Husband Issues Three Divorces and Becomes an Apostate

Husband Issues Three Divorces and Becomes an Apostate

13th September 2021

 

Question: If a man divorces his wife thrice and then commits kufr. Then he repents and becomes Muslim again. Can he marry the woman after her Iddah period without the woman getting married again?

 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, despite him committing kufr after three divorces and then repenting, she still does not become Halāl for him until she marries someone else, consummates the marriage and then he divorces her. The reason as the renowned Hanafi jurist Allamah Kasani rahimahullah explains is that the statement of Almighty Allāh, “She is not halal for him until she marries a man other than him” [2:230] negates any form of permissibility of marriage to her former husband prior to marrying another man.  Three divorces are the maximum limit a husband can issue which can only be renewed after her second marriage. Furthermore, the verse suggest that a ruling is attached to its extreme point, in this case until she marries another man, which indicates that before this, her former husband is still not Halāl.[1] Apostasy therefore does not invalidate divorce rulings.[2] From this, the jurists explain that even if the wife (God forbid) becomes an apostate after receiving three divorces and later on she returns to him (after renewing her faith) without marrying someone else, she still does not become Halāl for him.[3]

 

In light of the above, despite the husband apostatising after pronouncing three divorces and then renewing his faith thereafter, she still doesn’t become Halāl for him until she marries another man, consummates the second marriage and then he divorces her.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Hajj, vol 3 p. 187

وَإِنَّمَا تَنْتَهِي الْحُرْمَةُ وَتَحِلُّ لِلزَّوْجِ الْأَوَّلِ بِشَرَائِطَ مِنْهَا النِّكَاحُ، وَهُوَ أَنْ تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ} [البقرة: 230] نَفَى الْحِلَّ، وَحَدَّ النَّفْيَ إلَى غَايَةِ التَّزَوُّجِ بِزَوْجٍ آخَرَ، وَالْحُكْمُ الْمَمْدُودُ إلَى غَايَةٍ لَا يَنْتَهِي قَبْلَ وُجُودِ الْغَايَةِ، فَلَا تَنْتَهِي الْحُرْمَةُ قَبْلَ التَّزَوُّجِ، فَلَا يَحِلُّ لِلزَّوْجِ الْأَوَّلِ قَبْلَهُ ضَرُورَةً،

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Manāsik, Bāb al-Jinayat, vol 1, p. 473

وَإِنْ كَانَ الطَّلَاقُ ثَلَاثًا فِي الْحُرَّةِ وَثِنْتَيْنِ فِي الْأَمَةِ لَمْ تَحِلَّ لَهُ حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ نِكَاحًا صَحِيحًا وَيَدْخُلَ بِهَا ثُمَّ يُطَلِّقَهَا أَوْ يَمُوتَ عَنْهَا كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ وَلَا فَرْقَ فِي ذَلِكَ بَيْنَ كَوْنِ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ مَدْخُولًا بِهَا أَوْ غَيْرَ مَدْخُولٍ بِهَا كَذَا فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ وَيُشْتَرَطُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الْإِيلَاجُ مُوجِبًا لِلْغُسْلِ وَهُوَ الْتِقَاءُ الْخِتَانَيْنِ هَكَذَا فِي الْعَيْنِيِّ شَرْحِ الْكَنْزِ.

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh, Bāb Shurootus Salāh, vol 2 p. 73

بَابُ الرَّجْعَةِ

[مَطْلَبٌ فِي حِيلَةُ إسْقَاطِ عِدَّةِ الْمُحَلِّلِ]

فَلَا يُحِلُّهَا وَطْءُ الْمَوْلَى وَلَا مِلْكُ أَمَةٍ بَعْدَ طَلْقَتَيْنِ، أَوْ حُرَّةٍ بَعْدَ ثَلَاثٍ وَرِدَّةٌ وَسَبْيٌ وَنَظِيرُهُ مَنْ فُرِّقَ بَيْنَهُمَا بِظِهَارٍ، أَوْ لِعَانٍ ثُمَّ ارْتَدَّتْ وَسُبِيَتْ ثُمَّ مَلَكَهَا لَمْ تَحِلَّ لَهُ أَبَدًا

أَنَّ الرِّدَّةَ وَاللَّحَاقَ وَالسَّبْيَ لَمْ تُبْطِلْ حُكْمَ الظِّهَارِ وَاللِّعَانِ كَمَا لَمْ تُبْطِلْ حُكْمَ الطَّلَاقِ

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Manāsik, Bāb al-Jinayat, vol 1, p. 473

وَلَوْ ارْتَدَّتْ الْمُطَلَّقَةُ ثَلَاثًا وَلَحِقَتْ بِدَارِ الْحَرْبِ ثُمَّ اسْتَرَقَّهَا أَوْ طَلَّقَ زَوْجَتَهُ الْأَمَةَ ثِنْتَيْنِ ثُمَّ مَلَكَهَا فَفِي هَاتَيْنِ لَا يَحِلُّ لَهُ الْوَطْءُ إلَّا بَعْدَ زَوْجٍ آخَرَ كَذَا فِي النَّهْرِ الْفَائِقِ.

 

Is my Grandfather’s other Wife my Mahram?

Is my Grandfather’s other Wife my Mahram?

7th September 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is the stepmother of my mother my mahram or ghair mahram or is that dependant on whether my mother was breastfed by her stepmother or not?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, your mother’s stepmother would be classed as a mahram to you regardless if she breastfed your mother or not.[1] The kinship of musaharah is established with the nikah and consummation of the stepmother with the father (your grandfather) which renders all of their ascendants and descendants as unlawful for marriage for them both. But if she breastfed your mother then the kinship of rida’ah would also be established.[2]

 

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Muftiya Gul-e-Maryam         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam  

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ikhtiyaar Li Ta’leel Mukhtaar, Mahramat Vol 3, Pg 84

 

محرمات النكاح] ويحرم على الرجل نكاح أمه، وجداته، وبنته، وبنات ولده، وأخته وبنتها، وبنت أخيه وعمته وخالته، وأم امرأته وبنتها إن دخل بها، وامرأة أبيه وأجداده وبنيه وبني أولاده، والجمع بين الأختين نكاحا ووطئا بملك يمين. ويحرم من الرضاع من ذكرنا من النس

 

[2] Badai Sanai, Mahramat Vol 2, Pg 262

 

وكذا جدات الزوجة لأبيها وأمها، وإن علون وبنات بناتها وبنات أبنائها وإن سفلن من الرضاع.

وكذا يحرم حليلة ابن الرضاع وابن ابن الرضاع، وإن سفل على أبي الرضاع وأبي أبيه وتحرم منكوحة أبي الرضاع وأبي أبيه، وإن علا على ابن الرضاع وابن ابنه وإن سفل وكذا يحرم بالوطء أم الموطوءة وبنتها من الرضاع على الواطئ.

وكذا جداتها وبنات بناتها وتحرم الموطوءة على أبي الواطئ وابنه من الرضاع.

وكذا على أجداده وإن علوا وعلى أبناء أبنائه وإن سفلوا سواء كان الوطء حلالا بأن كان يملك اليمين أو كان الوطء بنكاح فاسد أو شبهة نكاح أو كان زنا، والأصل أنه يحرم بسبب الرضاع ما يحرم بسبب النسب وسبب المصاهرة

 

Preparing Accounts for a Pub

Preparing Accounts for a Pub

6th September 2021

 

Question: Im an accountant by profession and I prepare company accounts and calculate the right amount of tax to be paid to the government. My question is If I prepare company accounts for a Pub, is it permissible for me to prepare their accounts and get paid for the service (tax calculation)? As an accountant, the work carried for this service is the same for other companies as well. They will send me the bank statements and I will prepare the accounts.

 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: It is worth noting that any income whether Halāl or Harām is based on the service you provide. Provided that the service you give is permissible then you do not become responsible for the action of the customer so long as your intention is not to assist in the sin itself. The prohibition lies only if the service itself is unlawful and the intention is for unlawful purposes also. As an accountant you provide the same service for every company whether Halāl or a Harām namely preparing their accounts by checking their bank statements. Your income is determined by your services thus it is permissible. Even if they pay you from the income generated by selling alcohol then that will not be considered Harām for you to take. This is because alcohol is permissible in the religion and their sale of alcohol amongst them is similar to Muslims selling vinegar amongst ourselves. In other words, what we deem Halāl dealing amongst ourselves is similar for them in their religion. If our tradition allows non-Muslims to transact in alcohol between themselves in an Islamic state then as Muslims living in non-Muslim countries, we are not responsible for their actions. What they deem Halāl in their religion then their income will not be Harām for Muslims to take if they pay you from it in return of a Halāl service you provided for them.[1] Another noteworthy point here that supposedly someone argues that it is not allowed for you to take money from a pub owner for preparing their accounts then if majority of your income is lawful because of preparing accounts for other lawful companies then this still does not render your entire income unlawful.[2] The reason is that this is now subsumed with your other lawful income. Either way, as mentioned that your income will not be unlawful.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Bahr Raiq Kitabūl Bai’, p. 288 vol 6

[بَابُ مَسَائِلُ مُتَفَرِّقَةٌ فِي الْبَيْع]

(بَابُ الْمُتَفَرِّقَاتِ)

قَوْلُهُ (وَالذِّمِّيُّ كَالْمُسْلِمِ فِي بَيْعِ غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ) لِأَنَّهُ مُكَلَّفٌ مُحْتَاجٌ فَشَرَعَ فِي حَقِّهِمْ أَسْبَابَ الْمُعَامَلَاتِ فَكُلُّ مَا جَازَ لَنَا مِنْ الْبِيَاعَاتِ مِنْ الصَّرْفِ وَالسَّلَمِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا جَازَ لَهُ وَمَا لَا يَجُوزُ مِنْ الرِّبَا وَغَيْرِهِ لَا يَجُوزُ لَهُ إلَّا الْخَمْرَ وَالْخِنْزِيرَ فَإِنَّ عَقْدَهُمْ فِيهَا كَعَقْدِنَا عَلَى الْعَصِيرِ وَالشَّاةِ فَيَجُوزُ لَهُ السَّلَمُ فِي الْخَمْرِ دُونَ الْخِنْزِيرِ، وَفِي الْبَدَائِعِ لَا يُمْنَعُونَ مِنْ بَيْعِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ، أَمَّا عَلَى قَوْلِ بَعْضِ مَشَايِخِنَا فَلِأَنَّهُ مُبَاحُ الِانْتِفَاعِ بِهِ شَرْعًا لَهُمْ فَكَانَ مَالًا فِي حَقِّهِمْ عَنْ الْبَعْضِ حُرْمَتُهُمَا ثَابِتَةٌ عَلَى الْعُمُومِ فِي حَقِّ الْمُسْلِمِ وَالْكَافِرِ لِأَنَّ الْكُفَّارَ مُخَاطَبُونَ بِشَرَائِعَ هِيَ مُحَرَّمَاتٌ وَهُوَ الصَّحِيحُ مِنْ مَذْهَبِ أَصْحَابِنَا فَكَانَتْ الْحُرْمَةُ ثَابِتَةً فِي حَقِّهِمْ لَكِنَّهُمْ لَا يُمْنَعُونَ عَنْ بَيْعِهَا لِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْتَقِدُونَ حُرْمَتَهَا ويتمولونها، وَقَدْ أُمِرْنَا بِتَرْكِهِمْ وَمَا يَدِينُونَ.

Durrul Mukhtar wa Raddul Muhtar Kitabūl Buyoo’, p. 480 vol 7

بَابُ الْمُتَفَرِّقَاتِ

(وَالذِّمِّيُّ كَالْمُسْلِمِ فِي بَيْعٍ) كَصَرْفٍ وَسَلَمٍ وَرِبًا وَغَيْرِهَا (غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَيْتَةٍ لَمْ تَمُتْ حَتْفَ أَنْفِهَا)

(قَوْلُهُ غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ إلَخْ) فَإِنَّا نُجِيزُ بَيْعَ بَعْضِهِمْ بَعْضًا لِخُصُوصٍ فِيهِ مِنْ قَوْلِ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُ – أَخْرَجَهُ أَبُو يُوسُفَ فِي كِتَابِ الْخَرَاجِ حَضَرَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ، وَاجْتَمَعَ إلَيْهِ عُمَّالُهُ فَقَالَ يَا هَؤُلَاءِ إنَّهُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكُمْ تَأْخُذُونَ فِي الْجِزْيَةِ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالْخِنْزِيرَ وَالْخَمْرَ فَقَالَ بِلَالٌ: أَجَلْ إنَّهُمْ يَفْعَلُونَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ فَلَا تَفْعَلُوا، وَلَكِنْ وَلُّوا أَرْبَابَهَا بَيْعَهَا ثُمَّ خُذُوا الثَّمَنَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَا نُجِيزُ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمْ بَيْعَ الْمَيْتَةِ وَالدَّمِ فَتْحٌ

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtar wa Raddul Muhtar Kitāb az-Zakāt, bāb Zakāt al-Ghanam, p. 217 vol 3

(وَلَوْ خَلَطَ السُّلْطَانُ الْمَالَ الْمَغْصُوبَ بِمَالِهِ مَلَكَهُ فَتَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِيهِ وَيُورَثُ عَنْهُ) ؛ لِأَنَّ الْخَلْطَ اسْتِهْلَاكٌ إذَا لَمْ يُمْكِنْ تَمْيِيزٌ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ، وَقَوْلُهُ أَرْفَقُ إذْ قَلَّمَا يَخْلُو مَالٌ عَنْ غَصْبٍ،

Fatawa Hindiyyah Kitāb al-Karahiyyat, bāb al-Bai alItiyām, p. 444 vol 5

وَالثَّانِي إنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ الْمَالَ الْحَرَامَ بِعَيْنِهِ قَائِمٌ إلَّا أَنَّهُ اخْتَلَطَ بِالْغَيْرِ بِحَيْثُ لَا يُمْكِنُ التَّمْيِيزُ عَنْهُ فَإِنَّ عَلَى أَصْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – بِالْخَلْطِ يَدْخُلُ فِي مِلْكِهِ إلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ مِنْهُ حَتَّى يَرْضَى الْخَصْمُ بِدَفْعِ الْعِوَضِ فَإِنْ اشْتَرَاهُ يَدْخُلُ  فِي مِلْكِهِ مَعَ الْكَرَاهَةِ

 

Working in an Amazon Warehouse Handling Unlawful Package

Working in an Amazon Warehouse Handling Unlawful Package

1st September 2021

 

Question: I wanted to ask if working in an Amazon warehouse would be permissible as I could be potentially sorting and packing deliveries that have Harām items in them.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

 

In reference to your query, working in an Amazon warehouse sorting out packages of both Halāl and Harām does not render your income Harām. This is based on a similitude case where Imām Abu Hanīfah rahimahullah permitted a Muslim to charge remuneration from a dhimmi (non-Muslim residing in a Muslim country governed by Islamic law) to carry his alcohol for him. He argued that the burden of sin is connected with the drinker due to his own actions. The act of carrying alcohol itself is not the cause of the sin because his job is providing a service. Contrarily, his two eminent students; Imām Abu Yusuf rahimahullah and Imām Muhammad rahimahullah disproved of charging remuneration of carrying alcohol due to the explicit Hadīth where the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam cursed ten things related to alcohol amongst them being its carrier. Imām Abu Hanīfah rahimahullah explains that the curse applies to the individual carrying it with the intention of committing a sin. The carrier in this case is merely charging for his services. Moreover, it is possible that the owner may use it for reasons other than drinking i.e. converting to vinegar etc.[1]

Imām Abu Hanīfah’s rahimahullah underlying rationale was that the transaction should be based on the service one is providing. If the service itself is Halāl then his income cannot be rendered unlawful altogether. He doesn’t share in the burden of the owner’s discretionary sinful act as it was his choice to engage in Harām. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam cursing the one carrying alcohol referred to those serving alcohol with the intention sin or partaking in the sin. He becomes cursed due to sharing the burden of sin in such a case.

This was the case of alcohol itself. As for you working in the amazon warehouse where packaging items; lawful or unlawful is part of your job, you are being paid for your own services. The same applies to delivery services as well.  The burden of sin lies with the owner which you have no connection with. So, in principle, it is still permissible for you to work there and your income will not be rendered unlawful. This is from the Islamic legal standpoint but for personal piety, you may choose to avoid it if you so wish.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtar wa Raddul Muhtar Kitab al-Hadhr wal Ibahat, Bab Istibra wa Ghairihi, p. 562 vol 9

(وَ) جَازَ تَعْمِيرُ كَنِيسَةٍ وَ (حَمْلُ خَمْرِ ذِمِّيٍّ) بِنَفْسِهِ أَوْ دَابَّتِهِ (بِأَجْرٍ) لَا عَصْرُهَا لِقِيَامِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ بِعَيْنِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ وَحَمْلُ خَمْرِ ذِمِّيٍّ)  قَالَ الزَّيْلَعِيُّ: وَهَذَا عِنْدَهُ وَقَالَا هُوَ مَكْرُوهٌ ” لِأَنَّهُ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «لَعَنَ فِي الْخَمْرِ عَشَرَةً وَعَدَّ مِنْهَا حَامِلَهَا» وَلَهُ أَنَّ الْإِجَارَةَ عَلَى الْحَمْلِ وَهُوَ لَيْسَ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ، وَلَا سَبَبَ لَهَا وَإِنَّمَا تَحْصُلُ الْمَعْصِيَةُ بِفِعْلِ فَاعِلٍ مُخْتَارٍ، وَلَيْسَ الشُّرْبُ مِنْ ضَرُورَاتِ الْحَمْلِ، لِأَنَّ حَمْلَهَا قَدْ يَكُونُ لِلْإِرَاقَةِ أَوْ لِلتَّخْلِيلِ، فَصَارَ كَمَا إذَا اسْتَأْجَرَهُ لِعَصْرِ الْعِنَبِ أَوْ قَطْعِهِ وَالْحَدِيثُ مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى الْحَمْلِ الْمَقْرُونِ بِقَصْدِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ اهـ زَادَ فِي النِّهَايَةِ وَهَذَا قِيَاسٌ وَقَوْلُهُمَا اسْتِحْسَانٌ، ثُمَّ قَالَ الزَّيْلَعِيُّ: وَعَلَى هَذَا الْخِلَافِ لَوْ آجَرَهُ دَابَّةً لِيَنْقُلَ عَلَيْهَا الْخَمْرَ أَوْ آجَرَهُ نَفْسَهُ لِيَرْعَى لَهُ الْخَنَازِيرَ يَطِيبُ لَهُ الْأَجْرُ عِنْدَهُ وَعِنْدَهُمَا يُكْرَهُ.

Bahr Raiq Kitabūl Karahiyyat, p. 372 vol 8

[حَمْلُ خَمْرِ الذِّمِّيِّ بِأَجْرٍ]

قَالَ: – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – (وَحَمْلُ خَمْرِ الذِّمِّيِّ بِأَجْرٍ) يَعْنِي جَازَ ذَلِكَ وَهَذَا عِنْدَ الْإِمَامِ وَقَالَا يُكْرَهُ لِأَنَّهُ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «لَعَنَ فِي الْخَمْرِ عَشَرَةً وَعَدَّ مِنْهَا حَامِلَهَا» وَلَهُ أَنَّ الْإِجَارَةَ عَلَى الْحَمْلِ وَهُوَ لَيْسَ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ وَإِنَّمَا الْمَعْصِيَةُ بِفِعْلِ فَاعِلٍ مُخْتَارٍ فَصَارَ كَمَنْ اسْتَأْجَرَهُ لِعَصْرِ خَمْرِ الْعِنَبِ وَقَطْفِهِ، وَالْحَدِيثُ يُحْمَلُ عَلَى الْحَمْلِ الْمَقْرُونِ بِقَصْدِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ وَعَلَى هَذَا الْخِلَافِ إذَا أَجَّرَ دَابَّةً لِيَحْمِلَ عَلَيْهَا الْخَمْرَ أَوْ نَفْسَهُ لِيَرْعَى لَهُ الْخَنَازِيرَ فَإِنَّهُ يَطِيبُ لَهُ الْأَجْرُ عِنْدَهُ وَعِنْدَهُمَا يُكْرَهُ وَفِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة: وَلَوْ أَجَّرَ الْمُسْلِمُ نَفْسَهُ لِذِمِّيٍّ لِيَعْمَلَ فِي الْكَنِيسَةِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَفِي الذَّخِيرَةِ إذَا دَخَلَ يَهُودِيٌّ الْحَمَّامَ هَلْ يُبَاحُ لِلْخَادِمِ الْمُسْلِمِ أَنْ يَخْدُمَهُ قَالَ: إنْ خَدَمَهُ طَمَعًا فِي فُلُوسِهِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَإِنْ خَدَمَهُ تَعْظِيمًا لَهُ يُنْظَرُ إنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ لِيُمِيلَ قَلْبَهُ إلَى الْإِسْلَامِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَإِنْ فَعَلَهُ تَعْظِيمًا لَهُ كُرِهَ ذَلِكَ وَعَلَى هَذَا إذَا دَخَلَ ذِمِّيٌّ عَلَى مُسْلِمٍ فَقَامَ لَهُ طَمَعًا فِي إسْلَامِهِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَإِنْ قَامَ لَهُ تَعْظِيمًا لَهُ كُرِهَ لَهُ ذَلِكَ.

 

Income through Freelance Essay Writing

Income through Freelance Essay Writing

30th August 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is freelancing in academic writing haram? one of Muslim sister has been doing academic writing for a while now and she has been thinking about it, she even quit for a while. So, please let me know, is getting paid for doing someone’s assignments and courses okay? Is the money halal? I mean it is technically, deceiving the professors though. (Then again, some people need that help and some of freelancer need that money). She wants to resume it but it she is not sure, please let me know soon as I want to help her.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, freelancing is usually when a person offers their services for a fee; in this case offering the service of academic writing. When a student usually enrolls at a university, the university codes of honour and guidelines do specify that all work should undertaken by the student alone. Every student is required to sign a declaration that it is their work, otherwise they do not accept the essay. As the work of a freelancer explicitly goes against this agreement taken by the student, it will not be allowed to operate such freelancing service as this would fall under the ruling of deception and bribery,[1] as the essays etc would be passed off as the student’s own work when in actual fact are the freelancers work. There are verses in the Qur’an[2] and Ahadith [3] which clearly mention the prohibition of such. Due to this, the freelancing service in this case will not be allowed. The student also becomes sinful for paying someone to write their essay.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam  

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] https://archive.org/details/FatawaMahmoodiyah-25Volumes-ByShaykhMuftiMahmoodHasanGangohir.a/FATAWA_MAHMOODIAH_VOL_18/page/n467/mode/1up

 

[2] Al qur’aan, 5:42

  أَكَّالُونَ لِلسُّحْتِ سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ

 

Tafseer Qurtubi, vol 6 p183

وَقِيلَ: سُمِّيَ الْحَرَامُ سُحْتًا لِأَنَّهُ يَسْحَتُ مُرُوءَةَ الْإِنْسَانِ. قُلْتُ: وَالْقَوْلُ الْأَوَّلُ أَوْلَى، لِأَنَّ بِذَهَابِ الدِّينِ تَذْهَبُ الْمُرُوءَةُ، وَلَا مُرُوءَةَ لِمَنْ لَا دِينَ لَهُ. قَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ وَغَيْرُهُ: السُّحْتُ الرُّشَا. وَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: رِشْوَةُ الْحَاكِمِ مِنَ السُّحْتِ. وَعَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: (كُلُّ لَحْمٍ نَبَتَ بِالسُّحْتِ فَالنَّارُ أَوْلَى بِهِقَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا السُّحْتُ؟ قَالَ: (الرِّشْوَةُ فِي الْحُكْمِ). وَعَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ أَيْضًا أَنَّهُ قَالَالسُّحْتُ أَنْ يَقْضِيَ الرَّجُلُ لِأَخِيهِ حَاجَةً فَيُهْدِيَ إِلَيْهِ هَدِيَّةً فَيَقْبَلُهَاوَقَالَ ابْنُ خُوَيْزِ مَنْدَادٍ: مِنَ السُّحْتِ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ الرَّجُلُ بِجَاهِهِ، وَذَلِكَ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ جَاهٌ عِنْدَ السُّلْطَانِ فَيَسْأَلُهُ إِنْسَانٌ حَاجَةً فَلَا يَقْضِيهَا إِلَّا بِرِشْوَةٍ يَأْخُذُهَا. وَلَا خِلَافَ بَيْنَ السَّلَفِ أَنَّ أَخْذَ الرِّشْوَةِ عَلَى إِبْطَالِ حَقٍّ أَوْ مَا لَا يَجُوزُ سُحْتٌ حَرَامٌ

 

[3]

مسند أحمد بن حنبل مسند العشرة المبشرين بالجنة

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ آكِلَ الرِّبَا وَمُوكِلَهُ وَشَاهِدَيْهِ وَكَاتِبَهُ مَا ظَهَرَ فِي قَوْمٍ الرِّبَا وَالزِّنَا إِلَّا أَحَلُّوا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ عِقَابَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

 

Are Permanent Hair Dyes Permissible?

Are Permanent Hair Dyes Permissible?

26th August 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Are Muslim women allowed to dye their hair with natural colours permanently? Kindly provide a detailed answer for this.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

 

Generally, it is permissible for women and men to dye their hair. It is recommended to dye the hair using henna because it is Sunnah. The noble companions would use henna to dye their hair and beard.[1]However, there are certain points which need to be taken into consideration.

1: Permanent hair dye even though it is labelled as “permanent”, is in actual fact not permanent and lasts between 6 to 10 weeks in most cases.[2] It is important to note that the ruling of taghyeer (alteration) – changing one’s natural creation that Allāh Almighty made a person upon does not apply. Taghyeer is a result of permanent change to one’s natural outlook for embellishment to any bodily part either by adding or removing something which is prohibited. If it is temporary beautification then it is not prohibited on the account of taghyeer.[3]

2)In permanent hair dye or any hair dye one must ensure there is no ingredient which leaves a coating on the hair. As water will not be able to pass through the coating therefore wudhu and ghusl will not be complete.[4] Some hair dyes either coat the hair or merely colour the hair only. It is better to verify from the manufacturers or retailers first before purchasing them.

PPD (Paraphenylenediamine) is a key ingredient in permanent hair dyes. It is an oxidative precursor which reacts with agents such as ammonia and hydrogen peroxide in the hair dye. PPD works by entering the hair fibres and reacting with the oxidative agents. This then forms large coloured pigments inside of the hair fibres which provides its permanent colour. PPD does not form a waterproof seal over the hair strands, rather it alters the natural colour of the smaller hair fibres. PPD can be found in many semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes though one must check the label on purchasing as a precaution. However, an individual must remain mindful of the allergic reactions that can be caused by PPD. Temporary and semi-permanent hair dyes, contain colourants that form a layer over the hair strands, merely providing a colour that can be removed after a few weeks of washing. Therefore, they remain waterproof as they prevent water from reaching the hair strands. PPD (permanent hair dyes apart from black) are permissible to use due to not being waterproof. As they colour the natural hair fibres and do not provide a sealant over them.[5]

Another ingredient used in hair dye is Hydrogen peroxide (H202). It works by changing the hair pigment called melanin. Therefore, it does not coat the hair and thus it would be permissible to use.[6]

3) Another point to consider is that the ingredients must be pure. It won’t be permissible to use if it contains any impure ingredient.  If the hair dye contains alcohol extracted from grapes and dates then it is not permissible to use. Alcohol extracted from anything else such as wheat, figs, petrol, chemicals are not considered impure according to Imām Abu Hanifah rahimahullah and Imām Abū Yusuf rahimahullah.[7]

4) One should preferably avoid using hair dyes which contain harmful ingredients. As some hair dyes are known to contain toxic chemicals or to cause hair loss etc.[8]

5) It would be permissible to dye the hair with any other colour with the exception of black.[9]

Sayyidunā Abdullāh Ibn Abbās radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam has said; “There shall come such people towards the end of time where they will colour their hair with black like (the colour of) a pigeon’s chest but they shall not scent the fragrance of paradise.” [10]

To apply black hair-dye with the purpose of deceiving others is prohibited. For adornment purposes, it is better to refrain from as it would be considered makrooh but not Haram.[11]

6) A final point that the type of hair colour chosen should not be done with the intention of imitating those of other faiths.

Sayyidunā Abdullah ibn Umar radhiyallahu anhuma narrates that the Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Change the white hair but do not imitate the Jews.”[12]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitābul Karahiyah, Volume 8, Pg 208 

 ولا بأس للنساء بخضاب اليد والرجل ما لم يكن خضاب فيه تماثيل ويكره للرجال والصبيان لأن ذلك تزين وهو مباح للنساء دون الرجال ولا بأس بخضاب الرأس واللحية بالحناء والوشمة للرجال والنساء لأن ذلك سبب لزيادة الرغبة والمحبة بين الزوجين

 

Al- Mabsoot al Sarakhsi, Kitabul Taharee, Vol 10, Pg 199

وأما من اختضب لأجل التزين للنساء والجواري فقد منع من ذلك بعض العلماء رحمهم الله تعالى والأصح أنه لا بأس به، هو مروي عن أبي يوسف – رحمه الله تعالى – قال: كما يعجبني أن تتزين لي يعجبها أن أتزين له

 

[2].[online]Available at:<https://www.pantene.co.uk/en-gb/hair-tips/coloured-hair/how-long-does-hhttps://www.pantene.co.uk/en-gb/hair-tips/coloured-hair/how-long-does-hair-dye-lastair-dye-last> [Accessed 17 August 2021].

 

[3] Muhamad Uthman Shabir, Ahkaam Jarahatul Tajmeel fi Fiqhil Islami, Pg 11

حرم اسلام الوشم والوسم والقشر ما لا فيها من تغيير الخلقة الاصلية بما هو باق وتعذيب إلانسان بلا ضرورة . وأجاز الاستعمال ما لا يكون باقيا من األصباغ كالكحل و الحناء والكتم والحمرة وغير ذلك

Imam Qurtubi, Tafseer Qurtubi, Vol 5, Pg 393

وهذه الأمور كلها قد شهدت الأحاديث بلعن فاعلها وأنها من الكبائر ، واختلف في المعنى الذي نهى لأجلها ، فقيل : لأنها من باب التدليس ، وقيل : من باب تغيير خلق الله تعالى كما قال ابن مسعود ، وهو أصح ، وهو يتضمن المعنى الأول ، ثم قيل : هذا المنهي عنه إنما هو فيما يكون باقياً ؛ لأنه من باب تغيير خلق الله تعالى ، فأما مالا يكون باقياً كالكحل والتزين به للنساء فقد أجاز العلماء ذلك “ انتهى من “.

[4] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitābul Taharat, vol 1, Pg 26

والخضاب إذا تجسد ويبس يمنع تمام الوضوء والغسل كذا في السراج الوهاج ناقلا عن الوجيز … وإن كان على رأسها خضاب فمسحت على الخضاب إذا اختلطت البلة بالخضاب وخرجت عن حكم الماء المطلق لا يجوز المسح كذا في الخلاصة والله أعلم

 

[5] Truthabouthaircolor.com. 2021. How Does PPD Hair Dye Work | Truth About Hair Colour. [online] Available at: <https://www.truthabouthaircolor.com/hair-dye-health/how-does-ppd-dye-work>. [Accessed 17 August 2021].

 

Helmenstine, A., 2019. The Science Behind How Hair Coloring Works. [online] ThoughtCo. Available at: <https://www.thoughtco.com/salon-hair-color-chemistry-602183>  [Accessed 17 August 2021].

 

[6] Compound Interest. 2015. The Chemistry of Permanent Hair Dyes. [online] Available at: <https://www.compoundchem.com/2015/05/14/hair-dyes/>  [Accessed 17 August 2021].

[7] Please see our detailed fatwa on alcohol and hair dye at https://jknfatawa.co.uk/hair-dye-containing-alcohol/

 

[8] Al- Quran, Surah Baqarah, Verse 195

وَاَنۡفِقُوۡا فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ وَلَا تُلۡقُوۡا بِاَيۡدِيۡكُمۡ اِلَى التَّهۡلُكَةِ ۖ  ۛۚ وَاَحۡسِنُوۡا  ۛۚ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُحِبُّ الۡمُحۡسِنِيۡنَ

 

[9] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Masa’il Shataa, vol 6, Pg 756

(قوله جاز في الأصح) وهو مروي عن أبي يوسف فقد قال: يعجبني أن تتزين لي امرأتي كما يعجبها أن أتزين لها والأصح أنه لا بأس به في الحرب وغيره واختلفت الرواية في أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فعله في عمره والأصح لا وفصل في المحيط بين الخضاب بالسواد قال عامة المشايخ: إنه مكروه وبعضهم جوزه مروي عن أبي يوسف، أما بالحمرة فهو سنة الرجال وسيما المسلمين اهـ منح ملخصا وفي شرح المشارق للأكمل والمختار أنه – صلى الله عليه وسلم – خضب في وقت، وتركه في معظم الأوقات، ومذهبنا أن الصبغ بالحناء والوسمة حسن كما في الخانية قال النووي: ومذهبنا استحباب خضاب الشيب للرجل والمرأة بصفرة أو حمرة وتحريم خضابه بالسواد على الأصح

 

[10] Sunnan Nasai, Kitabul Zeenah, Baab  alnahee anil kidhaab bisawad, Vol 8, Pg 326, No. 9293

عن ابن عباس رفعه قال :يَكُونُ قَوْمٌ يَخْضِبُونَ فِي آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ بِالسَّوَادِ كَحَوَاصِلِ الْحَمَامِ لاَ يَرِيحُونَ رَائِحَةَ الْجَنَّة

 

[11] Please see our detailed fatwa on dying the hair black to please the husband.  https://jknfatawa.co.uk/women-dying-their-hair/

 

[12] Sunnan Nasai, Kitabul Zeenah, Baabul izni bilkizaab, Vol 8, Pg 325 No. 9291

أَخْبَرَنِي عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ جَنَابٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ غَيِّرُوا الشَّيْبَ وَلاَ تَشَبَّهُوا بِالْيَهُودِ

 

 

Blood Flowing During Salāh

Blood Flowing During Salāh

20th August 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If I had a wound on my finger before the prayer I put a bandage on it, it stops bleeding but while praying at the last rakah almost, the wound gets pressured on while we were doing sajdah, and starts leaking a little blood out. will that prayer be accepted? 

  

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, if the wound had stopped bleeding prior to starting your salah and then started bleeding due to body pressure in the last rakat, then the prayer will need to be repeated. [1]  This is due to the blood flowing from the wound when it had stopped prior to beginning salah. [2]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Nujaym, Al Bahr al raaiq, vol 1, p35

وأما ما سال بعصر، وكان بحيث لو لم يعصر لم يسل قالوا لا ينقض؛ لأنه ليس بخارج، وإنما هو مخرج، وهو مختار صاحب الهداية وقال شمس الأئمة ينقض، وهو حدث عمد عنده، وهو الأصح كذا في فتح القدير معزيا إلى الكافي؛ لأنه لا تأثير يظهر للإخراج وعدمه في هذا الحكم بل لكونه خارجا نجسا وذلك يتحقق مع الإخراج كما يتحقق مع عدمه، فصار كالفصد كيف وجميع الأدلة الموردة من السنة والقياس يفيد تعليق النقض بالخارج النجس، وهو ثابت في المخرج اهـ.

 

[2] Fatawa Hindiyya, vol 1, p10

(ومنها) ما يخرج من غير السبيلين ويسيل إلى ما يظهر من الدم والقيح والصديد والماء لعلة وحد السيلان أن يعلو فينحدر عن رأس الجرح. كذا في محيط السرخسي وهو الأصح. كذا في النهر الفائق. الدم إذا علا على رأس الجرح لا ينقض الوضوء وإن أخذ أكثر من رأس الجرح. كذا في الظهيرية والفتوى على أنه لا ينقض وضوءه في جنس هذه المسائل. كذا في المحيط.

 

Using Vaseline and Vicks during Ihrām

Using Vaseline and Vicks during Ihrām

19th August 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to use Vaseline during Ihrām? and what about Vicks cream that has a strong sense due to necessity? Kindly provide a detailed answer

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, one should avoid using any fragrance at all in the state of Ihrām. Usually, original Vaseline is fragrance free and thus can be used whilst in Ihrām without the need to give a dam or sadaqah. If it is used to treat blisters for instance then it is permissible. As for Vicks, this contains a strong fragrance and should be avoided during Ihrām.[1] If it is required due to a genuine need such as relief from migraine then there will be no sin. However, due to benefitting from the fragrance, you will need to give sadaqah equivalent to sadaqatul fitr if applied less than a limb. If covered an entire limb then dam (sacrifice a sheep). [2]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] Shaami, Kitaabul Hajj, Babul Jinayat vol 2, p148

ونوع ليس بطيب بنفسه ولكنه أصل للطيب يستعمل على وجه التطيب ويستعمل على وجه الدواء كالزيت والشيرج ويعتبر فيه الاستعمال فإن استعمل استعمال الأدهان في البدن يعطى له حكم الطيب، وإن استعمل في مأكول أو شقاق رجل لا يعطى له حكم الطيب كذا في البدائع ولا فرق في المنع بين بدنه، وإزاره وفراشه، كذا في فتح القدير فإذا استعمل الطيب فإن كان كثيرا فاحشا ففيه الدم، وإن كان قليلا ففيه الصدقة كذا في المحيط.  واختلف المشايخ في الحد الفاصل بين القليل والكثير فبعض مشايخنا اعتبروا الكثرة بالعضو الكبير نحو الفخذ والساق وبعضهم اعتبروا الكثرة بربع العضو الكبير والشيخ الإمام أبو جعفر اعتبر القلة والكثرة في نفس الطيب إن كان الطيب في نفسه بحيث يستكثره الناس ككفين من ماء الورد وكف من الغالية والمسك بقدر ما استكثره الناس فهو كثير وما لا فلا والصحيح أن يوفق ويقال إن كان الطيب قليلا فالعبرة للعضو لا للطيب حتى لو طيب به عضوا كاملا يكون كثيرا يلزمه دم وفيما دونه صدقة، وإن كان الطيب كثيرا فالعبرة للطيب لا للعضو حتى لو طيب به ربع عضو يلزمه دم هكذا في محيط السرخسي والتبيين

[2] Al Bahr al Raaiq, Kitabul hajj, Babul Jinayat, vol 3, p4

وإن داوى قرحة بدواء فيه طيب ثم خرجت قرحة أخرى فداواها مع الأولى فليس عليه إلا كفارة ما لم تبرأ الأولى، ولو كان الطيب في أعضاء متفرقة يجمع ذلك كله فإن بلغ عضوا كاملا فعليه دم، وإلا فصدقة،

 

Snail Secretion Filtrate; Pure or Impure?

Snail Secretion Filtrate; Pure or Impure?

                10th August 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Are skincare products with snail secretion filtrate allowed to be used on skin?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to the above question, snail secretion filtrate is the external secretion of snails (snail mucin). It contains beneficial ingredients such as hyaluronic acid, antimicrobial and copper peptides which are vital for rejuvenating the skin and giving it a plumper and fresher look. Snail secretion further aids in reducing the appearance of wrinkles and combats anti-ageing.

Using skincare products containing snail secretion filtrate is permissible due to it being applied externally on to the skin, despite being derived from insects. This is because, insects that don’t have flowing blood like other animals, although consuming them is unlawful, they do not contaminate – make anything impure nor do their residue body parts or secretions if they fall into anything.[1]  So in our understanding, snail secretion filtrate is not impure. If it was deemed impure for argument’s sake then it would still be permissible because cosmetic products that contain impure ingredients are permissible to use due to the physical changes that occurs within the ingredient when synthetically derived materials are added. [2]  However, using any products externally that contain carmine is impermissible as it is a natural colourant derived from the cochineal insect itself.[3]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

  

Written by:  Apa Gul-e-Maryam         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam  

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitab Taharat vol 1 p. 95

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ كُلَّ مَا لَا يُفْسِدُ الْمَاءَ لَا يُفْسِدُ غَيْرَ الْمَاءِ، وَهُوَ الْأَصَحُّ كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ وَالتُّحْفَةِ وَالْأَشْبَهُ بِالْفِقْهِ كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ لَكِنْ يَحْرُمُ أَكْلُ هَذِهِ الْحَيَوَانَاتِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ مَا عَدَا السَّمَكِ الْغَيْرِ الطَّافِي لِفَسَادِ الْغِذَاءِ وَخُبْثِهِ مُتَفَسِّخًا أَوْ غَيْرَهُ وَقَدْ قَدَّمْنَاهُ عَنْ التَّجْنِيسِ

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa Hāshiyah Ibn Abideen, Vol 1, p. 519

 

هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةُ قَدْ فَرَّعُوهَا عَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ بِالطَّهَارَةِ بِانْقِلَابِ الْعَيْنِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى وَاخْتَارَهُ أَكْثَرُ الْمَشَايِخِ خِلَافًا لِأَبِي يُوسُفَ كَمَا فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ وَالْفَتْحِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا. وَعِبَارَةُ الْمُجْتَبَى: جَعْلُ الدُّهْنِ النَّجِسِ فِي صَابُونٍ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ وَالتَّغَيُّرُ يُطَهِّرُ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَيُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى. اهـ. وَظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّ دُهْنَ الْمَيْتَةِ كَذَلِكَ لِتَعْبِيرِهِ بِالنَّجِسِ دُونَ الْمُتَنَجِّسِ إلَّا أَنْ يُقَالَ هُوَ خَاصٌّ بِالنَّجِسِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْعَادَةَ فِي الصَّابُونِ وَضْعُ الزَّيْتِ دُونَ بَقِيَّةِ الْأَدْهَانِ تَأَمَّلْ، ثُمَّ رَأَيْت فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ مَا يُؤَيِّدُ الْأَوَّلَ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَعَلَيْهِ يَتَفَرَّعُ مَا لَوْ وَقَعَ إنْسَانٌ أَوْ كَلْبٌ فِي قِدْرِ الصَّابُونِ فَصَارَ صَابُونًا يَكُونُ طَاهِرًا لِتَبَدُّلِ الْحَقِيقَةِ. اهـ. ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْعِلَّةَ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ هِيَ التَّغَيُّرُ وَانْقِلَابُ الْحَقِيقَةِ وَأَنَّهُ يُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى كَمَا عُلِمَ مِمَّا مَرَّ، وَمُقْتَضَاهُ عَدَمُ اخْتِصَاصِ ذَلِكَ الْحُكْمِ بِالصَّابُونِ، فَيَدْخُلُ فِيهِ كُلُّ مَا كَانَ فِيهِ تَغَيُّرٌ وَانْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ وَكَانَ فِيهِ بَلْوَى عَامَّةٌ،

 

 

[3] See the fatwa on Carmine by clicking onto the below link.

Cochineal Extracts – JKN Fatawa

 

Baby Vomit; Pure or Impure?

Baby Vomit; Pure or Impure?

15th July 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If a three months year old child does sick on your clothes and body, do they become napaak? Will one have to wash clothes and body before praying?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to the above question breast milk itself is pure. However, once it is consumed by the infant, reaches the stomach and then vomited then it depends on if the baby vomited a mouthful or not. If it was a mouthful vomit then it is impure.[1] This is due to the milk mixing with the other impure content juices inside the stomach that now renders the baby’s vomit major impurity (najasat ghaleezah). The ruling on major impurity is that if the mouthful of vomit soils the clothes or body equal or more than a dirham [50p or £2 coin] they then become necessary to wash.[2] If the baby vomited slightly (after reaching its stomach) less than a mouthful then it is overlooked and not deemed impure.[3]

Remember that the above ruling was only if the vomit reaches the baby’s stomach. If the milk came out due to a reflux reaction without reaching the stomach then this will not be classed as impure at all because it has not mixed with the impure content of the stomach.[4] Its smell can be a distinguishing factor in determining whether it is actual vomit or merely spitting the milk back out. The actual vomit displays a thicker texture with an odour smell unlike the milk that is spat out because of a reflux.[5]

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Gul-e-Maryam         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Tahārah, vol 1 p. 137-8

(وَ) يَنْقُضُهُ (قَيْءٌ مَلَأَ فَاهُ) بِأَنْ يُضْبَطَ بِتَكَلُّفٍ (مِنْ مِرَّةٍ) بِالْكَسْرِ: أَيْ صَفْرَاءَ (أَوْ عَلَقٍ) أَيْ سَوْدَاءَ؛ وَأَمَّا الْعَلَقُ النَّازِلُ مِنْ الرَّأْسِ فَغَيْرُ نَاقِضٍ (أَوْ طَعَامٌ أَوْ مَاءٌ) إذَا وَصَلَ إلَى مَعِدَتِهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَقِرَّ، وَهُوَ نَجَسٌ مُغَلَّظٌ، وَلَوْ مِنْ صَبِيٍّ سَاعَةَ ارْتِضَاعِهِ، هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ لِمُخَالَطَةِ النَّجَاسَةِ، ذَكَرَهُ الْحَلَبِيُّ.

(قَوْلُهُ: ذَكَرَهُ الْحَلَبِيُّ) أَيْ فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ الْكَبِيرِ، حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَالصَّحِيحُ ظَاهِرُ الرِّوَايَةِ أَنَّهُ نَجَسٌ لِمُخَالَطَتِهِ النَّجَاسَةَ وَتَدَاخُلِهَا فِيهِ بِخِلَافِ الْبَلْغَمِ. اهـ.

 

[2] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitab Taharah, vol 1, Pg 45

كُلُّ مَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ بَدَنِ الْإِنْسَانِ مِمَّا يُوجِبُ خُرُوجُهُ الْوُضُوءَ أَوْ الْغُسْلَ فَهُوَ مُغَلَّظٌ كَالْغَائِطِ وَالْبَوْلِ وَالْمَنِيِّ وَالْمَذْيِ وَالْوَدْيِ وَالْقَيْحِ وَالصَّدِيدِ وَالْقَيْءِ إذَا مَلَأَ الْفَمَ

 الْمُغَلَّظَةُ وَعُفِيَ مِنْهَا قَدْرُ الدِّرْهَمِ وَاخْتَلَفَتْ الرِّوَايَاتُ فِيهِ وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنْ يُعْتَبَرَ بِالْوَزْنِ فِي النَّجَاسَةِ الْمُتَجَسِّدَةِ وَهُوَ أَنْ يَكُونَ وَزْنُهُ قَدْرَ الدِّرْهَمِ الْكَبِيرِ الْمِثْقَالِ وَبِالْمِسَاحَةِ فِي غَيْرِهَا وَهُوَ قَدْرُ عَرْضِ الْكَفِّ

 

[3] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Tahārah, Baab Anjas, vol 1, p 320

وَفِي الْفَتْحِ: صَبِيٌّ ارْتَضَعَ ثُمَّ قَاءَ فَأَصَابَ ثِيَابَ الْأُمِّ إنْ كَانَ مِلْءَ الْفَمِ فَنَجِسٌ، فَإِذَا زَادَ عَلَى قَدْرِ الدِّرْهَمِ مَنَعَ.

[4] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitab Wudhu, vol 1, p 36

قَوْلُهُ:، وَلَوْ مُرَّةً أَوْ عَلَقًا أَوْ طَعَامًا أَوْ مَاءً) بَيَانٌ لِعَدَمِ الْفَرْقِ بَيْنَ أَنْوَاعِ الْقَيْءِ، وَالْعَلَقُ مَا اشْتَدَّتْ حُمْرَتُهُ وَجَمُدَ أُطْلِقَ فِي الطَّعَامِ وَالْمَاءِ قَالَ الْحَسَنُ إذَا تَنَاوَلَ طَعَامًا أَوْ مَاءً ثُمَّ قَاءَ مِنْ سَاعَتِهِ لَا يَنْقُضُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ طَاهِرٌ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَسْتَحِلْ وَإِنَّمَا اتَّصَلَ بِهِ قَلِيلُ الْقَيْءِ فَلَا يَكُونُ حَدَثًا فَلَا يَكُونُ نَجَسًا وَكَذَا الصَّبِيُّ إذَا ارْتَضَعَ وَقَاءَ مِنْ سَاعَتِهِ وَصَحَّحَهُ فِي الْمِعْرَاجِ وَغَيْرِهِ وَمَحَلُّ الِاخْتِلَافِ مَا إذَا وَصَلَ إلَى مَعِدَتِهِ وَلَمْ يَسْتَقِرَّ أَمَّا لَوْ قَاءَ قَبْلَ الْوُصُولِ إلَيْهَا، وَهُوَ فِي الْمَرِيءِ، فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَنْقُضُ اتِّفَاقًا كَمَا ذَكَرَهُ الزَّاهِدِيُّ وَفِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ

[5] See the links below

Reflux in babies – NHS (www.nhs.uk)

Baby Vomiting No Fever: Why This Happens and What to Do (healthline.com) [accessed 14th July 2021]