Menopausal Woman Seeing Blood

Menopausal Woman Seeing Blood

1st June 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If a woman who has reached above the age of fifty and her menses bleeding has stopped for some time, is this considered menopause? She however sees bleeding after a long time but on and off but no regular pattern. Is this bleeding be classed as periods? Finally, is it possible for menstrual bleeding to return during menopause. Kindly provide a detailed answer on the subject

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to the above question, a menopausal woman seeing blood after a long time without any fixed days would usually not be classed as menstruation.[1] The Hanafi jurists have differed as to the exact age that a woman reaches menopause. The age varies between 55-60 and the general fatwa is given on this although there is a view of 50 as well.[2] So in your case, if after the age of 50 her bleeding stopped completely but now experiences unexpected bleeding after many years that is on and off without a fixed habit then this will not be classed as menstruation, as her bleeding had ceased previously.[3]  However. a menopausal woman who experiences bleeding is however a cause for concern and can only occur due to a number of circumstances;

  • Polyps- Growths that develop from the tissue lining the uterus, they may cause both irregular and heavy bleeding.
  • Endrometrial Atrophy- The endrometrium is the inner lining of the uterus, after menopause the lining becomes weaker and thinner as a result of the low hormone levels, this may further cause bleeding.
  • Endrometrial Hyperplasia- Here the uterus lining thickens causing the bleeding. However, in severe cases atypical hyperplasia can occur which the cells lining the uterus become abnormal causing endrometrial cancer. [4]

 

It is advisable for a menopausal woman to consult a medical professional on this matter.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Gul-e-Maryam         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Mabsoot Sarakhsi, Kitab Haidh, Vol 3, Pg 150

وكان محمد بن مقاتل الرازي – رحمه الله تعالى – يقول: هذا إذا لم يحكم بإياسها أما إذا انقطع عنها الدم زمانا حتى حكم بإياسها، وكانت بنت تسعين سنة أو نحو ذلك فرأت الدم بعد ذلك لم يكن حيضا، وكان محمد بن إبراهيم الميداني – رحمه الله تعالى – يقول: إن رأت دما سائلا كما تراه في زمان حيضها، فهو حيض، وإن رأت بلة يسيرة لم يكن ذلك حيضا بل ذلك بلل من فم الرحم فكان فاسدا لا يتعلق به حكم الحيض فهذا بيان أنواع الدماء الفاسدة.

 

[2] Ikhtiyaar Li Ta’leel Mukhtar, Kitab Talaq,Vol 3, Pg 176

واختلف أصحابنا في حد الإياس، قال بعضهم: يعتبر بأقرانها من قرابتها، وقيل يعتبر بتركيبها لأنه يختلف بالسمن والهزال. وعن محمد أنه قدره بستين سنة. وعنه في الروميات بخمس وخمسين، وفي المولدات ستين، وقيل خمسين سنة، والفتوى على خمس وخمسين من غير فصل وهو رواية الحسن عن أبي حنيفة، وعنه أيضا ما بين خمس وخمسين إلى ستين.

 

[3] Muheet Al Burbani,Kitab Haidh , Vol 1, Pg 212

وتفسير الآيسة على هذه الرواية أن تبلغ من السن ما لا يحيض مثلها، فإذا بلغت هذا المبلغ وانقطع دمها يحكم بإياسها. فإن رأت بعد ذلك دما فلا يكون حيضا على هذه الرواية و

 

[4] See https://m.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Perimenopausal-Bleeding-and-Bleeding-After-Menopause

Can Men Braid their Hair like a Ponytail?

Can Men Braid their Hair like a Ponytail?

26th May 2021

 

Question: I wanted to know is it haram for a man to Tie their hair, or can they tie it in a non-feminine way an example would be just to tie the top of the hair or even use a hairband?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

As a general rule there is no harm for men to tie their long hair, that does not exceed the shoulder length, in a manner that does not resemble females using a band at the center or the top behind the head. It is not a problem either to use a hairband for males to keep their hairs kempt and not untidy. It is reported from Sayyidah Umme Hani radhiyallahu anha that on the day of conquest, the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam entered Makkah with his hair braided into four plats. Some have given the reason that he did this due to being preoccupied in traveling.[1] Whatever the reason being, plaiting one’s hair in a non-feminine manner is permissible. It is only forbidden during Salāh as the Hadeeth mentions that it is a place where the Shaytan sits during one’s Salāh.

It is reported that a man once saw Sayyiduna Abu Rafi’ radhiyallahu anhu passing by Sayyiduna Hasan ibn Ali radhiyallahu anhu standing in Salāh with his hair plaited behind his head.  Sayyiduna Abu Rafi’ radhiyallahu anhu upon seeing it untied there and then. Sayyiduna Hasan immediately turned around angrily so Sayyiduna Abu Rafi’ radhiyallahu anhu said, “Turn to your Salāh and do not be angry for I heard the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam say, ‘this is the seating place of Shaytan’ in other words at the root of his plaited hair.”[2]

It is also reported that Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas radhiyallahu anhu also did the same where he saw a man’s hair plaited whist standing in Salāh. He instantly untied it and said, “I heard the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam say that that ‘the likeness of this one is that of a man who prays with his hands tied (behind his back).’”[3] The Hadeeth therefore, as agreed by all of the scholars implies that it is disliked for a person to pray Salāh with his hair plaited in a manner where he ties his hair behind his head with a band.[4] The wisdom behind that as scholars state is that it allows all of the hair to prostrate before Allāh.[5]

Hence, you may tie your hair in a manner that doesn’t resemble women (or those of sinful people) as mentioned so to keep the hair kempt. But according to the Prophetic Hadeeth you must release it before Salāh.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Hajar, Fathul Bari, vol 10, p. 360

بَابُ التَّلْبِيدِ

وَمَا دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدِيثُ مِنْ كَوْنِ شَعْرِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ إِلَى قُرْبِ مَنْكِبَيْهِ كَانَ غَالِبَ أَحْوَالِهِ وَكَانَ رُبَّمَا طَالَ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ ذُؤَابَةً وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنْهُ عَقَائِصَ وَضَفَائِرَ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ بِسَنَدٍ حَسَنٍ مِنْ حَدِيثِ أُمِّ هَانِئٍ قَالَتْ قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَكَّةَ وَلَهُ أَرْبَعُ غَدَائِرَ وَفِي لَفْظٍ أَرْبَعُ ضَفَائِرَ وَفِي رِوَايَة بن مَاجَهْ أَرْبَعُ غَدَائِرَ يَعْنِي ضَفَائِرَ وَالْغَدَائِرُ بِالْغَيْنِ الْمُعْجَمَةِ جَمْعُ غَدِيرَةٍ بِوَزْنِ عَظِيمَةٍ وَالضَّفَائِرُ بِوَزْنِهِ فَالْغَدَائِرُ هِيَ الذَّوَائِبُ وَالضَّفَائِرُ هِيَ الْعَقَائِصُ فَحَاصِلُ الْخَبَرِ أَنَّ شَعْرَهُ طَالَ حَتَّى صَارَ ذَوَائِبَ فَضَفَّرَهُ أَرْبَعَ عَقَائِصَ وَهَذَا مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى الْحَالِ الَّتِي يَبْعُدُ عَهْدُهُ بِتَعَهُّدِهِ شَعْرَهُ فِيهَا وَهِيَ حَالَةُ الشُّغْلِ بِالسَّفَرِ وَنَحْوِهِ

 

[2] Abu Dawood No: 646

بَابُ الرَّجُلِ يُصَلِّي عَاقِصًا شَعْرَهُ

646 – حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، حَدَّثَنِي عِمْرَانُ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْمَقْبُرِيِّ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ رَأَى أَبَا رَافِعٍ مَوْلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَرَّ بِحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلَام وَهُوَ يُصَلِّي قَائِمًا وَقَدْ غَرَزَ ضَفْرَهُ فِي قَفَاهُ فَحَلَّهَا أَبُو رَافِعٍ، فَالْتَفَتَ حَسَنٌ إِلَيْهِ مُغْضَبًا فَقَالَ أَبُو رَافِعٍ: أَقْبِلْ عَلَى صَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تَغْضَبْ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «ذَلِكَ كِفْلُ الشَّيْطَانِ» يَعْنِي مَقْعَدَ الشَّيْطَانِ، يَعْنِي مَغْرَزَ ضَفْرِهِ

 

Tuhfadhul Ahwadhi vol 2, p. 325

بَاب مَا جَاءَ فِي كراهة كَفِّ الشَّعْرِ فِي الصَّلَاةِ

وَفِي رِوَايَةِ أبي داود وقد غرز ضفره أي لوى شَعْرَهُ وَأَدْخَلَ أَطْرَافَهُ فِي أُصُولِهِ وَالْمُرَادُ مِنَ الضَّفْرِ الْمَضْفُورُ مِنَ الشَّعْرِ وَأَصْلُ الضَّفْرِ الْفَتْلُ وَالضَّفِيرُ وَالضَّفَائِرُ هِيَ الْعَقَائِصُ الْمَضْفُورَةُ قَالَهُ الْخَطَّابِيُّ (فِي قَفَاهُ) الْقَفَا بِالْفَارِسِيَّةِ يس سر يُذَكَّرُ وَيُؤَنَّثُ (فَحَلَّهَا) أَيْ أَطْلَقَ ضَفَائِرَهُ الْمَغْرُوزَةَ فِي قفاه (مغضبا) بفتح الضاد (ذلك) أي الظفر الْمَغْرُوزَ (كِفْلُ الشَّيْطَانِ) بِكَسْرِ الْكَافِ وَسُكُونِ الْفَاءِ أَيْ مَوْضِعُ قُعُودِ الشَّيْطَانِ وَفِي رِوَايَةِ أَبِي دَاوُدَ ذَلِكَ كِفْلُ الشَّيْطَانِ يَعْنِي مَقْعَدَ الشَّيْطَانِ يَعْنِي مَغْرِزَ ضَفْرِهِ

 

[3] Umdatul Qari vol 6, p. 91

(بابُ السجُودِ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أعْظُمٍ)

وَقَالَ سَمِعت النَّبِي – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم َ – يَقُول ذَلِك كفل الشَّيْطَان أَو قَالَ مقْعد الشَّيْطَان يَعْنِي مغرز ضفيرته وَفِي الْمعرفَة روينَا فِي الحَدِيث الثَّابِت ” عَن ابْن عَبَّاس أَنه رأى عبد الله بن الْحَارِث يُصَلِّي وَرَأسه معقوص من وَرَائه فَقَامَ وَرَاءه فَجعل يحله وَقَالَ سَمِعت النَّبِي – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم َ – إِنَّمَا مثل هَذَا كَمثل الَّذِي يُصَلِّي وَهُوَ مكتوف

[4] Umdatul Qari vol 6, p. 91

(بابُ السجُودِ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أعْظُمٍ)

فَدلَّ الحَدِيث على كَرَاهَة الصَّلَاة وَهُوَ معقوص الشّعْر وَلَو عقصه وَهُوَ فِي الصَّلَاة فَسدتْ صلَاته والعقص أَن يجمع شعره على وسط رَأسه ويشده بخيط أَو بصمغ ليتلبد وَافق الْجُمْهُور من الْعلمَاء أَن النَّهْي لكل من يُصَلِّي كَذَلِك سَوَاء تَعَمّده للصَّلَاة أَو كَانَ كَذَلِك قبلهَا لِمَعْنى آخر وَقَالَ مَالك النَّهْي لمن فعل ذَلِك للصَّلَاة وَالصَّحِيح الأول لإِطْلَاق الْأَحَادِيث. قيل الْحِكْمَة فِي هَذَا النَّهْي عَنهُ أَن الشّعْر يسْجد مَعَه وَلِهَذَا مثله بِالَّذِي يُصَلِّي وَهُوَ مكتوف وَقَالَ ابْن عمر رَضِي الله تَعَالَى عَنْهُمَا لرجل رَآهُ يسْجد وَهُوَ معقوص الشّعْر أرْسلهُ يسْجد مَعَك.

 

[5] Tuhfadhul Ahwadhi vol 2, p. 325

بَاب مَا جَاءَ فِي كراهة كَفِّ الشَّعْرِ فِي الصَّلَاةِ

وَإِنَّمَا أَمَرَهُ بِإِرْسَالِ الشَّعْرِ لِيَسْقُطَ عَلَى الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي فِيهِ صَاحِبُهُ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ فَيَسْجُدَ مَعَهُ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْهُ أَيْضًا عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَسْجُدَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ آرَابٍ وَأَنْ لَا أَكُفَّ شَعْرًا وَلَا ثَوْبًا انْتَهَى

 

Is Keeping a Dog Allowed in Islām?

Is Keeping a Dog Allowed in Islām?

19th May 2021

 

Question: I am aware we can keep dogs only as guard dogs only, but can you explain for me as to why we (as Muslims) cannot keep them as pets inside the house, and if it’s haram? If you can provide me with an informative explanation which contains authentic evidence from Quran and/or Hadith on the permissibility of keeping dogs as pets inside the home?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, there are numerous Ahādeeth forbidding a Muslim from keeping dog without an excuse. Keeping a dog results in a person being removed from Allāh’s mercy, the angels of mercy not entering such houses with a dog and deduction in one’s good deeds. Valid excuses that permit a Muslim keeping a dog as you have indicated include a dog to protect one’s house (only if there is a likelihood chance of robbery through past experience), guarding cattle or farm, shepherd dog (for a shepherd that is) or hunting. In this day and age, a guide dog for a blind person would also fall under this exemption.

The Ahadeeth are as follows;

  1. Sayyidunā Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Whoever keeps a dog then one qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily, unless the dog is used for guarding farm or cattle.” Abu Huraira (in another narration) said: the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “….unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting.” Abu Huraira also added: The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting.”[1]
  2. Sayyidunā Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “Whoever keeps a dog that is not a dog for hunting, herding livestock or farming, two qirats will be deducted from his reward each day.”[2]
  3. Sayyidunā ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “The angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or an (animated) image.”[3]

The exact quantity of qirat rests with Almighty Allāh although some scholars have attempted in quantifying it.[4] What is concerning here that keeping a dog without any of the aforementioned valid excuses reduces one’s good deeds every day despite all of their hard efforts exerted in performing them. One notices the variant versions in the amount of deduction; one says one qirat and other says two qirat. Hadeeth commentators such is Imām Nawwawi rahimahullah explained a number of possible reasons for this;

  1. Its severity is perhaps relative to the location itself e.g. a dog owner residing in Madinah cause two qirats worth of deeds being deducted compared to other locations or, one living in the inner city then his deeds are deducted more compared to a villager.
  2. It could relate to time itself, which means that initially it was one qirat and then its severity increased later on (hence nothing to do with location).
  3. It is possible that this refers to one qirat deducting during the day and one during the night or one qirat of fardh deeds and one qirat of optional deeds.[5]

Imām Nawwawi rahimahullah further on explains the possible reasons why a believer’s deeds are deducted for instance, due to preventing angles from entering the house, the dog causing harm to a passer-by by frightening them or even chasing them, taking that which Allāh Almighty has forbidden him to do or could be the owner being negligent of not washing its saliva.[6]

The prohibition lies in keeping a dog without a valid reason otherwise a Muslim keeping a dog due to any of the above reasons does not fall under this prohibition and neither would his deeds be deducted hopefully. The Hadeeth however does not specify keeping a dog to protect one’s home (from thief for instance) which begs the question whether or not this also fall under such exemption? Imām Nawwawi rahimahullah states that there are two opinion; one is that it is prohibited and the second opinion which is the soundest opinion that it is permissible due to necessity by applying the similar underlying reason of the other exemptions.[7] Ibn Abideen Shāmi rahimahullah, a Hanafi jurist also maintains the permissibility of keeping a dog to guards one’s home from a thief similar to guarding one’s cattle, land, farm etc. He however adds that the dog should not be kept inside the house unless it is necessary (and the only last option).[8]

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Bukhari, No. 2322

بَابُ اقْتِنَاءِ الكَلْبِ لِلْحَرْثِ

حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ فَضَالَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ أَمْسَكَ كَلْبًا، فَإِنَّهُ يَنْقُصُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ قِيرَاطٌ، إِلَّا كَلْبَ حَرْثٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ»، قَالَ ابْنُ سِيرِينَ، وَأَبُو صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِلَّا كَلْبَ غَنَمٍ أَوْ حَرْثٍ أَوْ صَيْدٍ»، وَقَالَ أَبُو حَازِمٍ: عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «كَلْبَ صَيْدٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ»

 

[2] Muslim, No. 1575

بَابُ الْأَمْرِ بِقَتْلِ الْكِلَابِ، وَبَيَانِ نَسْخِهِ، وَبَيَانِ تَحْرِيمِ اقْتِنَائِهَا إِلَّا لِصَيْدٍ، أَوْ زَرْعٍ، أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ

وحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الطَّاهِرِ، وَحَرْمَلَةُ، قَالَا: أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيِّبِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنِ اقْتَنَى كَلْبًا، لَيْسَ بِكَلْبِ صَيْدٍ، وَلَا مَاشِيَةٍ، وَلَا أَرْضٍ، فَإِنَّهُ يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ قِيرَاطَانِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ»، وَلَيْسَ فِي حَدِيثِ أَبِي الطَّاهِرِ: وَلَا أَرْضٍ

 

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ يَعْنِي ابْنَ زِيَادٍ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سُمَيْعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو رَزِينٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، يَقُولُ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنِ اتَّخَذَ كَلْبًا، لَيْسَ بِكَلْبِ صَيْدٍ، وَلَا غَنَمٍ، نَقَصَ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قِيرَاطٌ»

 

Abu Dawood, No. 2844

بَابٌ فِي اتِّخَاذِ الْكَلْبِ لِلصَّيْدِ وَغَيْرِهِ

حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنِ اتَّخَذَ كَلْبًا إِلَّا كَلْبَ مَاشِيَةٍ أَوْ صَيْدٍ أَوْ زَرْعٍ انْتَقَصَ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قِيرَاطٌ»

 

 

[3] Ibn Majah, No. 3649

بَابُ الصُّوَرِ فِي الْبَيْتِ

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «لَا تَدْخُلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ بَيْتًا فِيهِ كَلْبٌ، وَلَا صُورَةٌ»

 

[4] Mirqat mafateeh, Sharh Mishkat vol 7, p. 2660

بَابُ اقْتِنَاءِ الْكَلْبِ لِلْحَرْثِ

فَذَكَرَ الْقِيرَاطَ أَوَّلًا ثُمَّ زَادَ لِلتَّغْلِيظِ، فَذِكْرُ الْقِيرَاطَيْنِ وَالْقِيرَاطِ هُنَا مِقْدَارٌ مَعْلُومٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، وَالْمُرَادُ نَقْصُ جُزْءٍ مِنْ أَجْزَاءِ عَمَلِهِ اهـ. وَهُوَ فِي الْأَصْلِ نِصْفُ دَانِقٍ وَهُوَ سُدُسُ الدِّرْهَمِ، وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

 

[5] Sharhu Nawawwi vol 10, pp. 239

وَأَمَّا اخْتِلَافُ الرِّوَايَةِ فِي قِيرَاطٍ وَقِيرَاطَيْنِ فَقِيلَ يُحْتَمَلُ أَنَّهُ فِي نَوْعَيْنِ مِنَ الْكِلَابِ أَحَدُهُمَا أَشَدُّ أَذًى مِنَ الْآخَرِ وَلِمَعْنًى فِيهِمَا أَوْ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ مُخْتَلِفًا بِاخْتِلَافِ الْمَوَاضِعِ فَيَكُونُ الْقِيرَاطَانِ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ خَاصَّةً لِزِيَادَةِ فَضْلِهَا وَالْقِيرَاطُ فِي غَيْرِهَا أَوِ الْقِيرَاطَانِ فِي الْمَدَائِنِ وَنَحْوِهَا مِنَ الْقُرَى وَالْقِيرَاطُ فِي الْبَوَادِي أَوْ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِي زَمَنَيْنِ فَذَكَرَ الْقِيرَاطَ أَوَّلًا ثُمَّ زَادَ التَّغْلِيظَ فَذَكَرَ الْقِيرَاطَيْنِ قَالَ الرُّويَانِيُّ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا فِي كِتَابِهِ الْبَحْرِ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْمُرَادِ بِمَا يَنْقُصُ مِنْهُ فَقِيلَ يَنْقُصُ مِمَّا مَضَى مِنْ عَمَلِهِ وَقِيلَ مِنْ مُسْتَقْبَلِهِ قَالَ وَاخْتَلَفُوا فِي مَحَلِّ نَقْصِ الْقِيرَاطَيْنِ فَقِيلَ يَنْقُصُ قِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ النَّهَارِ وَقِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ اللَّيْلِ أَوْ قِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الْفَرْضِ وَقِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ النَّفْلِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

 

[6] Sharhu Nawawwi vol 10, pp. 239

وَاخْتَلَفَ الْعُلَمَاءُ فِي سَبَبِ نُقْصَانِ الْأَجْرِ بِاقْتِنَاءِ الْكَلْبِ فَقِيلَ لِامْتِنَاعِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ مِنْ دُخُولِ بَيْتِهِ بِسَبَبِهِ وَقِيلَ لِمَا يَلْحَقُ الْمَارِّينَ مِنَ الْأَذَى مِنْ تَرْوِيعِ الْكَلْبِ لَهُمْ وَقَصْدِهِ إِيَّاهُمْ وَقِيلَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عُقُوبَةٌ لَهُ لِاتِّخَاذِهِ مَا نُهِيَ عَنِ اتِّخَاذِهِ وَعِصْيَانِهِ فِي ذَلِكَ وَقِيلَ لِمَا يُبْتَلَى بِهِ مِنْ وُلُوغِهِ فِي غَفْلَةِ صَاحِبِهِ وَلَا يَغْسِلُهُ

 

 

[7] Sharhu Nawawwi vol 10, pp. 236

وَأَمَّا اقْتِنَاءُ الْكِلَابِ فَمَذْهَبُنَا أَنَّهُ يَحْرُمُ اقْتِنَاءُ الْكَلْبِ بِغَيْرِ حَاجَةٍ وَيَجُوزُ اقْتِنَاؤُهُ لِلصَّيْدِ وَلِلزَّرْعِ وَلِلْمَاشِيَةِ وَهَلْ يَجُوزُ لِحِفْظِ الدُّورِ وَالدُّرُوبِ وَنَحْوِهَا فِيهِ وَجْهَانِ أَحَدُهُمَا لَا يَجُوزُ لِظَوَاهِرِ الْأَحَادِيثِ فَإِنَّهَا مُصَرِّحَةٌ بِالنَّهْيِ إِلَّا لِزَرْعٍ أَوْ صَيْدٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ وَأَصَحُّهَا يَجُوزُ قِيَاسًا عَلَى الثَّلَاثَةِ عَمَلًا بِالْعِلَّةِ الْمَفْهُومَةِ مِنَ الْأَحَادِيثِ وَهِيَ الْحَاجَةُ

 

[8] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 5 p. 227

بَابُ الْمُتَفَرِّقَاتِ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا

مَطْلَبٌ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ

[فَرْعٌ] لَا يَنْبَغِي اتِّخَاذُ كَلْبٍ إلَّا لِخَوْفِ لِصٍّ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَمِثْلُهُ سَائِرُ السِّبَاعِ عَيْنِيٌّ وَجَازَ اقْتِنَاؤُهُ لِصَيْدٍ وَحِرَاسَةِ مَاشِيَةٍ وَزَرْعٍ إجْمَاعًا

(قَوْلُهُ لَا يَنْبَغِي اتِّخَاذُ كَلْبٍ إلَخْ) الْأَحْسَنُ عِبَارَةُ الْفَتْحِ، وَأَمَّا اقْتِنَاؤُهُ لِلصَّيْدِ وَحِرَاسَةِ الْمَاشِيَةِ وَالْبُيُوتِ وَالزَّرْعِ، فَيَجُوزُ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ لَكِنْ لَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَتَّخِذَهُ فِي دَارِهِ إلَّا إنْ خَافَ لُصُوصًا أَوْ أَعْدَاءً لِلْحَدِيثِ الصَّحِيحِ «مَنْ اقْتَنَى كَلْبًا إلَّا كَلْبَ صَيْدٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ نَقَصَ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قِيرَاطَانِ» ”

 

Eating Disorder and Fasting

Eating Disorder and Fasting

18th May 2021

 

Question: If someone has eating disorder then what is the ruling on fasting. If they eat during fasting, then is it both Qadha and Kaffarah or just Qadha?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

 

The question about eating disorder in relation to fasting depends on the nature as well as the severity of the disorder itself. Experts generally categorise eating disorder under mental health condition, a condition where a person uses food to cope with certain feelings and anxiety about their physical shape either by overeating or abstaining from eating altogether. This anxiety is caused by a number of reasons for instance, a family history of eating disorder but mostly worried about either being overweight or too slim, low self-esteem or obsessed with looks and perfectionism.[1]

Experts broadly categorise eating disorder into three main types;

  1. Anorexia nervosa – the individual trying to keep their weight as low as possible by eating very minimal, avoid eating and over exercising. This can potentially result in self-harm by losing a lot of weight.
  2. Bulimia – A person losing control over their eating habit by eating in large portions. Such individuals eat in excessive amounts and yet take drastic actions of purging food either by vomiting or using laxatives to control their weight.
  3. Binge – This is more or less similar to bulimia except that rather than trying to lose weight they gorge themselves in eating until they feel uncomfortably satiated. By binging, they end up gaining a lot of weight and end up feeling ashamed and depressed thereafter.[2]

Most eating disorder patients excessively worry about their physical appearance and avoid socialising with others. Many as a result end up falling into severe depression or anxiety disorder because of this. The most common symptoms experts diagnose include having strict yet unusual habits around food routine, eating alone or secretly (feeling uncomfortable eating around others), depression and self-guilt.[3] Ramadhān fast could potentially trigger anorexia patients with high risk of relapse by avoiding eating and may either skip iftar or suhur or eat very little. Those with bulimia or binge eating disorder, fasting may cause them to binging food during iftar or suhur time resulting in losing control over their eating.  There have been reported cases where binge eating has led many to becoming diabetic. Eating disorder patients are referred to special therapists who can help them manage their diet through CBT (cognitive behaviour therapy) treatment combined with a strict diet program and anti-depressant tablets if necessary. If it is a Muslim therapist then they can hopefully guide Muslim patients through their Ramadhān fast.[4] Managing ones eating disorder is sometimes possible and sometimes not depending on the individual’s ability and the duration of the suffering. Hence if fasting is not a problem for them, then they should fast whilst following the guided diet program of a reliable Muslim practitioner. If they struggle to fast then the following issues must be considered in order to be exempted from fasting from the Sharī῾ah perspective.

Firstly, whether the dispensation given to an ill person can apply to a mentally ill person with eating disorder or not and secondly, whilst fasting if the sudden urge of eating kicks in due to the overwhelming pressure necessitates both Qadha and Kaffarah or just Qadha. Regarding the first point, classical Hanafi jurists when discussing rulings on illness usually refer to the physical illness. Illness as the Hanafi jurists explain implies to bodily dysfunction or any change to one’s condition taking it out from its normal functional state )due to some acute pain(.[5] The general ruling is that if an ill person by fasting fears perishing or loss of limb or fasting would burden their health to the extent that it will either severely deteriorate them or delay in recovery because of the acute pain based on their personal experience or the advice of a (preferably) Muslim doctor then they are exempted from fasting.[6] Likewise a healthy person who fears that by fasting, they will most likely fall ill based on previous experience is also exempted from fasting according to the most authoritative position.[7] They are required to postpone their fasts as Qadha to a later date upon recovery but if they did fast and end up breaking it due to an illness then only Qadha is necessary but no Kaffarah. The condition is that the illness should be acutely enough where fasting is harmful to their health. Suffering from a minor illness where fasting is not detrimental to their health does not exempt them from fasting. [8]

Mental health unlike all other illnesses is internal that only a professionally trained doctor can diagnose. Certain forms of depressions can affect one’s physical health and even result in self-harm. The objective of the Sharī῾ah is to repel harm and not to burden its followers beyond their natural capacity. One aspect of illness the jurists discuss is the deficiency of the mind (نُقْصَانُ عَقْلٍ) like suffering a severe headache to the degree that weakens one’s actions.[9] Though mental condition is not the same as having a headache, it implies that the Sharī῾ah does consider internal illnesses as a valid excuse to not to fast especially if it weakens their health that affects their daily functioning. The underlying principle therefore is that if a specific mental condition is such that fasting deteriorates or weakens their health or takes them out of their normal functional state affecting their daily chores and activities, would fall under the category of an ill person who is excused from fasting until recovery.

Once this is clear then anorexia that weakens the body by losing a lot of weight combined with anxiety disorder is a form of harm to themselves. If fasting will most likely deteriorate their health and exacerbate their mental condition, then the concession of illness would apply to them which means that they can be excused from fasting by eating throughout the day to regain weight and recover. Those with bulimia and binge eating disorder then it all depends on the degree of harm they suffer physically and mentally as for them it is a about controlling their eating habit and eliminating the anxiety of their physical appearance. This now leads on to the second point of Qadha and Kaffarah. An anorexia patient as described above can be excused if fasting is harmful to them and make up for them as Qadha later on with no Kaffarah. Those with bulimia and binge eating disorder, then if they develop certain illnesses where fasting becomes harmful to their health or mentally overwhelmed to the degree that they become dysfunctional, lose control and unable to do their daily chores then they can be excused and make up for their fasts as Qadha later on upon recovery and if they break it then only Qadha is necessary, no Kaffarah. However, if with the help and the guidance of a Muslim practitioner’s therapeutic treatment and diet program, they can fast throughout Ramadhān without a problem, exercise control over their eating habit and able to cope with their anxiety then they must fast. If they intentionally break it then both Qadha and Kaffarah would be necessary.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Over view of Eating Disorder, NHS website;  https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/feelings-symptoms-behaviours/behaviours/eating-disorders/overview/ [accessed May 2021]

 

[2] Over view of Eating Disorder, NHS website;  https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/feelings-symptoms-behaviours/behaviours/eating-disorders/overview/ [accessed May 2021]

 

[3] Over view of Eating Disorder, NHS website;  https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/feelings-symptoms-behaviours/behaviours/eating-disorders/overview/ [accessed May 2021]

 

[4] Dr Vicki Mountford, How to manage your eating disorder during Ramadan. https://www.maudsleyhealth.com/blogs/how-to-manage-your-eating-disorder-during-ramadan/ [accessed May 2021], Over view of Eating Disorder, NHS website;  https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/feelings-symptoms-behaviours/behaviours/eating-disorders/overview/ [accessed May 2021] also see, Hala Abu Taha, FASTING DURING RAMADAN AND EATING DISORDERS: A COMBINATION THAT SHOULD BE AVOIDED. https://www.meeda.me/blog/fasting-during-ramadan-and-eating-disorders-a-combination-that-should-be-avoided/ [accessed May 2021]

 

[5] Ahmad Ibn Muammad Ibn Isma’il, Hashiyah Tahtawi, Kitab Sawm p. 684

فصل في العوارض

فيجوز “لمن خاف” وهو مريض “زيادة المرض” بكم أو كيف لو صام والمرض معنى يوجب تغير الطبيعة إلى الفساد

“والمرض معنى الخ” قال في القاموس المرض ظلام الطبيعة واضطرابها بعد صفائها واعتدالها اهـ ويقال في اسم الفاعل مارض ومرض ومريض

 

Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Kitab Sawm, vol 2 p. 567

المبحث السادس – الأعذار المبيحة للفطر

المرض: معنى يوجب تغير الطبيعة إلى الفساد،

[6] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Sawm, vol 3 p. 403-404

فَصْلٌ فِي الْعَوَارِضِ الْمُبِيحَةِ لِعَدَمِ الصَّوْمِ

(أَوْ مَرِيضٍ خَافَ الزِّيَادَةَ) لِمَرَضِهِ وَصَحِيحٍ خَافَ الْمَرَضَ، وَخَادِمَةٍ خَافَتْ الضَّعْفَ بِغَلَبَةِ الظَّنِّ بِأَمَارَةٍ أَوْ تَجْرِبَةٍ أَوْ بِأَخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ حَاذِقٍ مُسْلِمٍ مَسْتُورٍ وَأَفَادَ فِي النَّهْرَ تَبَعًا لِلْبَحْرِ جَوَازَ التَّطْبِيبَ بِالْكَافِرِ فِيمَا لَيْسَ فِيهِ إبْطَالُ عِبَادَةٍ.

(قَوْلُهُ خَافَ الزِّيَادَةَ) أَوْ إبْطَاءَ الْبُرْءِ أَوْ فَسَادَ عُضْوٍ بِحَرٍّ أَوْ وَجَعَ الْعَيْنِ أَوْ جِرَاحَةً أَوْ صُدَاعًا أَوْ غَيْرَهُ، وَمِثْلُهُ مَا إذَا كَانَ يُمَرِّضُ الْمَرْضَى

(قَوْلُهُ بِغَلَبَةِ الظَّنِّ) تُنَازِعُهُ خَافَ الَّذِي فِي الْمَتْنِ وَخَافَ وَخَافَتْ اللَّتَانِ فِي الشَّرْحِ ط (قَوْلُهُ بِأَمَارَةٍ) أَيْ عَلَامَةٍ (قَوْلُهُ أَوْ تَجْرِبَةٍ) وَلَوْ كَانَتْ مِنْ غَيْرِ الْمَرِيضِ عِنْدَ اتِّحَادِ الْمَرَضِ ط عَنْ أَبِي السُّعُودِ (قَوْلُهُ حَاذِقٍ) أَيْ لَهُ مَعْرِفَةٌ تَامَّةٌ فِي الطِّبِّ،

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitābus Sawm, vol 1, p. 227

[الْبَابُ الْخَامِسُ فِي الْأَعْذَارِ الَّتِي تُبِيحُ الْإِفْطَارَ]

(وَمِنْهَا الْمَرَضُ) الْمَرِيضُ إذَا خَافَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ التَّلَفَ أَوْ ذَهَابَ عُضْوٍ يُفْطِرُ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ، وَإِنْ خَافَ زِيَادَةَ الْعِلَّةِ وَامْتِدَادَهَا فَكَذَلِكَ عِنْدَنَا، وَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ إذَا أَفْطَرَ كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ. ثُمَّ مَعْرِفَةُ ذَلِكَ بِاجْتِهَادِ الْمَرِيضِ وَالِاجْتِهَادُ غَيْرُ مُجَرَّدِ الْوَهْمِ بَلْ هُوَ غَلَبَةُ ظَنٍّ عَنْ أَمَارَةٍ أَوْ تَجْرِبَةٍ أَوْ بِإِخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ مُسْلِمٍ غَيْرِ ظَاهِرِ الْفِسْقِ كَذَا فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ.

 

Ibn Humām, Fathul Qadeer, Kitāb Sawm, vol 2 p. 350

وَجْهُ قَوْلِنَا أَنَّ قَوْله تَعَالَى {فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ} [البقرة: 184] يُبِيحُ الْفِطْرَ لِكُلِّ مَرِيضٍ، لَكِنَّ الْقَطْعَ بِأَنَّ شَرْعِيَّةَ الْفِطْرِ لَهُ إنَّمَا هُوَ لِدَفْعِ الْحَرَجِ، وَتَحَقُّقُ الْحَرَجِ مَنُوطٌ بِزِيَادَةِ الْمَرَضِ أَوْ إبْطَاءِ الْبُرْءِ أَوْ فَسَادِ عُضْوٍ، ثُمَّ مَعْرِفَةُ ذَلِكَ بِاجْتِهَادِ الْمَرِيضِ، وَالِاجْتِهَادُ غَيْرُ مُجَرَّدِ الْوَهْمِ، بَلْ هُوَ غَلَبَةُ الظَّنِّ عَنْ أَمَارَةٍ أَوْ تَجْرِبَةٍ أَوْ بِإِخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ مُسْلِمٍ غَيْرِ ظَاهِرِ الْفِسْقِ،

 

[7] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitābus Sawm, vol 1, p. 227

وَالصَّحِيحُ الَّذِي يَخْشَى أَنْ يَمْرَضَ بِالصَّوْمِ فَهُوَ كَالْمَرِيضِ هَكَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ وَلَوْ كَانَ لَهُ نَوْبَةُ الْحُمَّى فَأَكَلَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَظْهَرَ الْحُمَّى لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ كَذَا فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ

 

Ahmad Ibn Muammad Ibn Isma’il, Hashiyah Tahtawi, Kitab Sawm p. 684

فصل في العوارض

أفاد أن الصحيح الذي غلب على ظنه المرض بصومه ليس له أن يفطر وأفاد السيد أن في ذلك خلافا فالزيلعي على إباحة الفطر له ولعلامة مسكين على عدمه وقد تبع فيه صاحب الذخيرة وجرى على إباحة الفطر في الدر وذكر في القهستاني أن الممرض ملحق بالمريض قوله

It is only according to the Shafi’ee and Hanbali fiqh that a healthy person must fast until they end up falling ill.

Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Kitab Sawm, vol 2 p. 567

المبحث السادس – الأعذار المبيحة للفطر

والصحيح الذي يخاف المرض أوالضعف بغلبة الظن بأمارة أو تجربة أو بإخبار طبيب حاذق مسلم مستور العدالة، كالمريض عند الحنفية. والصحيح الذي يظن الهلاك أو الأذى الشديد كالمريض عند المالكية.

وليس الصحيح كالمريض عند الشافعية والحنابلة.

[8] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Sawm, vol 2 p. 97

[فَصْلٌ حُكْمُ فَسَادِ الصَّوْمِ]

وَقَدْ بَيَّنَّا أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ الْمُرَادُ عَيْنَ الْمَرَضِ، فَإِنَّ الْمَرِيضَ الَّذِي لَا يَضُرُّهُ الصَّوْمُ لَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يُفْطِرَ فَكَانَ ذِكْرُ الْمَرَضِ كِنَايَةً عَنْ أَمْرٍ يَضُرُّ الصَّوْمُ مَعَهُ.

 

Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Kitab Sawm, vol 2 p. 567

وضابط المرض المبيح الفطر: هوالذي يشق معه الصوم مشقة شديدة أو يخاف الهلاك منه إن صام، أو يخاف بالصوم زيادة المرض أو بطء البرء أي تأخره فإن لم يتضرر الصائم بالصوم كمن به جرب أو وجع ضرس أو إصبع أو دمل ونحوه، لم يبح له الفطر.

 

[9] Ibn Humām, Fathul Qadeer, Kitāb Sawm, vol 2 p. 350

 

أَوْ نُقْصَانُ الْعَقْلِ، كَالْأَمَةِ إذَا ضَعُفَتْ عَنْ الْعَمَلِ وَخَشِيَتْ الْهَلَاكَ بِالصَّوْمِ، وَكَذَا الَّذِي ذَهَبَ بِهِ مُتَوَكِّلُ السُّلْطَانِ إلَى الْعِمَارَةِ فِي الْأَيَّامِ الْحَارَّةِ، وَالْعَمَلُ الْحَثِيثُ إذَا خُشِيَ الْهَلَاكُ أَوْ نُقْصَانُ الْعَقْلِ

Impurity Drops Falling into a 180 Liters of Water Tank

Impurity Drops Falling into a 180 Liters of Water Tank

                13th May 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If one drop of urine or any najasah (solid/liquid) falls into bucket of water or about 180litres of water tank does it make whole water impure or not?

 

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, if a small amount of najash falls into a bucket of water or a water tank, the water will become impure in both scenarios. The mentioned amounts of water are regarded as ‘maa’ul qaleel’ within the books of jurisprudence which become impure regardless if it changed any of the water’s qualities or not.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

Removing Impurity from the Clothes

Removing Impurity from the Clothes

13th May 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: What is the ruling on one dirham rule or palm size and small particles of impurity falls on clothes or on body? Is it considered as pure or not and is the Salāh valid or not? 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, one dirham quantity is used was used to determine the validity of the Salāh which is roughly equivalent to the size of one’s inner palm circle. If impurity remain on the clothes or body and Salāh is offered in such a condition, the Salāh itself is valid.[1] However, this does not mean that the impurity no longer needs to be washed off.[2] The Salāh being valid does not necessarily imply that the Salāh is not makruh in such a state. It should therefore be washed regardless of its quantity.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Nujaym, I., Al bahr al Raaiq. vol 1 p239

قَوْلُهُ: وَعُفِيَ قَدْرُ الدِّرْهَمِ كَعَرْضِ الْكَفِّ مِنْ نَجَسٍ مُغَلَّظٍ كَالدَّمِ وَالْبَوْلِ وَالْخَمْرِ وَخُرْءِ الدَّجَاجِ وَبَوْلِ مَا لَا يُؤْكَلُ لَحْمُهُ وَالرَّوْثُ… وَمُرَادُهُ مِنْ الْعَفْوِ صِحَّةُ الصَّلَاةِ بِدُونِ إزَالَتِهِ لَا عَدَمُ الْكَرَاهَةِ لِمَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ وَغَيْرِهِ إنْ كَانَتْ النَّجَاسَةُ قَدْرَ الدِّرْهَمِ تُكْرَهُ الصَّلَاةُ مَعَهَا إجْمَاعًا، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أَقَلَّ وَقَدْ دَخَلَ فِي الصَّلَاةِ نُظِرَ إنْ كَانَ فِي الْوَقْتِ سَعَةٌ فَالْأَفْضَلُ إزَالَتُهَا وَاسْتِقْبَالُ الصَّلَاةِ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ تَفُوتُهُ الْجَمَاعَةُ، فَإِنْ كَانَ يَجِدُ الْمَاءَ وَيَجِدُ جَمَاعَةً آخَرِينَ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ فَكَذَلِكَ أَيْضًا لِيَكُونَ مُؤَدِّيًا لِلصَّلَاةِ الْجَائِزَةِ بِيَقِينٍ، وَإِنْ كَانَ فِي آخِرِ الْوَقْتِ أَوْ لَا يُدْرِكُ الْجَمَاعَةَ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ يَمْضِي

[2] Shaami, I., Raddul Muhtar Alad Durril Mukhtaar. vol 1 p316.

 

(قَوْلُهُ: وَعَفَا الشَّارِعُ) فِيهِ تَغْيِيرٌ لِلَفْظِ الْمَتْنِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ كَانَ مَبْنِيًّا لِلْمَجْهُولِ، لَكِنَّهُ قَصَدَ التَّنْبِيهَ عَلَى أَنَّ ذَلِكَ مَرْوِيٌّ لَا مَحْضُ قِيَاسٍ فَقَطْ.

قَالَ فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ: وَلَنَا أَنَّ الْقَلِيلَ عَفْوٌ إجْمَاعًا، إذْ الِاسْتِنْجَاءُ بِالْحَجَرِ كَافٍ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ وَهُوَ لَا يَسْتَأْصِلُ النَّجَاسَةَ، وَالتَّقْدِيرُ بِالدِّرْهَمِ مَرْوِيٌّ عَنْ عُمَرَ وَعَلِيٍّ وَابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، وَهُوَ مِمَّا لَا يُعْرَفُ بِالرَّأْيِ فَيُحْمَلُ عَلَى السَّمَاعِ. اه

 

Do I Qualify as a Ma’dhoor in this Situation?

Do I Qualify as a Ma’dhoor in this Situation?

13th May 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I have a problem with continuously passing gas, however every single source I’ve checked in regard to qualifying as a ma’dhoor states that it should be as excessive to the point I cannot perform a fardh Salah without my wudhu being invalidated. The passing of gas is random, and mostly I am able to keep my wudhu and pray my fardh Salah but not enough for the sunnah muakkidah or witr salah sometimes as I’m having to perform wudhu twice. Do I qualify as a ma’dhoor? Am I sinful for leaving out the sunnah mu’akkadah?

 

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, the books of fiqh define a ma’dhoor person to be one having such an ailment which encompasses the complete time of one full salah wherein it is almost impossible to preform wudhu and perform salah. [1] As explained in your question, this is not quite the case in your circumstance as you are at least able to perform the faraa’idh of the salah without the excuse occurring. Due to this, your condition will not class you as a ma’dhoor.[2] It may be a good idea to perform your sunnah mu’akkadah earlier with one wudhu and then your fardh later with a new wudhu or vice versa depending on the order of the sunan and fardh.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyya, kitabut Taharah, Fasl fid dimaa al mukhtassah bin nisaa.vol 1 p41

شرط ثبوت العذر ابتداء أن يستوعب استمراره وقت الصلاة كاملا وهو الأظهر كالانقطاع لا يثبت ما لم يستوعب الوقت كله حتى لو سال دمها في بعض وقت صلاة فتوضأت وصلت ثم خرج الوقت ودخل وقت صلاة أخرى وانقطع دمها فيه أعادت تلك الصلاة لعدم الاستيعاب.

وإن لم ينقطع في وقت الصلاة الثانية حتى خرج لا تعيدها لوجود استيعاب الوقت.

وشرط بقائه أن لا يمضي عليه وقت فرض إلا والحدث الذي ابتلي به يوجد فيه هكذا في التبيين

 

[2] Shaami, I., Raddul Muhtar Alad Durril Mukhtaar. Kitab al Taharah, Bab al haydh, Matlab fi ahkaam al ma’dhoor vol 1 p305.

 (قوله: ولو حكما) أي: ولو كان الاستيعاب حكما بأن انقطع العذر في زمن يسير لا يمكنه فيه الوضوء والصلاة فلا يشترط الاستيعاب الحقيقي في حق الابتداء كما حققه في الفتح والدرر، خلافا لما فهمه الزيلعي كما بسطه في البحر، قال الرحمتي: ثم هل يشترط أن لا يمكنا مع سننهما أو الاقتصار على فرضهما؟ يراجع. اهـ.أقول: الظاهر الثاني، تأمل. (قوله: في حق الابتداء) أي: في حق ثبوته ابتداء (قوله: في جزء من الوقت) أي: من كل وقت بعد ذلك الاستيعاب إمداد (قوله: ولو مرة) أي: ليعلم بها بقاؤه إمداد (قوله:

وفي حق الزوال) أي: زوال العذر، وخروج صاحبه عن كونه معذورا

 

Forming Rows Outside of the Masjid in the Container Provided

Forming Rows Outside of the Masjid in the Container Provided

9th May 2021

 

Question: Assalaamu alaikum Mufti sahib, please could you give us a fatwa on the following issue. Please see the feature image of our masjid Madni Jamia Masjid and an adjacent blue container. When the masjid marked in yellow is full the blue container is used to offer salah in congregation behind the Imam. There is a pathway for entry to the masjid between the masjid and the blue container. The blue container has a speaker so that the Imam can be heard.   The question is:

  1. Is it permissible to offer salah in the blue container behind the Imam if the pathway has a row of muqtadis.
  2. Is it permissible to offer salah in the blue container behind the Imam if the pathway remains empty (clear) of muqtadis. Note that the pathway due to its narrowness has the capacity to fit one row only. 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

With reference to your case scenario, there are two fundamental conditions that must be fulfilled for the congregant’s Salāh to be valid; first is the uniformity of the place (اتحاد المكان) between the Imām and the congregants and second, the congregants to be aware of the Imam’s recitation and his changing positions during the Salāh. If by praying in the blue container, the congregants are able to hear the Imām’s recitation like through a speaker system and are not obscured from his posture changes throughout the duration of the Salāh then this is valid. Uniformity of the place implies that both the Imām and the congregants perform Salāh on similar platform and location. This can be achieved by one of two ways; first is either both the Imām and the congregants pray Salāh inside the same masjid together or secondly, if due to the vast number of congregants not everyone can fit inside the Masjid, then they can form rows outside of the masjid whilst the Imām is leading them from inside such that the rows remain interconnected without a significant gap in between the rows large enough to allow a moving vehicle such as a car to easily cross. If both the Imām and the congregants pray on an open field then no gap of two rows or more to exist between them.[1]

The necessity of ensuring that the rows are interconnected is based on a prophetic narration reported by Sayyidunā Anas ibn Mālik radhiyallahu anhu where the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “Stand close together in your rows, bring them near to one another, and stand neck to neck, for by Him in Whose hand my soul is, I see the devil coming in through openings in the row just like a small black sheep.”[2] By near it means to ensure no gaps exist between the rows as described above. Sayyiduna Umar radhiyallahu anhu further clarifies the amount of gap that severs the congregants from their Imām in the following words, “If between him and the Imām is a river, or a path or a row of women then there is no Salāh for him [invalid].”[3] Path here means a public path for people large enough for horse carriages to pass, corresponding to modern day vehicles.

Once this is clear then based on the above scenario, when people start to form rows in the blue container only after the masjid is full then in both cases their Salāh will be valid.  As for the first case is because of the interconnected rows as the muqtadis have formed a row on the pathway. In the second case it is also valid because although the path is empty, it is very narrow for a vehicle to pass and moreover it is a gap of one row only.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh, vol 1 p. 584-8

(ويمنع من الاقتداء) صف من النساء بلا حائل قدر ذراع أو ارتفاعهن قدر قامة الرجل مفتاح السعادة أو (طريق تجري فيه عجلة) آلة يجرها الثور (أو نهر تجري فيه السفن) ولو زورقا ولو في المسجد (أو خلاء) أي فضاء (في الصحراء) أو في مسجد كبير جدا كمسجد القدس (يسع صفين) فأكثر إلا إذا اتصلت الصفوف فيصح مطلقا، كأن قام في الطريق ثلاثة، وكذا اثنان عند الثاني لا واحد اتفاقا لأنه لكراهة صلاته صار وجوده. كعدمه في حق من خلفه. (والحائل لا يمنع) الاقتداء (إن لم يشتبه حال إمامه) بسماع أو رؤية ولو من باب مشبك يمنع الوصول في الأصح (ولم يختلف المكان) حقيقة كمسجد وبيت في الأصح قنية، ولا حكما عند اتصال الصفوف؛. 

(قوله أو طريق) أي نافذ أبو السعود عن شيخه ط. قلت: ويفهم ذلك من التعبير عنه في عدة كتب بالطريق العام. وفي التتارخانية:….

(قَوْلُهُ إلَّا إذَا اتَّصَلَتْ الصُّفُوفُ) الِاسْتِثْنَاءُ عَائِدٌ إلَى الطَّرِيقِ وَالنَّهْرِ دُونَ الْخَلَاءِ لِأَنَّ الصُّفُوفَ إذَا اتَّصَلَتْ فِي الصَّحْرَاءِ لَمْ يُوجَدْ الْخَلَاءُ تَأَمَّلْ، وَكَذَا لَوْ اصْطَفُّوا عَلَى طُولِ الطَّرِيقِ صَحَّ إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَ الْإِمَامِ وَالْقَوْمِ مِقْدَارُ مَا تَمُرُّ فِيهِ الْعَجَلَةُ، وَكَذَا بَيْنَ كُلِّ صَفٍّ وَصَفٍّ كَمَا فِي الْخَانِيَّةِ وَغَيْرِهَا.

(قَوْلُهُ وَلَمْ يَخْتَلِفْ الْمَكَانُ) أَيْ مَكَانُ الْمُقْتَدِي وَالْإِمَامِ. وَحَاصِلُهُ أَنَّهُ اشْتَرَطَ عَدَمَ الِاشْتِبَاهِ وَعَدَمَ اخْتِلَافِ الْمَكَانِ، وَمَفْهُومُهُ أَنَّهُ لَوْ وُجِدَ كُلٌّ مِنْ الِاشْتِبَاهِ وَالِاخْتِلَافِ أَوْ أَحَدُهُمَا فَقَطْ مَنَعَ الِاقْتِدَاءَ، لَكِنْ الْمَنْعُ بِاخْتِلَافِ الْمَكَانِ فَقَطْ فِيهِ كَلَامٌ يَأْتِي

(قَوْلُهُ عِنْدَ اتِّصَالِ الصُّفُوفِ) أَيْ فِي الطَّرِيقِ أَوْ عَلَى جِسْرِ النَّهْرِ، فَإِنَّهُ مَعَ وُجُودِ النَّهْرِ أَوْ الطَّرِيقِ يَخْتَلِفُ الْمَكَانُ، وَعِنْدَ اتِّصَالِ الصُّفُوفِ يَصِيرُ الْمَكَانُ وَاحِدًا حُكْمًا فَلَا يَمْنَعُ كَمَا مَرّ

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Salah, vol 1 p. 145

وَلَوْ اقْتَدَى خَارِجَ الْمَسْجِدِ بِإِمَامٍ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ: إنْ كَانَتْ الصُّفُوفُ مُتَّصِلَةً جَازَ، وَإِلَّا فَلَا؛ لِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ الْمَوْضِعَ بِحُكْمِ اتِّصَالِ الصُّفُوفِ يَلْتَحِقُ بِالْمَسْجِدِ هَذَا إذَا كَانَ الْإِمَامُ يُصَلِّي فِي الْمَسْجِدِ، فَأَمَّا إذَا كَانَ يُصَلِّي فِي الصَّحْرَاءِ: فَإِنْ كَانَتْ الْفُرْجَةُ الَّتِي بَيْنَ الْإِمَامِ وَالْقَوْمِ قَدْرَ الصَّفَّيْنِ فَصَاعِدًا – لَا يَجُوزُ اقْتِدَاؤُهُمْ بِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الطَّرِيقِ الْعَامِّ أَوْ النَّهْرِ الْعَظِيمِ فَيُوجِبُ اخْتِلَافَ الْمَكَانِ وَذُكِرَ فِي الْفَتَاوَى أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ أَبُو نَصْرٍ عَنْ إمَامٍ يُصَلِّي فِي فَلَاةٍ مِنْ الْأَرْضِ كَمْ مِقْدَارُ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا حَتَّى يَمْنَعَ صِحَّةَ

Tawtawi wa maraqi vol 1, p. 293

وأن لا يفصل” بين الإمام والمأموم “نهر يمر فيه الزورق” في الصحيح والزورق نوع من السفن الصغار “ولا طريق تمر فيه العجلة” وليس فيه صفوف متصلة والمانع في الصلاة فاصل يسع فيه صفين على المفتى به “

في الصحيح” أي هذا القول في الفرق بين النهر الصغير والكبير هو الصحيح وقيل الصغير ما تحصى شركاؤه وقيل ما يثبه القوي ويمنع النهر ولو كان في المسجد كالطريق كما في الدرر قوله: “تمر فيه العجلة” والمراد أن تكون صالحة لذلك لا مرورها بالفعل والعجلة بالتحريك آلة يجرها الثور والمراد بالطريق هو النافذ ذكره السيد

قوله: “وليس فيه صفوف متصلة” اعلم أنه إذا إتصل المصلون وقاموا في الطريق فإن قام واحد في عرض الطريق وإقتدى بالإمام جاز وكره أما الجواز فلأنه لم يبق بينه وبين الإمام طريق تمر فيه العجلة وأما الكراهة فللصلاة في ممر الناس فإن قام رجل خلف هذا المقتدي وراء الطريق وإقتدى بالإمام لا يصح لأن صلاة من قام على الطريق مكروهة مع كونه غير صف فصار في حق من خلفه كالعدم ولا يعد هذا إتصالا ولو كان على الطريق ثلاث جازت صلاة من خلفهم لأن الثلاث صف في بعض الروايات وعند إتصال الصفوف لا يكون الطريق حائلا ولو كان على الطريق إثنان فعلى قياس قول أبي يوسف تجوز صلاة من خلفهما لأنه جعل المثنى كالجمع وعلى قياس قول محمد لا تجوز

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitab Salāh vol 1, p. 87

[الْفَصْلُ الرَّابِعُ فِي بَيَانِ مَا يَمْنَعُ صِحَّةَ الِاقْتِدَاءِ وَمَا لَا يَمْنَعُ]

الْمَانِعُ مِنْ الِاقْتِدَاءِ ثَلَاثَةُ أَشْيَاءَ.

(مِنْهَا) طَرِيقٌ عَامٌ يَمُرُّ فِيهِ الْعَجَلَةُ وَالْأَوْقَارُ هَكَذَا فِي شَرْحِ الطَّحَاوِيِّ إذَا كَانَ بَيْنَ الْإِمَامِ وَبَيْنَ الْمُقْتَدِي طَرِيقٌ إنْ كَانَ ضَيِّقًا لَا يَمُرُّ فِيهِ الْعَجَلَةُ وَالْأَوْقَارُ لَا يَمْنَعُ وَإِنْ كَانَ وَاسِعًا يَمُرُّ فِيهِ الْعَجَلَةُ وَالْأَوْقَارُ يَمْنَعُ. كَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ وَالْخُلَاصَةِ هَذَا إذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ الصُّفُوفُ مُتَّصِلَةً عَلَى الطَّرِيقِ أَمَّا إذَا اتَّصَلَتْ الصُّفُوفُ لَا يَمْنَعُ الِاقْتِدَاءَ وَلَوْ كَانَ عَلَى الطَّرِيقِ وَاحِدٌ لَا يَثْبُتُ بِهِ الِاتِّصَالُ بِالثَّلَاثِ يَثْبُتُ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ وَفِي الْمَثْنَى خِلَافٌ عَلَى قَوْلِ أَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – يَثْبُتُ وَعَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – لَا. كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ.

وَلَوْ قَامَ الْإِمَامُ فِي الطَّرِيقِ وَاصْطَفَّ النَّاسُ خَلْفَهُ فِي الطَّرِيقِ عَلَى طُولِ الطَّرِيقِ إنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَ الْإِمَامِ وَبَيْنَ مَنْ خَلْفَهُ فِي الطَّرِيقِ مِقْدَارُ مَا يَمُرُّ فِيهِ الْعَجَلَةُ جَازَتْ صَلَاتُهُمْ وَكَذَا فِيمَا بَيْنَ الصَّفِّ الْأَوَّلِ وَالثَّانِي إلَى آخِرِ الصُّفُوفِ. كَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ.

وَالْمَانِعُ مِنْ الِاقْتِدَاءِ فِي الْفَلَوَاتِ قَدْرُ مَا يَسَعُ فِيهِ صَفَّيْنِ وَفِي مُصَلَّى الْعِيدِ الْفَاصِلُ لَا يَمْنَعُ الِاقْتِدَاءَ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَسَعُ فِيهِ الصَّفَّيْنِ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ وَفِي الْمُتَّخَذِ لِصَلَاةِ الْجِنَازَةِ اخْتِلَافُ الْمَشَايِخِ وَفِي النَّوَازِلِ جَعَلَهُ كَالْمَسْجِدِ. كَذَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ.

 

Also see Fatawa Mahmoodiyyah Kitab Salāh, vol 6, p. 528 and 533

 

[2] Sunnan Abu Dawood No:665

 حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ, حَدَّثَنَا أَبَانُ, عَنْ قَتَادَةَ, عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ, عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قَالَ: «رُصُّوا صُفُوفَكُمْ, وَقَارِبُوا بَيْنَهَا, وَحَاذُوا بِالأَعْنَاقِ, فَوَالَّذِى نَفْسِى بِيَدِهِ, إِنِّى لأَرَى الشَّيْطَانَ يَدْخُلُ مِنْ خَلَلِ الصَّفِّ كَأَنَّهَا الْحَذَفُ

 

[3] Badhlul Majhūd, vol 3 p.615

وأصله ما روي عن عمر موقوفًا ومرفوعًا أنه قال: “من كان بينه وبين الإِمام نهر أو طريق أو صف من النساء فلا صلاة له”، انتهى.

 

Taking COVID Vaccine Injection Whilst Fasting

Taking COVID Vaccine Injection Whilst Fasting

5th May 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to receive the Covid vaccine while fasting?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, as a standard principle anything that reaches the throat or stomach through the qualified cavity for instance, mouth, nose and the anus (leading to the intestines) breaks the fast. [1] COVID vaccine injections is taken in the arm which is not the qualified passage that reaches to the throat or the stomach. It is therefore permissible to take the Covid vaccine injection whilst fasting and in doing so, the fast will not break.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Zulaikha Yasir         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Fatawe Hindiyyah, Chapter of Fasting, vol 1, page 402.

ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﻭاء اﻟﺠﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻭاﻵﻣﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻤﺸﺎﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ اﻟﻌﺒﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ اﻟﺠﻮﻑ ﻭاﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻻ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻃﺒﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺎﺑﺴﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫا ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ اﻟﻴﺎﺑﺲ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ، ﻭﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ اﻟﺮﻃﺐ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﻫﻜﺬا ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ، ﻭﺇﺫا ﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ، ﻭﻛﺎﻥ اﻟﺪﻭاء ﺭﻃﺒﺎ ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ – ﺭﺣﻤﻪ اﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ – ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻗﺎﻻ ﻻ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻚ، ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺎﺑﺴﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻓﻄﺮ اﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎ ﻫﻜﺬا ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺢ اﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ

 

Durrul Mukhtar wa Hashiyah Ibn Abideen, Chapter of Fasting vol 2 p.400

بَابُ مَا يُفْسِدُ الصَّوْمَ وَمَا لَا يُفْسِدُهُ

لِأَنَّ الْعِلَّةَ مِنْ الْجَانِبَيْنِ الْوُصُولُ إلَى الْجَوْفِ وَعَدَمُهُ بِنَاءً عَلَى وُجُودِ الْمَنْفَذِ وَعَدَمِهِ لَكِنَّ هَذَا يَقْتَضِي عَدَمَ الْفَسَادِ فِي حَشْوِ الدُّبُرِ وَفَرْجِهَا الدَّاخِلِ وَلَا مُخَلِّصَ إلَّا بِإِثْبَاتِ أَنَّ الْمَدْخَلَ فِيهِمَا تَجْذِبُهُ الطَّبِيعَةُ فَلَا يَعُودُ إلَّا مَعَ الْخَارِجِ الْمُعْتَادِ وَتَمَامُهُ فِي الْفَتْحِ. قُلْت: الْأَقْرَبُ التَّخَلُّصُ بِأَنَّ الدُّبُرَ وَالْفَرْجَ الدَّاخِلَ مِنْ الْجَوْفِ إذْ لَا حَاجِزَ بَيْنَهُمَا وَبَيْنَهُ فَهُمَا فِي حُكْمِهِ وَالْفَمُ وَالْأَنْفُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَهُمَا وَبَيْنَ الْجَوْفِ حَاجِزٌ إلَّا أَنَّ الشَّارِعَ اعْتَبَرَهُمَا فِي الصَّوْمِ مِنْ الْخَارِجِ.

 

Does the Fast break by taking Tablets for Seizure?

Does the Fast break by taking Tablets for Seizure?

4th April 2021

 

Question: I have an occasional seizure which requires me to take a tablet in the morning and night (Tegretol). Due to this medical reason, I have been unable to fast. I would like to know concerning these tablets to my knowledge these control seizures from happening and does not have nutrition values, unlike a vitamin C or cod liver oils etc. If I were to take the tablet in the morning at 9am would such a tablet break my fast – without taking water, just swallowing the tablet?

 

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your case scenario, for the specific medical reason that you are unable to fast during Ramadhān would require you to make up for it as Qadha at your convenient time. Regarding the tablet itself then firstly note that anything that reaches and disappears into the stomach via the qualified cavity – i.e the throat – by swallowing it breaks the fast regardless if it is medicine, food or otherwise. This is the standard accepted rule.[1] The tablets are usually taken so to calm the nerve impulses that causes seizure.

So, to take the tablets to control the seizures irrespective if they are deemed nutritious or not still breaks the fast. However, if the medical doctor has strongly advised you to take them every day during fasting times such as 9:00am otherwise your seizure will increase then you can take the tablets and make up for the fasts later on as Qadha when possible. The underpinning principle is that if fasting is likely to increase an existing illness or delay in recovery then you have the choice to delay or break the fast and postpone it to a later date.[2] If your seizure is controlled to a certain degree that doesn’t require you to take the tablets every day nor during the day but once in the evening after iftar for instance then you must fast and avoid taking them during the day provided that this doesn’t exacerbate the seizure. By taking the tablets when not necessary whilst fasting results both in Qadha and Kaffarah – fast for 60 days continuously.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Sawm,, vol 2 p. 396

وَمُفَادُهُ أَنَّ اسْتِقْرَارَ الدَّاخِلِ فِي الْجَوْفِ شَرْطٌ لِلْفَسَادِ بَدَائِعُ.

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Sawm,, vol 2 p. 410

بَابُ مَا يُفْسِدُ الصَّوْمَ وَمَا لَا يُفْسِدُهُ الْفَسَادُ

(أَوْ دَوَاءً) مَا يُتَدَاوَى بِهِ وَالضَّابِطُ وُصُولُ مَا فِيهِ صَلَاحُ بَدَنِهِ لِجَوْفِهِ

مُلَخَّصًا وَقَالَ فِي النَّهْرِ: إنَّهُ يُعِيدُ عَنْ التَّحْقِيقِ إذْ بِتَقْدِيرِهِ يَكُونُ قَوْلُهُمْ أَوْ دَوَاءٌ حَشْوًا وَاَلَّذِي ذَكَرَهُ الْمُحَقِّقُونَ أَنَّ مَعْنَى الْفِطْرِ وُصُولُ مَا فِيهِ صَلَاحُ الْبَدَنِ إلَى الْجَوْفِ أَعَمُّ مِنْ كَوْنِهِ غِذَاءً أَوْ دَوَاءً يُقَابِلُ الْقَوْلَ الْأَوَّلَ هَذَا هُوَ الْمُنَاسِبُ فِي تَحْقِيقِ مَحَلِّ الْخِلَافِ.

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Sawm,, vol 2 p. 422

فَصْلٌ فِي الْعَوَارِضِ الْمُبِيحَةِ لِعَدَمِ الصَّوْمِ

أَوْ مَرِيضٍ خَافَ الزِّيَادَةَ) لِمَرَضِهِ وَصَحِيحٍ خَافَ الْمَرَضَ، وَخَادِمَةٍ خَافَتْ الضَّعْفَ بِغَلَبَةِ الظَّنِّ بِأَمَارَةٍ أَوْ تَجْرِبَةٍ أَوْ بِأَخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ حَاذِقٍ مُسْلِمٍ مَسْتُورٍ

(قَوْلُهُ خَافَ الزِّيَادَةَ) أَوْ إبْطَاءَ الْبُرْءِ أَوْ فَسَادَ عُضْوٍ بِحَرٍّ أَوْ وَجَعَ الْعَيْنِ أَوْ جِرَاحَةً أَوْ صُدَاعًا أَوْ غَيْرَهُ، وَمِثْلُهُ مَا إذَا كَانَ يُمَرِّضُ الْمَرْضَى قُهُسْتَانِيٌ ط أَيْ بِأَنْ يَعُولَهُمْ وَيَلْزَمَ مِنْ صَوْمِهِ ضَيَاعُهُمْ وَهَلَاكُهُمْ لِضَعْفِهِ عَنْ الْقِيَامِ بِهِمْ إذَا صَامَ (قَوْلُهُ وَصَحِيحٍ خَافَ الْمَرَضَ) أَيْ بِغَلَبَةِ الظَّنِّ كَمَا يَأْتِي

 

Muheetul Burhani vol 2 p. 391

الفصل السابع في الأسباب المبيحة للفطر

إذا ثبت هذا: فنقول المريض إذا خاف على نفسه التلف، أو ذهاب عضو منه يفطر بالإجماع، وإن خاف زيادة العلة وامتداده، فكذلك عندنا، وعليه القضاء إذا أفطر لقوله تعالى: {ومن كان مريضاً أو على سفر، فعدة من أيام أخر} (البقرة: 185)