Giving Qurbani Meat to Non-Muslims

Giving Qurbani Meat to Non-Muslims

13th July 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to feed Non-Muslims Qurbani meat and how much portion?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

In principle, the owner of the Qurbani animal has the choice to either retain the entire animal or to feed others. Islām however encourages Muslims to retain some of the meat and to distribute some portion onto others as was the practice amongst the noble companions. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam himself encouraged feeding others also.[1] Jurists have generally recommended, but not compulsory, that the meat should be divided into three portions; one for themselves, one for friends and family and one for the sadaqah.[2]  As for giving some portion of the Qurbani meat to non-Muslims then it is generally permissible. [3] The following narration can be used to substantiate its permissibility. Imam Mujahid rahimahullah reports that a sheep was slaughtered for Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn ‘Amr radhiyallahu anhu by a member of his family, and when he came, he said: Did you give some to our Jewish neighbour, did you give some to our Jewish neighbour? For I heard the Messenger of Allah say: “Jibreel kept urging me to treat neighbours kindly until I thought that he would make neighbours heirs.”[4]

 

Therefore, it is generally permitted to feed some Qurbani meat to non-Muslims. If the Qurbani was for a vow or a penalty then it won’t be permissible.[5]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Sunnan Tirmidhi, Abwab al-Adhahi, No: 1505

بَابُ مَا جَاءَ أَنَّ الشَّاةَ الوَاحِدَةَ تُجْزِي عَنْ أَهْلِ البَيْتِ

سَمِعْتُ عَطَاءَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ يَقُولُ: سَأَلْتُ أَبَا أَيُّوبَ الأَنْصَارِيَّ: كَيْفَ كَانَتِ الضَّحَايَا عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ فَقَالَ: «كَانَ الرَّجُلُ يُضَحِّي بِالشَّاةِ عَنْهُ وَعَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ، فَيَأْكُلُونَ وَيُطْعِمُونَ حَتَّى تَبَاهَى النَّاسُ، فَصَارَتْ كَمَا تَرَى»

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Udhiya,   vol 5 p. 80

فَصْلٌ فِي بَيَانُ مَا يُسْتَحَبُّ قَبْلَ التَّضْحِيَةِ وَبَعْدَهَا وَمَا يُكْرَهُ

 وَيُسْتَحَبُّ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى – عَزَّ شَأْنُهُ – {فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْبَائِسَ الْفَقِيرَ} [الحج: 28] وَرُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ «إذَا ضَحَّى أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيَأْكُلْ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ وَيُطْعِمْ مِنْهُ غَيْرَهُ»

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh, Bāb Shurootus Salāh, vol 6 p. 328

(قَوْلُهُ وَنُدِبَ إلَخْ) قَالَ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ: وَالْأَفْضَلُ أَنْ يَتَصَدَّقَ بِالثُّلُثِ وَيَتَّخِذَ الثُّلُثَ ضِيَافَةً لِأَقْرِبَائِهِ وَأَصْدِقَائِهِ وَيَدَّخِرَ الثُّلُثَ؛ وَيُسْتَحَبُّ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْهَا، وَلَوْ حَبَسَ الْكُلَّ لِنَفْسِهِ جَازَ لِأَنَّ الْقُرْبَةَ فِي الْإِرَاقَةِ وَالتَّصَدُّقِ بِاللَّحْمِ تَطَوُّعٌ

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitābul Udhiyah, Bāb Ma Yusthabbu fil Udhiyati…, vol 5 p. 300

يهب منها ما شاء للغنى والفقير والمسلم والذمى كذا فى الغياثية

 

Mufti Mahmood Ganghohi, Fatwa Mahmoodiya, Kitaab Al Udhiya, Baab  Fi Kismatil Lahmi,,, Vol 17, pg 434

غیر مسلم کو قربانی کا گوشت دینا جائز ہے لیکن معاوضہ خدمت میں نہ دے

 

[4]  Sunnan Tirmidhi, Abwab al-Adhahi, No: 1943

بَابُ مَا جَاءَ فِي حَقِّ الجِوَارِ

1943 – حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ شَابُورَ، وَبَشِيرٍ أَبِي إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَمْرٍو ذُبِحَتْ لَهُ شَاةٌ فِي أَهْلِهِ، فَلَمَّا جَاءَ قَالَ: أَهْدَيْتُمْ لِجَارِنَا اليَهُودِيِّ؟ أَهْدَيْتُمْ لِجَارِنَا اليَهُودِيِّ؟ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «مَا زَالَ جِبْرِيلُ يُوصِينِي بِالجَارِ حَتَّى ظَنَنْتُ أَنَّهُ سَيُوَرِّثُهُ» وَفِي البَابِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، وَأَنَسٍ، وَالمِقْدَادِ بْنِ الأَسْوَدِ، وَعُقْبَةَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ، وَأَبِي شُرَيْحٍ، وَأَبِي أُمَامَةَ: هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الوَجْهِ، وَقَدْ رُوِيَ هَذَا الحَدِيثُ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَيْضًا

 

[5] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh, Bāb Shurootus Salāh, vol 6 p. 327

(قَوْلُهُ وَيَأْكُلُ مِنْ لَحْمِ الْأُضْحِيَّةَ إلَخْ) هَذَا فِي الْأُضْحِيَّةَ الْوَاجِبَةِ وَالسُّنَّةِ سَوَاءٌ إذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ وَاجِبَةً بِالنَّذْرِ، وَإِنْ وَجَبَتْ بِهِ فَلَا يَأْكُلُ مِنْهَا شَيْئًا وَلَا يُطْعِمُ غَنِيًّا سَوَاءٌ كَانَ النَّاذِرُ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا لِأَنَّ سَبِيلَهَا التَّصَدُّقُ وَلَيْسَ لِلْمُتَصَدِّقِ ذَلِكَ

 

How to Calculate Zakāt on Committee or Kitty Savings?

How to Calculate Zakāt on Committee or Kitty Savings?

5th July 2021

 

Question: How does one calculate Zakāt on savings through committee or kitty savings? It’s a type of saving scheme where a group of people contribute monthly a specific amount into a pot for a certain period and whoever’s name comes out is their turn to take the full sum. They must continue to contribute monthly to reimburse all of the members.   Appreciate if you could provide a detailed answer on this matter.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The type of scheme you have briefly described is very common amongst South Asian Indo-Pak community. It is a scheme where members support one another to receive a large sum of money in a short period which can take up to months or years to save. Many join this scheme either for personal savings or to fulfil large financial costs such as paying off a large sum of debt, pay a deposit for a mortgage, cash their house or for other essentials. The way the scheme works is that you have members comprising of family, relatives and acquaintances who mutually contribute monthly or weekly into a pot. The number of participants vary depending on the agreed duration and the amount received. The trustee takes responsibility for safe-keeping all of the weekly or monthly contributions into a pot. The trustee then draws a list of the names of the members for each week or month and whoever’s turn it is, they receive the large sum.

To illustrate this, let’s say for instance there are 24 members; each person contributing a sum of £200 a month and the committee durations lasts up to two years from January 2021 to December 2022.[1]  The sum of £200 is collected at the 1st of every month. This means that each person receives in total £4,800 through this committee scheme. A trustee draws up a list of names of all of the members for each month and whoever’s turn it is, they receive the full amount at the beginning of the month.[2] Each participant after receiving the sum of £4,800 on their turn must continue to pay the monthly £200 until the end of term (in our example, December 2022). So long as you contribute, you are the creditor but once you’ve taken the funds on your turn, you now become the debtor. In other words, you’ve taken back what you contributed so far but now fall into debt of the remainder by taking everyone else’s monthly contribution which is why you continue to give £200 every month thereafter so to reimburse all members. Hence it is a crediting and borrowing base system. The only person who doesn’t incur any debt is the one receiving the large sum on their turn at the end as by then, the contract ends.  In short, the principle being that your initial contribution before your turn belongs to you but whatever you receive surplus to your initial contribution on your turn now belongs to someone else.  It is important to note that accessing the funds is not like a typical personal savings in one’s bank account where one can access them at any time. You only receive the large sum upon your turn.

The implication this has when calculating Zakāt on funds received through such schemes depends on the following issues namely; ownership, paying Zakāt on debt, savings utilised for essential needs and the elapsing of a complete lunar year. To explain further, firstly according to the general principle as outlined by the jurists, Zakāt becomes necessary if a person fully owns the savings by which they mean both ownership and physical possession.[3] Once the savings reach the Nisāb threshold and a complete lunar year has elapsed then Zakāt becomes obligatory except that paying it immediately is not necessary until after taking possession over it on their turn.[4] If you are the last person to receive the funds then Zakāt must be paid on the previous years as well. [5]  It is necessary to calculate Zakāt on the amount you have contributed until your turn as after that is debt. So, for instance, in light of the above example if someone receives £4,800 after twelve months then they only need to calculate Zakāt on £2,400 once a complete lunar year has passed as the remaining half is now a debt.[6]  When receiving the funds on your turn and the amount has not reached the Nisab then Zakāt is not necessary. For instance, you received the £4,800 after a month then since you have only contributed £200 only so far (which is below the current Nisab rate) it won’t be Zakatable as the remainder £4,600 is a debt.

A second important issue to be considered is whether the savings will be used for one’s essentials or not. Zakāt only applies if the savings were not used for any personal essentials. As was highlighted above that people join the committee scheme to pay off large sums to either fulfil personal debt or for their essential needs, for instance refurbishing home etc. In light of the above example if the savings despite reaching the Nisāb threshold, was used for personal essentials or to repay someone else’s debt instantly then calculating Zakāt would not be necessary at all. [7]

This now leads onto the final point that is calculating Zakāt on debt. As was explained that each member incurs a debt through this scheme on the residue amount. The monthly contribution of £200 after receiving the funds is to reimburse everyone else. The general principle is that Zakāt is not levied on debt however, contemporary scholars have distinguished between long-term and short-term debt. Long-term debt refers to debt owed beyond twelve months and short-term debt are those debts owed within 12 months. The general view is that only short-term debts are deductible from Zakāt but Zakāt must be calculated on long-term debts, debts that remain with the person beyond twelve months.[8] Going by the above example, if for instance a person received £4,800 after three months then excluding the £600, they will deduct from the remaining £4,200 debt the £200 monthly payment until that year’s Zakāt due date within 12 months. The remaining debt beyond that which is classed as long-term debt will not be deductible i.e.  Zakāt must be paid on it in addition to the £600. In another scenario, for instance a person receives £4,800 after fifteen months then besides the £3,000 (the total savings) the residue debt of £1,800 if paid within the year then will be deducted from Zakāt.

The above was a general guide to calculating Zakāt on committee funds. We have tried simplifying as much as possible to avoid overcomplicating its understanding.  It is appreciated that only those involved in the scheme are able to relate to the examples given. What is important to remember is that how you classify the funds has implications on the ruling of Zakāt. The funds received on your turn is a combination of savings and debt provided you are not the last person on the list to receive it. Zakāt however will not apply if all of the funds are used to fulfil basic needs before your Zakāt due date within twelve months according to the lunar calendar. In the case of confusion, it is recommended to speak to a reliable and experienced Mufti for further clarification regarding your specific matter.

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] In most committee schemes, the duration extends when more people intend to join which increases the savings.

[2] Some trustees instead of drawing up a list prioritise those in need to receive the full savings at the beginning of the month.

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 1, p. 170

الْبَابُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي تَفْسِيرِهَا وَصِفَتِهَا وَشَرَائِطِهَا

مِنْهَا الْمِلْكُ التَّامُّ وَهُوَ مَا اجْتَمَعَ فِيهِ الْمِلْكُ وَالْيَدُ وَأَمَّا إذَا وُجِدَ الْمِلْكُ دُونَ الْيَدِ كَالصَّدَاقِ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ أَوْ وُجِدَ الْيَدُ دُونَ الْمِلْكِ كَمِلْكِ الْمُكَاتَبِ وَالْمَدْيُونِ لَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 218

شُرُوط وُجُوب الزَّكَاة

وَأَطْلَقَ الْمِلْكَ فَانْصَرَفَ إلَى الْكَامِلِ، وَهُوَ الْمَمْلُوكُ رَقَبَةً وَيَدًا فَلَا يَجِبُ عَلَى الْمُشْتَرِي فِيمَا اشْتَرَاهُ لِلتِّجَارَةِ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ، وَلَا عَلَى الْمَوْلَى فِي عَبْدِهِ الْمُعَدِّ لِلتِّجَارَةِ إذَا أَبَقَ لِعَدَمِ الْيَدِ، وَلَا الْمَغْصُوبِ، وَلَا الْمَجْحُودِ إذَا عَادَ إلَى صَاحِبِهِ كَذَا فِي غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ، وَلَا يَلْزَمُ عَلَيْهِ ابْنُ السَّبِيلِ؛ لِأَنَّ يَدَ نَائِبِهِ كَيَدِهِ كَذَا فِي مِعْرَاجِ الدِّرَايَةِ، وَمِنْ مَوَانِعِ الْوُجُوبِ الرَّهْنُ إذَا كَانَ فِي يَدِ الْمُرْتَهِنِ لِعَدَمِ مِلْكِ الْيَدِ

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 9

فَصْلٌ الشَّرَائِطُ الَّتِي تَرْجِعُ إلَى الْمَالِ

وَمِنْهَا الْمِلْكُ الْمُطْلَقُ وَهُوَ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَمْلُوكًا لَهُ رَقَبَةً وَيَدًا وَهَذَا قَوْلُ أَصْحَابِنَا الثَّلَاثَةِ، وَقَالَ زُفَرُ: ” الْيَدُ لَيْسَتْ بِشَرْطٍ ” وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الشَّافِعِيِّ فَلَا تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِي الْمَالِ الضِّمَارِ عِنْدَنَا خِلَافًا لَهُمَا.

 

[4] One may however choose to pay it in advance if they want to that is

 

[5] This is the general rule otherwise one may choose to pay beforehand if they wish.

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 9

 

فَصْلٌ الشَّرَائِطُ الَّتِي تَرْجِعُ إلَى الْمَالِ

وَتَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِي الدَّيْنِ مَعَ عَدَمِ الْقَبْضِ، وَتَجِبُ فِي الْمَدْفُونِ فِي الْبَيْتِ فَثَبَتَ أَنَّ الزَّكَاةَ وَظِيفَةُ الْمِلْكِ وَالْمِلْكُ مَوْجُودٌ فَتَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِيهِ إلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا يُخَاطَبُ بِالْأَدَاءِ لِلْحَالِ لِعَجْزِهِ عَنْ الْأَدَاءِ لِبُعْدِ يَدِهِ عَنْهُ وَهَذَا لَا يَنْفِي الْوُجُوبَ كَمَا فِي ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ.

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 225

شُرُوط وُجُوب الزَّكَاة

وَقَدَّمْنَا أَنَّ الْمَبِيعَ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ لَا تَجِبُ زَكَاتُهُ عَلَى الْمُشْتَرِي وَذَكَرَ فِي الْمُحِيطِ فِي بَيَانِ أَقْسَامِ الدَّيْنِ أَنَّ الْمَبِيعَ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ، قِيلَ: لَا يَكُونُ نِصَابًا؛ لِأَنَّ الْمِلْكَ فِيهِ نَاقِصٌ بِافْتِقَادِ الْيَدِ، وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ يَكُونُ نِصَابًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ عِوَضٌ عَنْ مَالٍ كَانَتْ يَدُهُ ثَابِتَةً عَلَيْهِ، وَقَدْ أَمْكَنَهُ احْتِوَاءُ الْيَدِ عَلَى الْعِوَضِ فَتُعْتَبَرُ يَدُهُ بَاقِيَةً عَلَى النِّصَابِ بِاعْتِبَارِ التَّمَكُّنِ شَرْعًا اهـ فَعَلَى هَذَا قَوْلُهُمْ: لَا تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ مَعْنَاهُ قَبْلَ قَبْضِهِ

وَأَمَّا بَعْدَ قَبْضِهِ فَتَجِبُ زَكَاتُهُ فِيمَا مَضَى كَالدَّيْنِ الْقَوِيِّ،

 

 

[6] So the remaining 12 months of £200 will be deducted from their Zakat calculation.

 

[7]  Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 260

(فَارِغٍ عَنْ دَيْنٍ لَهُ مُطَالِبٌ مِنْ جِهَةِ الْعِبَادِ)

قَوْلُهُ فَارِغٍ عَنْ دَيْنٍ) بِالْجَرِّ صِفَةٌ نِصَابٍ، وَأَطْلَقَهُ فَشَمِلَ الدَّيْنَ الْعَارِضَ كَمَا يَذْكُرُهُ الشَّارِحُ وَيَأْتِي بَيَانُهُ، وَهَذَا إذَا كَانَ الدَّيْنُ فِي ذِمَّتِهِ قَبْلَ وُجُوبِ الزَّكَاةِ، فَلَوْ لَحِقَهُ بَعْدَهُ لَمْ تَسْقُطْ الزَّكَاةُ لِأَنَّهَا ثَبَتَتْ فِي ذِمَّتِهِ فَلَا يُسْقِطُهَا مَا لَحِقَ مِنْ الدَّيْنِ بَعْدَ ثُبُوتِهَا جَوْهَرَةٌ

 

vol 2 p. 262

(وَ) فَارِغٍ (عَنْ حَاجَتِهِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ) لِأَنَّ الْمَشْغُولَ بِهَا كَالْمَعْدُومِ

قَوْلُهُ: وَفَارِغٍ عَنْ حَاجَتِهِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ) أَشَارَ إلَى أَنَّهُ مَعْطُوفٌ عَلَى قَوْلِهِ عَنْ دَيْنٍ (قَوْلُهُ وَفَسَّرَهُ ابْنُ مَلَكٍ) أَيْ فَسَّرَ الْمَشْغُولَ بِالْحَاجَةِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ وَالْأَوْلَى فَسَّرَهَا، وَذَلِكَ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَهِيَ مَا يَدْفَعُ الْهَلَاكَ عَنْ الْإِنْسَانِ تَحْقِيقًا كَالنَّفَقَةِ وَدُورِ السُّكْنَى وَآلَاتِ الْحَرْبِ وَالثِّيَابِ الْمُحْتَاجِ إلَيْهَا لِدَفْعِ الْحَرِّ أَوْ الْبَرْدِ أَوْ تَقْدِيرًا كَالدَّيْنِ، فَإِنَّ الْمَدْيُونَ مُحْتَاجٌ إلَى قَضَائِهِ بِمَا فِي يَدِهِ مِنْ النِّصَابِ دَفْعًا عَنْ نَفْسِهِ الْحَبْسَ الَّذِي هُوَ كَالْهَلَاكِ وَكَآلَاتِ الْحِرْفَةِ وَأَثَاثِ الْمَنْزِلِ وَدَوَابِّ الرُّكُوبِ وَكُتُبِ الْعِلْمِ لِأَهْلِهَا فَإِنَّ الْجَهْلَ عِنْدَهُمْ كَالْهَلَاكِ، فَإِذَا كَانَ لَهُ دَرَاهِمُ مُسْتَحَقَّةٌ بِصَرْفِهَا إلَى تِلْكَ الْحَوَائِجِ صَارَتْ كَالْمَعْدُومَةِ، كَمَا أَنَّ الْمَاءَ الْمُسْتَحَقَّ بِصَرْفِهِ إلَى الْعَطَشِ كَانَ كَالْمَعْدُومِ وَجَازَ عِنْدَهُ التَّيَمُّمُ.

 

[8] For more details on this see our fatwa

Zakāt on Long Term Loans – JKN Fatawa

Giving Zakāt to Your Sister; What are the Conditions?

Giving Zakāt to Your Sister; What are the Conditions?

30th June 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: My younger sister is a widow with two children. She has a job which can pay for her daughters fees only. She lives with her in-law who although are considerate but have financial limitations themselves. They do not finance her in any way. She comes to visit sometimes with my mother who is also a widow & cannot support her financially. We have no brothers and she cannot pay for her other living expenses because her salary is not enough. The bedroom set and TV in her room it’s from when her husband was alive. The jewellery that she has from her dowry and her husband belong now to her daughters. Both the daughter are minors now. My sister has also health issues like asthma. She is very proud and never asks for anything from us. I wanted to ask if she is eligible for Zakāt or not? As a sister is it not my first obligation towards relative. I am a housewife & my husband is the bread earner

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, the general principle is that anyone who has additional savings equal or above the threshold of Nisāb or assets beyond their basic necessities; house, basic furniture, clothing and conveyance equivalent to the Nisāb value is considered rich and not eligible for Zakāt. It is only that person who possesses earnings equal or below the threshold of Nisāb or household assets but utilised for their daily essentials and have nothing thereafter who are eligible for Zakāt.[1]

Concerning your case, the dowry that was given to your sister at the time of marriage belongs to her unless she has fully gifted it to her daughters and is not in her possession anymore.[2]

She will calculate the value of the TV and any excess belongings she has in her possession.  If all of this combined reaches the value of Nisāb (612.35 grams of silver or 87.479 grams of gold) or any currency that equals this amount) then she is not eligible for Zakāt.[3] If however, those excess assets do not value to the Nisāb given above then she would be eligible to receive Zakāt. As a sister, you are allowed to give your Zakāt to her and in doing so it will be more rewarding. [4]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1]  Ibn Nujaym, Al Bahr al Raiq, Kitabuz Zakaat, vol 2, p 258

وَالْأَوْلَى أَنْ يُفَسَّرَ الْفَقِيرُ بِمَنْ لَهُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ كَمَا فِي النُّقَايَةِ أَخْذًا مِنْ قَوْلِهِمْ يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَى مَنْ يَمْلِكُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرَ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ تَامٍّ، وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرِقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ، وَلَا خِلَافَ فِي أَنَّهُمَا صِنْفَانِ هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ؛

 

[2] Raddul Muhtaar, Kitabuz Zakaat, Bab al Masraf, vol 2, p 339

 أَيْ مَصْرِفِ الزَّكَاةِ وَالْعُشْرِ، وَأَمَّا خُمُسُ الْمَعْدِنِ فَمَصْرِفُهُ كَالْغَنَائِمِ (هُوَ فَقِيرٌ، وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ) أَيْ دُونَ نِصَابٍ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ نَامٍ مُسْتَغْرِقٍ فِي الْحَاجَةِ.(وَمِسْكِينٌ مَنْ لَا شَيْءَ لَهُ) عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ، – لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {أَوْ مِسْكِينًا ذَا مَتْرَبَةٍ} [البلد: ١٦]- وَآيَةُ السَّفِينَةِ لِلتَّرَحُّمِ

 

[3] [3] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitabuz Zakaat, Bab al Masarif, vol 1, p 187

(مِنْهَا الْفَقِيرُ) وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرُ نَامٍ وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرَقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ فَلَا يُخْرِجُهُ عَنْ الْفَقِيرِ مِلْكُ نُصُبٍ كَثِيرَةٍ غَيْرِ نَامِيَةٍ إذَا كَانَتْ مُسْتَغْرَقَةً بِالْحَاجَةِ كَذَا فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ. التَّصَدُّقُ عَلَى الْفَقِيرِ الْعَالِمِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ التَّصَدُّقِ عَلَى الْجَاهِلِ كَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ.

 

[4] Al Bahr al Raaiq, Kitab uz Zakaata, Bab al Massarif, vol2, p262

قَوْلُهُ وَأَصْلِهِ، وَإِنْ عَلَا وَفَرْعِهِ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ) بِالْجَرِّ أَيْ لَا يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ إلَى أَبِيهِ وَجَدِّهِ، وَإِنْ عَلَا، وَلَا إلَى وَلَدِهِ وَوَلَدِ وَلَدِهِ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَنْفَعَةَ لَمْ تَنْقَطِعْ عَنْ الْمِلْكِ مِنْ كُلِّ وَجْهٍ كَمَا قَدَّمَهُ فِي تَعْرِيفِ الزَّكَاةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ عَلَيْهِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ رَقَبَةً وَمَنْفَعَةً، وَلَمْ يُوجَدْ فِي الْأُصُولِ وَالْفُرُوعِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ مَنْفَعَةً وَإِنْ وَجَدَ رَقَبَةً، وَفِي عَبْدِهِ وُجِدَ الْإِخْرَاجُ مَنْفَعَةً لَا رَقَبَةً كَذَا فِي الْمُسْتَصْفَى، وَفِيهِ إشَارَةٌ إلَى أَنَّ هَذَا الْحُكْمَ لَا يَخُصُّ الزَّكَاةَ بَلْ كُلُّ صَدَقَةٍ وَاجِبَةٍ لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُهَا لَهُمْ كَأَحَدِ الزَّوْجَيْنِ كَالْكَفَّارَاتِ وَصَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ وَالنُّذُورِ، وَقُيِّدَ بِأَصْلِهِ وَفَرْعِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ مَنْ سِوَاهُمْ مِنْ الْقَرَابَةِ يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ لَهُمْ، وَهُوَ أَوْلَى لِمَا فِيهِ مِنْ الصِّلَةِ مَعَ الصَّدَقَةِ كَالْإِخْوَةِ وَالْأَخَوَاتِ وَالْأَعْمَامِ وَالْعَمَّاتِ وَالْأَخْوَالِ وَالْخَالَاتِ الْفُقَرَاءِ وَلِهَذَا قَالَ فِي الْفَتَاوَى الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ: يَبْدَأُ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ بِالْأَقَارِبِ ثُمَّ الْمَوَالِي ثُمَّ الْجِيرَانِ

Husband Paying for his Wife’s Zakāt

Husband Paying for his Wife’s Zakāt

9th September 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Can the husband pay Zakāt on his wife’s behalf without her knowledge?

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, a husband is allowed to pay Zakāt on behalf of his wife but only if she is aware that her husband will pay it for her. If he paid it without her knowledge of it nor she consented to it then it will not be fulfilled. She may consent to it either explicitly or implicitly for instance, if she is aware that her husband pays for her Zakāt every year during a particular month of the year then it is permissible.[1]

This being said, it is ideal for the husband to still notify her though so that she is aware of her obligation being fulfilled and so that she can make intention of her Zakāt being paid from the money that her husband has given. It must be noted that after paying it on her behalf, if he demands to be reimbursed then he can do so.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Raddul Muhtar, Kitaab uz Zakaat, vol 2, p 268

ثُمَّ قَالَ فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة أَوْ وُجِدَتْ دَلَالَةُ الْإِذْنِ بِالْخَلْطِ كَمَا جَرَتْ الْعَادَةُ بِالْإِذْنِ مِنْ أَرْبَابِ الْحِنْطَةِ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ؛ وَكَذَلِكَ الْمُتَوَلِّي إذَا كَانَ فِي يَدِهِ أُوقِيَّاتٌ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ وَخَلَطَ غَلَّاتِهَا ضَمِنَ وَكَذَلِكَ السِّمْسَارُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَثْمَانَ أَوْ الْبَيَّاعُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَمْتِعَةَ يَضْمَنُ. اهـ. قَالَ فِي التَّجْنِيسِ: وَلَا عُرْفَ فِي حَقِّ السَّمَاسِرَةِ وَالْبَيَّاعِينَ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ وَالْأَمْتِعَةِ اهـ وَيَتَّصِلُ بِهَذَا الْعَالِمُ إذَا سَأَلَ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ شَيْئًا وَخَلَطَ يَضْمَنُ.

قُلْت: وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَنَّهُ لَوْ وُجِدَ الْعُرْفُ فَلَا ضَمَانَ لِوُجُودِ الْإِذْنِ حِينَئِذٍ دَلَالَةً. وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ عِلْمِ الْمَالِكِ بِهَذَا الْعُرْفِ لِيَكُونَ إذْنًا مِنْهُ دَلَالَةً

 

Ibn Nujaym, Al bahr al Raaiq, Ktaab uz Zakaat, vol 2, p 226-227

وَلَوْ أَدَّى زَكَاةَ غَيْرِهِ بِغَيْرِ أَمْرِهِ فَبَلَغَهُ فَأَجَازَ لَمْ يَجُزْ؛ لِأَنَّهَا وَجَدَتْ نَفَاذًا عَلَى الْمُتَصَدِّقِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مِلْكُهُ، وَلَمْ يَصِرْ نَائِبًا عَنْ غَيْرِهِ فَنَفَذَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَلَوْ تَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ بِأَمْرِهِ جَازَ وَيَرْجِعُ بِمَا دَفَعَ عِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَشْتَرِطْ الرُّجُوعَ كَالْأَمْرِ بِقَضَاءِ الدَّيْنِ وَعِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ لَا رُجُوعَ لَهُ إلَّا بِالشَّرْطِ، وَتَمَامُهُ فِي الْخَانِيَّةِ

 

 

Is Qurbani Necessary if Someone is in Debt

Is Qurbani Necessary if Someone is in Debt

20th JULY 2020               

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question:  If a person is in debt but has gold and silver etc, do they have to give qurbani or is paying off the debts more important. Would qurbani still be Wajib upon them?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

In reference to your query, the person must first enquire of the value of the gold and silver and whatever the total value of both together is then deduct the amount of debt from that. If thereafter, some money remains to the value of nisaab (Nisaab is the value of 52.5 tola of silver) then they must perform qurbani otherwise not. [1]

Take for instance, a person has silver to the value of £300 and gold to the value of £3000. So, their total assets are valued at £3300, (also add in any cash, and value of excess wealth which is surplus to ones needs for example excess clothes, gadgets, furniture etc. if they have any).[2]

A person’s debt is £3000 for instance. If one were to deduct the amount of debt from the total value of gold and silver then they would be left with £300. If the nisaab of qurbani is within £300 then performing qurbani becomes compulsory (provided that other criteria are met for it to be necessary) but if the value of nisaab is over £300 then qurbani will not be compulsory.

*NOTE*: The above was a simple illustration for understanding purpose otherwise the value of both assets and nisaab changes year to year.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam        

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Badaia’ sanaia, Kitabul Tadhiya, Vol 5, pg. 64

ولو كان عليه دين بحيث لو صرف نصابه لا ينقص نصابه ،لا تجب ، لان الدين يمنع وجوب الزكاة ، فلان يمنع وجوب الأضحية اولى ، لان الزكاة فرض والاضحية واجبة، والفرض فوق الواجب

 

Moulana Khalid Sayfullah Rahmani, Kitabul Fatawa,Qurbani, Vol 4, pg 134

                        سوال: کیا مقروض پر قربانی واجب ہے؟
جواب: ۔۔۔ قرض کی ادائیگی کے بعد بھی اس کے پاس اپنی بنیادی ضرورت کے علاوہ کوئی بھی مال ساڑھے باون تولہ چاندی کا بچ رہتا ہے تو ایسے شخص پر قربانی واجب۔      ..

 

Fatawa hindiyya, kitabul udhiya vol 5, pg 292.

وَلَوْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ بِحَيْثُ لَوْ صُرِفَ فِيهِ نَقَصَ نِصَابُهُ لَا تَجِبُ،

[2] Moulana Khalid Sayfullah Rahmani, Kitabul Fatawa,Qurbani, Vol 4, pg 132
اگر کسی کے ذمہ قرض ہو لیکن بنیادی ضروری اشیاء رہائشی مکان استعمالی سواری اور استعمالی کپڑوں کے علاوہ جو کچھ اس کے املاک میں ہون وہ اتنی ہو کے قرض ادا کرنے کے بعد بھی ساڑھے باون تولہ چاندی کی قیمت کے بقدر اس کے پاس بچ رہے تو ایسے شخص پر قربانی کرنا واجب ہے۔

 

Dr Wahab alzuhayli, Fiqhul islam wa adillatahu, Kitabul Udhiya, Vol 4, pg 2708
وهو أن يكون مالكاً مئتي درهم الذي هو نصاب الزكاة، أو متاعاً يساوي هذا المقدار زائداً عن مسكنه ولباسه، أو حاجته وكفايته هو ومن تجب عليه نفقتهم.

Calculating Zakāt or Performing Qurbani with Savings for Marriage

Calculating Zakāt or Performing Qurbani with Savings for Marriage

                                           20th July 2020

Question: I would like to ask a question regarding Zakāt and Qurbani. If a person is saving money aside to get married and this is the only saving money that they possess, and it is equal to nisāb, but one year hasn’t elapsed yet, then would Zakāt have to be given due to possessing this money, and would this person also have to give Qurbani too?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, the money you are saving for your marriage that equates to the nisab threshold, then whether Zakāt or Qurbani is necessary or not depends on whether you use it all up or not before the end of your Zakāt due date or before the Qurbani days. If you spend all of it on your marriage without anything remaining thereafter before your Zakāt due date then you are not required to pay Zakāt on it.  Likewise, Qurbani would also not be necessary if all of it was spent before the Qurbani days.

In principle, amongst the conditions of Zakāt is that a (complete) year must elapse on a Zakatable asset as stated in a Hadīth. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “There is no Zakāt in wealth until a year has elapsed.”[1] In other words, without a year elapsing, Zakāt is not applicable.  For Qurbani however, elapsing of a year is not essential rather possessing wealth during the three days of Qurbani or at least one of the days is taken into account.[2] Furthermore, as outlined by the classical jurists, Zakāt is not calculated on assets or money used for personal essentials. By essentials, it generally implies to that which a person’s adequate living standards depend on in order to avert hardship, otherwise without it one’s living conditions become difficult.[3] This includes all savings one intends to expend for their personal use before the year elapses such as purchasing a house etc. Saving up for one’s marriage is also in of itself an essential savings which should be non-calculable for Zakāt if spent before the ends of one’s Zakāt due date. Similarly, possessing personal essentials during the Qurbani days (or savings that shall be used instantly) does not make Qurbani mandatory.[4]

This was concerning utilising all of your savings for marriage before the end of year but if it remained in your possession until after its year elapses and your Zakāt is now due then paying Zakāt on it is necessary because personal essential is limited during the year and not thereafter.[5] Even if you spend it thereafter without paying your Zakāt then it will still be necessary, because it is tantamount to someone perishing (istihlāk) their Zakatable wealth after it was due on them.[6] Similarly, if your savings remain unused until the third day of Qurbani then so does Qurbani becoming necessary upon you even if you spent all of your wealth thereafter. If you missed performing Qurbani then you must compensate by donating the value of the Qurbani animal into charity.[7]

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Sunnan Ibn Majah, No: 1792

بَابُ مَنِ اسْتَفَادَ مَالًا

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُول اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «لَا زَكَاةَ فِي مَالٍ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ»

 

[2] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Ud-hiyyah, vol 5, p. 65

[فَصْلٌ فِي أَنْوَاعِ كَيْفِيَّةِ الْوُجُوبِ]

(مِنْهَا) أَنَّهَا تَجِبُ فِي وَقْتِهَا وُجُوبًا مُوَسَّعًا؛ وَمَعْنَاهُ أَنَّهَا تَجِبُ فِي جُمْلَةِ الْوَقْتِ غَيْرَ عَيْنٍ كَوُجُوبِ الصَّلَاةِ فِي وَقْتِهَا فَفِي أَيِّ وَقْتٍ ضَحَّى مَنْ عَلَيْهِ الْوَاجِبُ كَانَ مُؤَدِّيًا لِلْوَاجِبِ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ فِي أَوَّلِ الْوَقْتِ أَوْ وَسَطِهِ أَوْ آخِرِهِ كَالصَّلَاةِ، وَالْأَصْلُ أَنَّ مَا وَجَبَ فِي جُزْءٍ مِنْ الْوَقْتِ غَيْرَ عَيْنٍ يَتَعَيَّنُ الْجُزْءُ الَّذِي أَدَّى فِيهِ الْوُجُوبَ أَوْ آخِرِ الْوَقْتِ كَمَا فِي الصَّلَاةِ وَهُوَ الصَّحِيحُ مِنْ الْأَقَاوِيلِ عَلَى مَا عُرِفَ فِي أُصُولِ الْفِقْهِ، وَعَلَى هَذَا يُخَرَّجُ مَا إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلًا لِلْوُجُوبِ فِي أَوَّلِ الْوَقْتِ ثُمَّ صَارَ أَهْلًا فِي آخِرِهِ بِأَنْ كَانَ كَافِرًا أَوْ عَبْدًا أَوْ فَقِيرًا أَوْ مُسَافِرًا فِي أَوَّلِ الْوَقْتِ ثُمَّ أَسْلَمَ أَوْ أُعْتِقَ أَوْ أَيْسَرَ أَوْ أَقَامَ فِي آخِرِهِ أَنَّهُ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ،

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb, Zakāt, vol 1, p. 172

وَمِنْهَا فَرَاغُ الْمَالِ) عَنْ حَاجَتِهِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ)

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi of al-Farfoor, Kitāb, Zakāt  vol 5, p. 432-3

 

(قوله: وفارغ عن حاجته الأصلية) أشار إلى أنه معطوف على قوله عن دين (قوله وفسره ابن ملك) أي فسر المشغول بالحاجة الأصلية والأولى فسرها، وذلك حيث قال: وهي ما يدفع الهلاك عن الإنسان تحقيقا كالنفقة ودور السكنى وآلات الحرب والثياب المحتاج إليها لدفع الحر أو البرد أو تقديرا كالدين، فإن المديون محتاج إلى قضائه بما في يده من النصاب دفعا عن نفسه الحبس الذي هو كالهلاك وكآلات الحرفة وأثاث المنزل ودواب الركوب وكتب العلم لأهلها فإن الجهل عندهم كالهلاك، فإذا كان له دراهم مستحقة بصرفها إلى تلك الحوائج صارت كالمعدومة، كما أن الماء المستحق بصرفه إلى العطش كان كالمعدوم وجاز عنده التيمم. اهـ. وظاهر قوله فإذا كان له دراهم إلخ أن المراد من قوله: وفارغ عن حاجته الأصلية ما كان نصابا من النقدين أو أحدهما فارغا عن الصرف إلى تلك الحوائج، لكن كلام الهداية مشعر بأن المراد به نفس الحوائج، فإنه قال: وليس في دور السكنى وثياب البدن وأثاث المنازل ودواب الركوب وعبيد الخدمة وسلاح الاستعمال زكاة؛ لأنها مشغولة بحاجته الأصلية وليست بنامية. اهـ. وبه يشعر كلام المصنف الآتي أيضا. وأشار كلام الهداية إلى أنه لا يضر كونها غير نامية أيضا؛ إذ لا مانع من خروجها مرتين كما خرج الدين ثانيا بقوله: فارغ عن حوائجه الأصلية، وخصه بالذكر كما قال القهستاني لما فيه من التفصيل.

قلت: على أنه لا يعترض بالقيد اللاحق على السابق الأخص، فإن الحوائج الأصلية أعم من الدين والنامي أعم منها لأنه يخرج به كتب العلم لغير أهلها، وليس من الحوائج الأصلية، لكن قد يقال: المتون موضوعة للاختصار فما فائدة إخراج الحوائج مرتين، نعم تظهر الفائدة في ذكر القيدين على ما قرره ابن ملك من أن المراد بالأول النصاب من أحد النقدين المستحق الصرف إليها، فيكون التقييد بالنماء احترازا عن أعيانها، والتقييد بالحوائج الأصلية احترازا عن أثمانها، فإذا كان معه دراهم أمسكها بنية صرفها إلى حاجته الأصلية لا تجب الزكاة فيها إذا حال الحول، وهي عنده، لكن اعترضه في البحر بقوله: ويخالفه ما في المعراج في فصل زكاة العروض أن الزكاة تجب في النقد كيفما أمسكه للنماء أو للنفقة، وكذا في البدائع في بحث النماء التقديري. اهـ.

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb, Zakāt, vol 2 p. 222

وَشَرَطَ فَرَاغَهُ عَنْ الْحَاجَةِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَالَ الْمَشْغُولَ بِهَا كَالْمَعْدُومِ وَفَسَّرَهَا فِي شَرْحِ الْمَجْمَعِ لِابْنِ الْمَلِكِ بِمَا يَدْفَعُ الْهَلَاكَ عَنْ الْإِنْسَانِ تَحْقِيقًا أَوْ تَقْدِيرًا فَالثَّانِي كَالدَّيْنِ وَالْأَوَّلُ كَالنَّفَقَةِ وَدُورِ السُّكْنَى وَآلَاتِ الْحَرْبِ وَالثِّيَابِ الْمُحْتَاجِ إلَيْهَا لِدَفْعِ الْحَرِّ أَوْ الْبَرْدِ وَكَآلَاتِ الْحِرْفَةِ وَأَثَاثِ الْمَنْزِلِ وَدَوَابِّ الرُّكُوبِ وَكُتُبِ الْعِلْمِ لِأَهْلِهَا فَإِذَا كَانَ لَهُ دَرَاهِمُ مُسْتَحَقَّةٌ لِيَصْرِفَهَا إلَى تِلْكَ الْحَوَائِجِ صَارَتْ كَالْمَعْدُومَةِ كَمَا أَنَّ الْمَاءَ الْمُسْتَحَقَّ لِصَرْفِهِ إلَى الْعَطَشِ كَانَ كَالْمَعْدُومِ وَجَازَ عِنْدَهُ التَّيَمُّمُ اهـ. فَقَدْ صَرَّحَ بِأَنَّ مَنْ مَعَهُ دَرَاهِمُ وَأَمْسَكَهَا بِنِيَّةِ صَرْفِهَا إلَى حَاجَتِهِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ لَا تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ إذَا حَالَ الْحَوْلُ وَهِيَ عِنْدَهُ وَيُخَالِفُهُ مَا فِي مِعْرَاجِ الدِّرَايَةِ فِي فَصْلِ زَكَاةِ الْعُرُوضِ أَنَّ الزَّكَاةَ تَجِبُ فِي النَّقْدِ كَيْفَمَا أَمْسَكَهُ لِلنَّمَاءِ أَوْ لِلنَّفَقَةِ اهـ

 

[4] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Udh-Hiyyah, vol 1, p. 191

[الْبَابُ الثَّامِنُ فِي صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ]

، وَهِيَ وَاجِبَةٌ عَلَى الْحُرِّ الْمُسْلِمِ الْمَالِكِ لِمِقْدَارِ النِّصَابِ فَاضِلًا عَنْ حَوَائِجِهِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ كَذَا فِي الِاخْتِيَارِ شَرْحِ الْمُخْتَارِ، وَلَا يُعْتَبَرُ فِيهِ وَصْفُ النَّمَاءِ وَيَتَعَلَّقُ بِهَذَا النِّصَابِ وُجُوبُ الْأُضْحِيَّةِ،

 

[5] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi of al-Farfoor, Kitāb, Zakāt  vol 5, p. 433

 

قلت: وأقره في النهر والشرنبلالية وشرح المقدسي، وسيصرح به الشارح أيضا، ونحوه قوله في السراج سواء أمسكه للتجارة أو غيرها، وكذا قوله في التتارخانية نوى التجارة أولا، لكن حيث كان ما قاله ابن ملك موافقا لظاهر عبارات المتون كما علمت، وقال ح إنه الحق فالأولى التوفيق بحمل ما في البدائع وغيرها، على ما إذا أمسكه لينفق منه كل ما يحتاجه فحال الحول، وقد بقي معه منه نصاب فإنه يزكي ذلك الباقي وإن كان قصده الإنفاق منه أيضا في المستقبل لعدم استحقاق صرفه إلى حوائجه الأصلية وقت حولان الحول، بخلاف ما إذا حال الحول وهو مستحق الصرف إليها، لكن يحتاج إلى الفرق بين هذا، وبين ما حال الحول عليه، وهو محتاج منه إلى أداء دين كفارة أو نذر أو حج، فإنه محتاج إليها أيضا لبراءة ذمته وكذا ما سيأتي في الحج من أنه لو كان له مال، ويخاف العزوبة يلزمه الحج به إذا خرج أهل بلده قبل أن يتزوج، وكذا لو كان يحتاجه لشراء دار أو عبد فليتأمل، والله أعلم

 

[6] Muheet Burhani, Kitab Zakāt, vol 2, p. 260

الفصل الرابع في تصرف صاحب المال في النصاب بعد الحول وقبله

قال في «الجامع» : رجل له ألف درهم حال عليها الحول وجبت فيها الزكاة، ثم اشترى بها عبداً للتجارة يساوي تسعمائة وخمسين درهماً، ثم هلك العبد سقط عنه زكاة الألف المقدر بتسعمائة وخمسين؛ لأنه بهذا القدر بادل مال الزكاة بعوض يعدله ويوازيه؛ لأن العوض للتجارة كالأصل، فلا يصير بهذا القدر مستهلكاً، بخلاف ما إذا اشترى عبداً للخدمة أو طعاماً للأكل أو ثياباً للبس، حيث يعتبر ضامناً قدر الزكاة، بقيت هذه الأشياء في يده أو هلكت؛ لأنه بادل مال الزكاة بعوض لا يعدله، فيصير مستلهكاً قدر الزكاة.

 

[7] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Ud-hiyyah, vol 5, p. 65

وَلَوْ كَانَ مُوسِرًا فِي جَمِيعِ الْوَقْتِ فَلَمْ يُضَحِّ حَتَّى مَضَى الْوَقْتُ ثُمَّ صَارَ فَقِيرًا صَارَ قِيمَةُ شَاةٍ صَالِحَةٍ لِلْأُضْحِيَّةِ دَيْنًا فِي ذِمَّتِهِ يَتَصَدَّقُ بِهَا مَتَى وَجَدَهَا؛ لِأَنَّ الْوُجُوبَ قَدْ تَأَكَّدَ عَلَيْهِ بِآخِرِ الْوَقْتِ فَلَا يَسْقُطُ بِفَقْرِهِ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ

Zakāt on Gold Tooth

Zakāt on Gold Tooth

14th July 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Does one need to pay Zakat on gold and silver teeth.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, scholars agree that fixing a silver tooth is permitted but differed whether a gold tooth is allowed or not. [1] Imam Muhammad rahimahullah a senior jurist from the Hanafi school views that it is permissible.[2]. Zakat is generally paid on wealth[3] that generates productivity for instance gold, silver and cash money. In the case of a gold or silver tooth, the contemporary fuqaha have concluded that if the tooth is removeable (which is the case in certain procedures) then Zakat does apply to it, [4] but if fixed firmly into the mouth, [5]  then it is now classed as a necessity or haajah asliyyah due to which Zakat would not be payable on it. [6]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Nujaym, Al bahr al raaiq, kitab al karahiya, bab fil lubs, vol 8, p 217

قَالَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – (وَشَدُّ السِّنِّ بِالْفِضَّةِ) يَعْنِي يَحِلُّ شَدُّ السِّنِّ الْمُتَحَرِّكِ بِالْفِضَّةِ وَلَا يَحِلُّ بِالذَّهَبِ وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ يَحِلُّ بِالذَّهَبِ أَيْضًا وَقَدَّمْنَا بَيَانَ ذَلِكَ.

[2] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitab al hadhr wal ibaahah, faasl fil lubs  vol 5, p 336

قَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – فِي الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ وَلَا يَشُدُّ الْأَسْنَانَ بِالذَّهَبِ وَيَشُدُّهَا بِالْفِضَّةِ يُرِيدُ بِهِ إذَا تَحَرَّكَتْ الْأَسْنَانُ وَخِيفَ سُقُوطُهَا فَأَرَادَ صَاحِبُهَا أَنْ يَشُدَّهَا يَشُدُّهَا بِالْفِضَّةِ، وَلَا يَشُدُّهَا بِالذَّهَبِ، وَهَذَا قَوْلُ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – يَشُدُّهَا بِالذَّهَبِ أَيْضًا، وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ فِي الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ قَوْلَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – قِيلَ: هُوَ مَعَ مُحَمَّدٍ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – وَقِيلَ: هُوَ مَعَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – وَذَكَرَ الْحَاكِمُ فِي الْمُنْتَقَى لَوْ تَحَرَّكَتْ سِنُّ رَجُلٍ وَخَافَ سُقُوطُهَا فَشَدَّهَا بِالذَّهَبِ أَوْ بِالْفِضَّةِ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهِ بَأْسٌ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَأَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُمَا اللَّهُ تَعَالَى

[3] Shaami, Raddul Muhtaar, Kitab al hadhr wal ibaahah, faasl fil lubs  vol 6, p 361

(وَلَا يَشُدُّ سِنَّهُ) الْمُتَحَرِّكَ (بِذَهَبٍ بَلْ بِفِضَّةٍ) وَجَوَّزَهُمَا مُحَمَّدٌ (وَيَتَّخِذُ أَنْفًا مِنْهُ) لِأَنَّ الْفِضَّةَ تُنْتِنُهُ

 

[4] Maulana Khalid Saifullah Rahmani, Jadeed Fiqhi Masa’il, vol 1, p141-142

[5] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitab al hadhr wal ibaahah, faasl fil lubs  vol 5, p 336

وَرَوَى الْحَسَنُ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – أَنَّهُ فَرَّقَ بَيْنَ السِّنِّ وَالْأَنْفِ فَقَالَ فِي السِّنِّ لَا بَأْسَ بِأَنْ يَشُدَّهَا بِالذَّهَبِ، وَفِي الْأَنْفِ كُرِهَ ذَلِكَ، كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ. وَقَالَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – لَا بَأْسَ بِأَنْ يُعِيدَ سِنَّ نَفْسِهِ وَأَنْ يَشُدَّهَا، وَإِنْ كَانَ سِنَّ غَيْرِهِ يُكْرَهُ ذَلِكَ، كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ. قَالَ بِشْرٌ قَالَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – فِي مَجْلِسٍ آخَرَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَلَمْ يَرَ بِإِعَادَتِهَا بَأْسًا، كَذَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ.

[6]  Shaami, Raddul Muhtaar, Kitab al hadhr wal ibaahah, faasl fil lubs  vol 6, p 361


قَوْلُهُ الْمُتَحَرِّكَ) قَيَّدَ بِهِ لِمَا قَالَ الْكَرْخِيُّ إذَا سَقَطَتْ ثَنِيَّةُ رَجُلٍ فَإِنَّ أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ يَكْرَهُ أَنْ يُعِيدَهَا، وَيَشُدَّهَا بِفِضَّةِ أَوْ ذَهَبٍ وَيَقُولُ هِيَ كَسِنٍّ مَيِّتَةٍ وَلَكِنْ يَأْخُذُ سِنَّ شَاةٍ ذَكِيَّةٍ يَشُدُّ مَكَانَهَا وَخَالَفَهُ أَبُو يُوسُفَ فَقَالَ لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَلَا يُشْبِهُ سِنُّهُ سِنَّ مَيِّتَةٍ اُسْتُحْسِنَ ذَلِكَ وَبَيْنَهُمَا فَرْقٌ عِنْدِي وَإِنْ لَمْ يَحْضُرْنِي اهـ إتْقَانِيٌّ. زَادَ فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة قَالَ بِشْرٌ قَالَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ: سَأَلْت أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فِي مَجْلِسٍ آخَرَ فَلَمْ يَرَ بِإِعَادَتِهَا بَأْسًا (قَوْلُهُ وَجَوَّزَهُمَا مُحَمَّدٌ) أَيْ جَوَّزَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ أَيْ جَوَّزَ الشَّدَّ بِهِمَا وَأَمَّا أَبُو يُوسُفَ فَقِيلَ مَعَهُ وَقِيلَ مَعَ الْإِمَامِ

 

Eligibility of Zakāt Due to COVID-19 Lockdown

Eligibility of Zakāt Due to COVID-19 Lockdown

21st April 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Can a person send Zakāt money back home to someone in Pakistan who is unable to work and bring income to the home due to current coronavirus lockdown?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, due to the dire circumstances around the current pandemic and enforced lockdowns in such developing countries, such people would not be regarded as poor people[1] merely for not being able to leave their home to earn[2] and provide for their families provided if they have sufficient savings to get by whether in the form of cash, gold or any other investments. As such, they would not be eligible[3] to receive Zakāt money. If they, however, become impoverished whereby apart from losing their job, they have no savings or nothing to survive on to provide for themselves and family then they become eligible for Zakāt.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitabuz Zakaat, Bab al Masarif, vol 1, p 187

(مِنْهَا الْفَقِيرُ) وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرُ نَامٍ وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرَقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ فَلَا يُخْرِجُهُ عَنْ الْفَقِيرِ مِلْكُ نُصُبٍ كَثِيرَةٍ غَيْرِ نَامِيَةٍ إذَا كَانَتْ مُسْتَغْرَقَةً بِالْحَاجَةِ كَذَا فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ. التَّصَدُّقُ عَلَى الْفَقِيرِ الْعَالِمِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ التَّصَدُّقِ عَلَى الْجَاهِلِ كَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ.

[2] Raddul Muhtaar, Kitabuz Zakaat, Bab al Masraf, vol 2, p 339

 أَيْ مَصْرِفِ الزَّكَاةِ وَالْعُشْرِ، وَأَمَّا خُمُسُ الْمَعْدِنِ فَمَصْرِفُهُ كَالْغَنَائِمِ (هُوَ فَقِيرٌ، وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ) أَيْ دُونَ نِصَابٍ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ نَامٍ مُسْتَغْرِقٍ فِي الْحَاجَةِ.(وَمِسْكِينٌ مَنْ لَا شَيْءَ لَهُ) عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ، – لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {أَوْ مِسْكِينًا ذَا مَتْرَبَةٍ} [البلد: ١٦]- وَآيَةُ السَّفِينَةِ لِلتَّرَحُّمِ

 

[3] Ibn Nujaym, Al Bahr al Raiq, Kitabuz Zakaat, vol 2, p 258

وَالْأَوْلَى أَنْ يُفَسَّرَ الْفَقِيرُ بِمَنْ لَهُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ كَمَا فِي النُّقَايَةِ أَخْذًا مِنْ قَوْلِهِمْ يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَى مَنْ يَمْلِكُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرَ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ تَامٍّ، وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرِقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ، وَلَا خِلَافَ فِي أَنَّهُمَا صِنْفَانِ هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ؛

 

Paying Zakāt Before the End of the Year Due to Covid-19 Lockdown

Paying Zakāt Before the End of the Year Due to Covid-19 Lockdown

24th March 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Last year I paid my Zakāt on Ramadan 4th. In light of recent Covid-19 lockdowns in many countries, would it be permissible to pay this year’s Zakāt now, a couple of months earlier, such that Muslims around the world could buy food supplies in preparation for Ramadan and any further lockdown/restrictions?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query if one wishes to pay their Zakāt a few months earlier in order for other Muslims to benefit from, then it is permissible.[1] This is so long as it meets the conditions of paying Zakāt along with the likelihood of it remaining in your possession towards the end of the year. It must be noted that if there is an increase on the Zakatable money towards your annual Zakāt calculation date (4th Ramadhān in your case), after paying your Zakāt in advance, then you must pay Zakāt on that additional amount as well. As a recommendation though it is better to give a little extra enough so to save recalculating your Zakāt towards your annual Zakāt due date.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Gul-e-Maryam        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Muheet Al Burhani, Kitab Zakaat, Vol 2, Pg 267

ويجوز تعجيل الزكاة قبل الحول إذا ملك نصابا عندنا؛ لأنه أدى بعد وجود سبب الوجوب؛ لأن سبب الوجوب نصاب نام؛ فإن نظرنا إلى النصاب

فالنصاب قد وجد؛ وإن نظرنا إلى النماء فقد وجد أيضا؛ لأن العبرة لسبب النماء وهو الإسامة أو التجارة لا لنفس النماء، وقد وجد سبب النماء

Shami, Kitab Zakaat, Vol 2, Pg 293

ولو عجل ذو نصاب) زكاته (لسنين أو لنصب صح) لوجود السبب، وكذا لو عجل عشر زرعه أو ثمره بعد الخروج قبل الإدراك؛ واختلف فيه قبل النبات وخروج الثمرة

Ikhtiyaar Li Taleel Mukhtar, Kitab Zakaat, Vol 1,Pg 103

ويأخذ المصدق وسط المال ; ومن ملك نصابا فعجل الزكاة قبل الحول لسنة أو أكثر، أو لنصب جاز

 

 

Determining Zakāt on Cash

Determining Zakāt on Cash

 5th September 2018

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته 

Question: How would one determine the Nisāb of Zakāt on cash?

 

الجواب حامداً ومصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful 

 

Answer:

The Nisāb of Zakāt on cash is determined by the Nisāb of silver to facilitate for the needy as wealth will reach this level much sooner than the Nisāb of gold. Therefore, the monetary value of the Nisāb of silver (which is 612.36g) will determine the Nisāb of Zakāt on cash.[1]

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah      Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] See Mufti Taqi Usmani, Fiqhi Maqalāt, contemporary Zakāt masail,vol 3, p. 129-179