِنْ عَادَ بَعْدَ النِّكَاحِ، فَعَنْ مَالِكٍ فِي ذَلِكَ رِوَايَتَانِ: الأْولَى: إِنْ عَادَ قَبْل الدُّخُول، فَهُوَ أَحَقُّ بِهَا، وَيُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ زَوْجِهَا الثَّانِي، وَأَمَّا إِنْ عَادَ بَعْدَ الدُّخُول، فَالثَّانِي عَلَى نِكَاحِهِ، وَلاَ يُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَهُ، وَبَيْنَ زَوْجَتِهِ. الثَّانِيَةُ: إِنْ عَادَ الْمَفْقُودُ، فَوَجَدَ زَوْجَتَهُ قَدْ تَزَوَّجَتْ فَلاَ سَبِيل لَهُ عَلَيْهَا، وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ دُخُولٌ. وَقَدْ أَخَذَ بِكُلٍّ مِنَ الرِّوَايَتَيْنِ طَائِفَةٌ مِنَ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ، وَقَال ابْنُ الْقَاسِمِ، وَأَشْهَبُ بِأَنَّ أَقْوَى الْقَوْلَيْنِ مَا جَاءَ فِي الرِّوَايَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ  وَهِيَ مَذْكُورَةٌ فِي الْمُوَطَّأِ

وَقَوْل الشَّافِعِيَّةِ يَخْتَلِفُ بَيْنَ الْقَدِيمِ وَالْجَدِيدِ: فَفِي الْقَوْل الْقَدِيمِ: إِنْ قَدِمَ الْمَفْقُودُ بَعْدَ زَوَاجِ امْرَأَتِهِ، فَفِي عَوْدَتِهَا إِلَيْهِ قَوْلاَنِ، وَقِيل يُخَيَّرُ الأَْوَّل بَيْنَ أَخْذِهَا مِنَ الثَّانِي، وَتَرْكِهَا لَهُ وَأَخْذِ مَهْرِ الْمِثْل مِنْهُ. وَفِي الْقَوْل الْجَدِيدِ: هِيَ بَاقِيَةٌ عَلَى نِكَاحِ الْمَفْقُودِ، فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَتْ غَيْرَهُ فَنِكَاحُهَا بَاطِلٌ، تَعُودُ لِلأْوَّل بَعْدَ انْتِهَاءِ عِدَّتِهَا مِنَ الثَّانِي.

وَذَهَبَ الْحَنَابِلَةُ إِلَى أَنَّ الْمَفْقُودَ إِنْ قَدِمَ قَبْل أَنْ تَتَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَتُهُ، فَهِيَ عَلَى عِصْمَتِهِ. فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَتْ غَيْرَهُ، وَلَمْ يَدْخُل بِهَا، فَهِيَ زَوْجَةُ الأْوَّل فِي رِوَايَةٍ، وَهِيَ الصَّحِيحُ، وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ أَنَّهُ يُخَيَّرُ.فَإِنْ دَخَل بِهَا الثَّانِي، كَانَ الأْوَّل بِالْخِيَارِ، إِنْ شَاءَ أَخَذَ زَوْجَتَهُ بِالْعَقْدِ الأْوَّل، وَإِنْ شَاءَ أَخَذَ مَهْرَهَا وَبَقِيَتْ عَلَى نِكَاحِ الثَّانِي.

 

[3] Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Hiylatun Najizah, p. 68-69

[4] Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah, No: 16720

ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ جَعْدَةَ، أَنَّ رَجُلًا اسْتَهُوَتْهُ الْجِنُّ عَلَى عَهْدِ عُمَرَ، فَأَتَتِ امْرَأَتُهُ عُمَرَ، فَأَمَرَهَا «أَنْ تَرَبَّصَ أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ، ثُمَّ أَمَرَ وَلِيَّهُ بَعْدَ أَرْبَعِ سِنِينَ أَنْ يُطَلِّقَهَا، ثُمَّ أَمَرَهَا أَنْ تَعْتَدَّ، فَإِذَا انْقَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا تَزَوَّجَتْ، فَإِنْ جَاءَ زَوْجُهَا خُيِّرَ بَيْنَ امْرَأَتِهِ وَالصَّدَاقِ»

 

Sarakhsi, Kitāb al-Mabsoot, Kitāb al-Mafqood, vol 11 p. 39-40

عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى رَحِمَهُمَا اللَّهُ قَالَ لَقِيتُ: الْمَفْقُودَ نَفْسَهُ فَحَدَّثَنِي حَدِيثَهُ قَالَ: أَكَلْت حَرِيرًا فِي أَهْلِي ثُمَّ خَرَجْتُ فَأَخَذَنِي نَفَرٌ مِنْ الْجِنِّ فَمَكَثْتُ فِيهِمْ ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُمْ فِي عِتْقِي فَأَعْتَقُونِي، ثُمَّ أَتَوْا بِي قَرِيبًا مِنْ الْمَدِينَةِ فَقَالُوا أَتَعْرِفُ النَّخْلَ فَقُلْتُ: نَعَمْ فَخَلُّوا عَنِّي فَجِئْتُ، فَإِذَا عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – قَدْ أَبَانَ امْرَأَتِي بَعْدَ أَرْبَعِ سِنِينَ وَحَاضَتْ وَانْقَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا وَتَزَوَّجَتْ فَخَيَّرَنِي عُمَرُ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – بَيْنَ أَنْ يَرُدَّهَا عَلَيَّ وَبَيْنَ الْمَهْرِ. وَأَهْلُ الْحَدِيثِ – رَحِمَهُمُ اللَّهُ – يَرَوْنَ فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَنَّهُ هَمَّ بِتَأْدِيبِهِ حِينَ رَآهُ، وَجَعَلَ يَقُولُ: يَغِيبُ أَحَدُكُمْ عَنْ زَوْجَتِهِ هَذِهِ الْمُدَّةَ الطَّوِيلَةَ، وَلَا يَبْعَثُ بِخَبَرِهِ فَقَالَ: لَا تَعْجَلْ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَذَكَرَ لَهُ قِصَّتَهُ.

 

[5] Sarakhsi, Kitāb al-Mabsoot, Kitāb al-Mafqood, vol 11 p. 39-40

وَهَذَا الْحَدِيثُ دَلِيلٌ لَنَا أَيْضًا فَنَتَّبِعُ الْآثَارَ، وَلَا نَشْتَغِلُ بِكَيْفِيَّةِ ذَلِكَ، وَكَأَنَّ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – إنَّمَا رَجَعَ عَنْ قَوْلِهِ فِي امْرَأَةِ الْمَفْقُودِ لَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ مِنْ حَالِ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ، وَأَمَّا تَخْيِيرُهُ إيَّاهُ بَيْنَ أَنْ يَرُدَّهَا عَلَيْهِ وَبَيْنَ الْمَهْرِ فَهُوَ بِنَاءٌ عَلَى مَذْهَبِ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – فِي الْمَرْأَةِ إذَا نُعِيَ إلَيْهَا زَوْجُهَا فَاعْتَدَّتْ، وَتَزَوَّجَتْ ثُمَّ أَتَى الزَّوْجُ الْأَوَّلُ حَيًّا إنَّهُ يُخَيَّرُ بَيْنَ أَنْ تُرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ وَبَيْنَ الْمَهْرِ، وَقَدْ صَحَّ رُجُوعُهُ عَنْهُ إلَى قَوْلِ عَلِيٍّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُفَإِنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ تُرَدُّ إلَى زَوْجِهَا الْأَوَّلِ، وَيُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ الْآخَرِ، وَلَهَا الْمَهْرُ بِمَا اسْتَحَلَّ مِنْ فَرْجِهَا، وَلَا يَقْرَبُهَا الْأَوَّلُ حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا مِنْ الْآخَرِ وَبِهَذَا كَانَ يَأْخُذُ إبْرَاهِيمُ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – فَيَقُولُ: قَوْلُ عَلِيٍّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – أَحَبُّ إلَيَّ مِنْ قَوْلِ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ -، وَبِهِ نَأْخُذُ أَيْضًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَبَيَّنَ أَنَّهَا تَزَوَّجَتْ، وَهِيَ مَنْكُوحَةٌ وَمَنْكُوحَةُ الْغَيْرِ لَيْسَتْ مِنْ الْمُحَلَّلَاتِ بَلْ هِيَ مِنْ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ فِي حَقِّ سَائِرِ النَّاسِ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: {وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنْ النِّسَاءِ} [النساء: 24] فَكَيْفَ يَسْتَقِيمُ تَرْكُهَا مَعَ الثَّانِي، وَإِذَا اخْتَارَ الْأَوَّلُ الْمَهْرَ، وَلَكِنْ يَكُونُ النِّكَاحُ مُنْعَقِدًا بَيْنَهُمَا فَكَيْفَ يَسْتَقِيمُ دَفْعُ الْمَهْرِ إلَى الْأَوَّلِ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ بُضْعِهَا فَيَكُون مَمْلُوكًا لَهَا دُونَ زَوْجِهَا كَالْمَنْكُوحَةِ إذَا وُطِئَتْ بِشُبْهَةٍ، فَعَرَفْنَا أَنَّ الصَّحِيحَ أَنَّهَا زَوْجَةُ الْأَوَّلِ، وَلَكِنْ لَا يَقْرَبُهَا لِكَوْنِهَا مُعْتَدَّةً لِغَيْرِهِ كَالْمَنْكُوحَةِ إذَا وُطِئَتْ بِالشُّبْهَةِ. وَذُكِرَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – أَنَّ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – رَجَعَ عَنْ ثَلَاثِ قَضِيَّاتٍ إلَى قَوْلِ عَلِيٍّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ -، عَنْ امْرَأَةِ أَبِي كَنَفٍ، وَالْمَفْقُودِ زَوْجُهَا، وَالْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي تَزَوَّجَتْ فِي عِدَّتِهَا. أَمَّا حُكْمُ الْمَفْقُودِ وَالْمُعْتَدَّةِ فَقَدْ بَيَّنَّا.

 

[6] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Talāq, vol 5 p. 189

مطلب فِي عدة الْمَوْت

(قَوْلُهُ: وَفِي حَقِّ الْحَامِلِ) أَيْ مِنْ نِكَاحٍ وَلَوْ فَاسِدًا، فَلَا عِدَّةَ عَلَى الْحَامِلِ مِنْ زِنًا أَصْلًا بَحْرٌ (قَوْلُهُ: مُطْلَقًا) أَيْ سَوَاءً كَانَ عَنْ طَلَاقٍ، أَوْ وَفَاةٍ، أَوْ مُتَارَكَةٍ، أَوْ وَطْءٍ بِشُبْهَةٍ نَهْرٌ

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Talāq, vol 1, p. 554

الْبَابُ الثَّالِثَ عَشَرَ فِي الْعِدَّةِ

وَعِدَّةُ الْحَامِلِ أَنْ تَضَعَ حَمْلَهَا كَذَا فِي الْكَافِي. سَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ حَامِلًا وَقْتَ وُجُوبِ الْعِدَّةِ أَوْ حَبِلَتْ بَعْدَ الْوُجُوبِ كَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ. وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ حُرَّةً أَوْ مَمْلُوكَةً قِنَّةً أَوْ مُدَبَّرَةً أَوْ مُكَاتَبَةً أَوْ أُمَّ وَلَدٍ أَوْ مُسْتَسْعَاةً مُسْلِمَةً أَوْ كِتَابِيَّةً كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ.

وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ عَنْ طَلَاقٍ أَوْ وَفَاةٍ أَوْ مُتَارَكَةٍ أَوْ وَطْءٍ بِشُبْهَةٍ كَذَا فِي النَّهْرِ الْفَائِقِ. وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ الْحَمْلُ ثَابِتَ النَّسَبِ أَمْ لَا وَيُتَصَوَّرُ ذَلِكَ فِيمَنْ تَزَوَّجَ حَامِلًا بِالزِّنَا كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ.

 

[7] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Talāq, Bab al-Iddat, vol 5 p. 247-248

فَصْلٌ فِي ثُبُوتِ النَّسَبِ

(غَابَ عَنْ امْرَأَتِهِ فَتَزَوَّجَتْ بِآخَرَ وَوَلَدَتْ أَوْلَادًا) ثُمَّ جَاءَ الزَّوْجُ الْأَوَّلُ (فَالْأَوْلَادُ لِلثَّانِي عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ) الَّذِي رَجَعَ إلَيْهِ الْإِمَامُ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى كَمَا فِي الْخَانِيَّةِ وَالْجَوْهَرَةِ وَالْكَافِي وَغَيْرِهَا. وَفِي حَاشِيَةِ شَرْحِ الْمَنَارِ لِابْنِ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ. وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى إنْ احْتَمَلَهُ الْحَالُ، لَكِنْ فِي آخِرِ دَعْوَى الْجَمْعِ حَكَى أَرْبَعَةَ أَقْوَالٍ ثُمَّ أَفْتَى بِمَا اعْتَمَدَهُ الْمُصَنِّفُ، وَعَلَّلَهُ ابْنُ مَالِكٍ بِأَنَّهُ الْمُسْتَفْرِشُ حَقِيقَةً، فَالْوَلَدُ لِلْفِرَاشِ الْحَقِيقِيِّ وَإِنْ كَانَ فَاسِدًا وَتَمَامُهُ فِيهِ فَرَاجِعْهُ.

(قَوْلُهُ: غَابَ عَنْ امْرَأَتِهِ إلَخْ) شَامِلٌ لِمَا إذَا بَلَغَهَا مَوْتُهُ أَوْ طَلَاقُهُ فَاعْتَدَّتْ وَتَزَوَّجَتْ ثُمَّ بَانَ خِلَافُهُ، وَلِمَا إذَا ادَّعَتْ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ بَانَ خِلَافُهُ اهـ ح. (قَوْلُهُ: وَفِي حَاشِيَةِ شَرْحِ الْمَنَارِ إلَخْ) قَالَ الشَّارِحُ فِي شَرْحِهِ عَلَى الْمَنَارِ: لَكِنَّ الصَّحِيحَ مَا أَوْرَدَهُ الْجُرْجَانِيُّ أَنَّ الْأَوْلَادَ مِنْ الثَّانِي إنْ احْتَمَلَهُ الْحَالُ، وَأَنَّ الْإِمَامَ رَجَعَ إلَى هَذَا الْقَوْلِ، وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى كَمَا فِي حَاشِيَةِ ابْنِ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ عَنْ [الْوَاقِعَاتِ وَالْأَسْرَارِ] وَنَقَلَهُ ابْنُ نُجَيْمٍ عَنْ الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ اهـ وَاحْتِمَالُ الْحَالِ بِأَنْ تَلِدَهُ لِسِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَأَكْثَرَ مِنْ وَقْتِ النِّكَاحِ. (قَوْلُهُ: حَكَى أَرْبَعَةَ أَقْوَالٍ) حَاصِلُ عِبَارَتِهِ مَعَ شَرْحِهِ لِابْنِ مَالِكٍ أَنَّ الْأَوْلَادَ لِلْأَوَّلِ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ مُطْلَقًا: أَيْ سَوَاءٌ أَتَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ، أَوْ لَا، لِأَنَّ نِكَاحَ الْأُولَى صَحِيحٌ فَاعْتِبَارُهُ أَوْلَى. وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لِلثَّانِي وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى لِأَنَّ الْوَلَدَ لِلْفِرَاشِ الْحَقِيقِيِّ وَإِنْ كَانَ فَاسِدًا. وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ لِلْأَوَّلِ إنْ أَتَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ مِنْ عَقْدِ الثَّانِي لِتَيَقُّنِ الْعُلُوقِ مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ، وَإِنْ لِأَكْثَرَ فَلِلثَّانِي. وَعِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ لِلْأَوَّلِ إنْ كَانَ بَيْنَ وَطْءِ الثَّانِي وَالْوِلَادَةِ أَقَلُّ مِنْ سَنَتَيْنِ، فَلَوْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُمَا فَلِلثَّانِي لِتَيَقُّنِ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ، وَالنِّكَاحُ الصَّحِيحُ مَعَ احْتِمَالِ الْعُلُوقِ مِنْهُ أَوْلَى بِالِاعْتِبَارِ، وَإِنَّمَا وَضْعُ الْمَسْأَلَةِ فِي الْوَلَدِ إذْ الْمَرْأَةُ تُرَدُّ إلَى الْأَوَّلِ إجْمَاعًا. اهـ.

قُلْت: وَظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّهُ عَلَى الْمُفْتَى بِهِ يَكُونُ الْوَلَدُ لِلثَّانِي مُطْلَقًا وَإِنْ جَاءَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ مِنْ وَقْتِ الْعَقْدِ كَمَا يَدُلُّ عَلَيْهِ ذِكْرُ الْإِطْلَاقِ قَبْلَهُ، وَالِاقْتِصَارُ عَلَى التَّفْصِيلِ بَعْدَهُ، وَهَذَا خِلَافُ مَا قَالَهُ ابْنُ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ، وَهَذَا وَجْهُ الِاسْتِدْرَاكِ لَكِنْ لَا يَخْفَى مَا فِيهِ، فَقَدْ ذَكَرْنَا قَرِيبًا أَنَّ الْمَنْكُوحَةَ لَوْ وَلَدَتْ لِدُونِ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ نَسَبُهُ مِنْ زَوْجٍ وَيَفْسُدُ النِّكَاحُ أَيْ لِأَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ تَصَوُّرِ الْعُلُوقِ مِنْهُ وَفِيمَا دُونَ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ لَا يُتَصَوَّرُ ذَلِكَ، وَهَذَا إذَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ بِأَنَّ لَهَا زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ فَكَيْفَ إذَا ظَهَرَ زَوْجٌ غَيْرُهُ فَلَا شَكَّ فِي عَدَمِ ثُبُوتِهِ مِنْ الثَّانِي، وَلِهَذَا قَالَ فِي شَرْحِ دُرَرِ الْبِحَارِ: إنَّ هَذَا مُشْكِلٌ فِيمَا إذَا أَتَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ مُذْ تَزَوَّجَهَا. اهـ.

وَالْحَقُّ أَنَّ الْإِطْلَاقَ غَيْرُ مُرَادٍ وَأَنَّ الصَّوَابَ مَا نَقَلَهُ ابْنُ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ، وَبِهِ يَظْهَرُ أَنَّ هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةَ عَنْ الْإِمَامِ الْمُفْتَى بِهَا هِيَ الَّتِي أَخَذَ بِهَا أَبُو يُوسُفَ، وَأَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ تَقْيِيدِ كَلَامِ الْمُصَنِّفِ وَالْمَجْمَعِ بِمَا نَقَلَهُ ابْنُ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ، وَأَنَّهُ لَا وَجْهَ لِلِاسْتِدْرَاكِ. عَلَيْهِ بِمَا فِي الْمَجْمَعِ، وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

 

Does a Menstruating Female Traveller Pray Full Salāh or Qasr?

Does a Menstruating Female Traveller Pray Full Salāh or Qasr?

 31st December 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: A menstruating woman travels to a destination of more than 48 miles and intends to stay there for less than 15 days. She will be staying for 10 days only and during that time she will become clean from her periods. She will return home after 3-4 days since her purity. Must she shorten her Salāh as Qasr or pray the full Salāh for those remaining days before returning home?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

The case in question is quite complex as the Hanafi scholars have differed regarding this issue. The current position we adopt is that the menstruating woman in the aforesaid case must pray Qasr after becoming clean, the reason for which will be discussed below. However, we will first explore the reason for the differences between the Hanafi scholars so to remove any potential confusion on this matter. A simple rule to understand is that in the Shariah, a person becomes a Shar’ee traveller if they make the intention of travelling more than 48 miles and staying at their destination for less than 15 days. Such intention must be deemed valid otherwise they will not be considered a Shar’ee traveller and the concessions of travelling will not apply. There are overall two opinions regarding your issue;

 

1) A menstruating woman in question must read the full Salāh after becoming clean and cannot read Qasr. This is the main stream view of the Hanafi scholars including Ibn Abideen Shami rahimahullah, Allama Badruddeen al-Ayni rahimahullah, Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanvi rahimahullah, Mufti Rasheed Ahmad Ludhyanvi rahimahullah and Mufti Mahmood al-Hasan Gangohi rahimahullah.[1] Ibn Abideen Shami rahimahullah clarifies this rulings by stating that if a woman starts her journey whilst she is menstruating and then upon reaching her destination, she becomes clean or she travels for three days (in the earlier times they would measure distances by days so three days journey was the safr distance) and becomes clean for the rest of the two days journey then she must read the full Salāh and not Qasr. This is because as he states that nothing of her intention counts during her menses period.[2]

 

2) The second position is that a menstruating woman who intends a journey of 48 Shar’ee miles will be considered a Shar’ee traveller and will read Qasr upon becoming pure on her journey (or at her destination of less than 15 days).[3] This is a minority opinion but arguably the most convenient position as well. Amongst those who maintain this view include Allamah Shurunbulali rahimahullah and Burhan al-Din Ibn Mazah rahimahullah.

 

The reason for the underlying differences between the scholars is based on whether her intention is considered valid or not during her menses. The classical position is that a menstruating woman’s intention is not valid because Salāh is not obligatory on her so she is not a Shar’ee traveller. They equate her intention with a minor child as an analogy whose intention is not considered valid. For instance, if a child travels 48 miles from his home and during the journey reaches puberty then he must read the full Salāh because he did not have a valid intention in the first place. Similarly with a menstruating woman. This is different from a non-Muslim adult who started his journey of more than 48 miles and during this journey he accepts Islām, then he will pray Qasr. This is because a non-Muslim adult’s intention is considered to be valid and hence becomes a Shar’ee traveller.[4]

 

The scholars of the second position disagree with equating a menstruating woman’s intention to that of a minor child’s inability of intention but instead equate her to a non-Muslim adult’s intention before Islām. The difference between the two is that a child is not fully mukallaf and mukhatab (responsible and addressed to comply with rules of the Shariah and Allāh’s laws) due to their minor age whereas a menstruating woman is legally responsible in certain aspect of the Shariah (like for instance committing a crime etc). They argue that a non-Muslim adult not being able to pray due to his disbelief does not invalidate his intention. Likewise, a menstruating woman not being able to pray due to impurity does not necessarily invalidate her intention of travelling either.[5] One can also argue that a minor child and a menstruating woman are not analogous in intention because a menstruating woman is balighah whereas as a minor child is not, so their respective rulings will be different.

 

Some have also argued that travelling itself is not an act of worship so their intentions are not the same as that of Ibadah. In Ibadah, a menstruating woman’s intention is invalid due to impurity, but not the intention of travelling itself as purity is not essential for that. The classical jurists of the first opinion have refuted the reasoning of the this second position stating that a menstruating woman cannot be equated to a non-Muslim traveller. For a non-Muslim, his kufr is a major impediment which is his voluntary action and can be removed through his Islām whereas menstruation is involuntary that cannot be removed at her own accord.[6] She is therefore similar to a minor child’s intention as his sexual maturity (bulugh) is involuntary.

 

One notices the complexity of the issue on the account of the different reasons postulated by the Hanafi jurists. Both opinions are correct in their own respect and are based on plausible reasons and analogies. However, due to convenience, we are more inclined towards the opinion that the menstruating woman in question must perform Qasr upon becoming pure from her menstruation during her travel. This is also the position of our senior teacher, Shaykh Mufti Shabbir Ahmed Patel Sahib.[7] If she chooses to adopt the first position as in to read the full Salāh as a precaution then she may do so. What is necessary is to remain consistent in following one position only and not to arbitrarily switch between positions.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam      

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Allamah Badr al-Din al-Ayni, Al Binayah Sharhul Hidaya, Kitabus Salah, Vol 3, Pg 279

ولو طهرت الحائض في السفر، وبينهما وبين المقصد أقل من مسيرة سفر تتم، هو الصحيح

 

Mufti Mahmood Ganghohi, Fatwa Mahmoodiya, Kitaab Al Salah, Baab al salatul Musafir, Vol 7, Pg 502

حالت سفر میں حیض اور بہشتی زیور کی عبارت کی وضاحت

 

Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad Al Ludhyanvi, Ahsanul Fatawa, Kitaab Al Salah, Baab al salatul Musafir Vol 4, Pg 87

عورت سفر  میں وطن کے قریب جاکر  پاک ہوئی تو پوری نماز پڑھے

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb Ma Yufsidu Alsalaah…, vol 2 p. 135

طَهُرَتْ الْحَائِضُ وَبَقِيَ لِمَقْصِدِهَا يَوْمَانِ تُتِمُّ فِي الصَّحِيحِ كَصَبِيٍّ بَلَغَ بِخِلَافِ كَافِرٍ أَسْلَمَ.

(قَوْلُهُ تُتِمُّ فِي الصَّحِيحِ) كَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ. قَالَ ط وَكَأَنَّهُ لِسُقُوطِ الصَّلَاةِ عَنْهَا فِيمَا مَضَى لَمْ يُعْتَبَرْ حُكْمُ السَّفَرِ فِيهِ فَلَمَّا تَأَهَّلَتْ لِلْأَدَاءِ اُعْتُبِرَ مِنْ وَقْتِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ كَصَبِيٍّ بَلَغَ) أَيْ فِي أَثْنَاءِ الطَّرِيقِ وَقَدْ بَقِيَ لِمَقْصِدِهِ أَقَلُّ مِنْ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فَإِنَّهُ يُتِمُّ وَلَا يُعْتَبَرُ مَا مَضَى لِعَدَمِ تَكْلِيفِهِ فِيهِ ط (قَوْلُهُ بِخِلَافِ كَافِرٍ أَسْلَمَ) أَيْ فَإِنَّهُ يَقْصُرُ

قَالَ فِي الدُّرَرِ لِأَنَّ نِيَّتَهُ مُعْتَبَرَةٌ فَكَانَ مُسَافِرًا مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ بِخِلَافِ الصَّبِيِّ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَقْتِ يَكُونُ مُسَافِرًا، وَقِيلَ يُتِمَّانِ، وَقِيلَ يَقْصُرَانِ. اهـ. وَالْمُخْتَارُ الْأَوَّلُ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ وَغَيْرِهِ عَنْ الْخُلَاصَةِ.

قَالَ فِي الشُّرُنْبُلَالِيَّةِ: وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ الْحَائِضَ لَا تَنْزِلُ عَنْ رُتْبَةِ الَّذِي أَسْلَمَ فَكَانَ حَقُّهَا الْقَصْرَ مِثْلَهُ. اهـ.

وَأَجَابَ فِي نَهْجِ النَّجَاةِ بِأَنَّ مَانِعَهَا سَمَاوِيٌّ بِخِلَافِهِ اهـ أَيْ وَإِنْ كَانَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ النِّيَّةِ بِخِلَافِ الصَّبِيِّ، لَكِنْ مَنَعَهَا مِنْ الصَّلَاةِ مَا لَيْسَ بِصُنْعِهَا فَلَغَتْ نِيَّتُهَا مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ، بِخِلَافِ الْكَافِرِ فَإِنَّهُ قَادِرٌ عَلَى إزَالَةِ الْمَانِعِ مِنْ الِابْتِدَاءِ فَصَحَّتْ نِيَّتُهُ

 

As a side note, if a menstruating woman becomes pure during her journey and the remaining distance between her and her destination since her purity is more than 48 miles then she will read Qasr according to everyone.

 

[3] Imam Abu’l Ikhlas, Al-Shurunbulali, Hashiya al-Durar, Kitabul Salah, Baabul Musafir, Vol 1, Pg 132

وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ الْحَائِضَ لَا تَنْزِلُ عَنْ رُتْبَةِ الَّذِي أَسْلَمَ فَكَانَ حَقُّهَا الْقَصْرَ مِثْلَهُ.

 

Burhan al din Ibn Mazah, Al Muhit Al Burhani, Kitabul Salah, Vol 2, Pg 40

والرابعة: الحائض إذا طهرت في هذا الوقت.

والخامسة: الطاهرة إذا حاضت في هذا الوقت، وإذا كان مسافرا في أول الوقت، وصلى صلاة السفر ثم أقام في الوقت لا يتغير فرضه، وإن لم يصل حتى أقام في آخر الوقت ينقلب فرضه أربعا، وإن لم يبق من الوقت إلا قدر ما يسع بعض الصلاة.

وإذا أسلم الكافر في سفره وبينه وبين المقصد أقل من ثلاثة أيام أو إذا أدرك الصبي (٩٧أ١) في سفره وبينه وبين المقصد أقل من ثلاثة أيام، فقد اختلف المشايخ فيه بعضهم قالوا: الذي أسلم يصلي ركعتين فالذي بلغ يصلي أربعا وقال بعضهم: يصليان ركعتين.

وفي «متفرقات الفقيه أبي جعفر» : فإنهما يصليان أربعا؛ لأنهما لم يكونا مخاطبين؛

فلا يقصران الصلاة، وأما الحائض إذا طهرت في بعض الطريق قصرت الصلاة؛ لأنها مخاطبة.

وفي «الحاوي» : سئل عن صبي خرج من نوركارايريد بخارى، فلما بلغ كرمة بلغ، قال: يصلي ركعتين إلى بخارى، وكذلك الكافر إذا أسلم فأما الحائض إذا طهرت من حيضها تصلي أربعا إلى بخارى.

 

[4] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb Ma Yufsidu Alsalaah…, vol 2 p. 135

 

[5] Burhan al din Ibn Mazah, Al Muhit Al Burhani, Kitabul Salah, Vol 2, Pg 40

 

[6] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb Ma Yufsidu Alsalaah…, vol 2 p. 135

[7] See  Menstruating woman travelling and Salāh, (2019) Fatwa: https://islamicportal.co.uk/menstruating-women-travelling-and-salah/ [accessed 31st December 2021]