How Should a Creditor Calculate Zakāt on the Previous Years?

2nd April 2024

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I just wanted to ask that someone owes me money and agreed to pay me and they haven’t paid me for a few years. When I calculate Zakāt on it, do I have to keep paying Zakāt on the same money every year until they pay me back or just pay it all at once upon receiving the whole amount?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to the above query, if you lent somebody money and you are certain that they will pay you then you must pay Zakāt on the previous years since the time you loaned them your money.[1] You could calculate the previous year’s Zakāt either after they return the money to you or pay yearly before they return the money to you.[2] Zakāt will be calculated at 2.5% of the amount you lent so for instance, if you lent them £1000 then you would pay £25 Zakāt but there is some details regarding this. If you decide to pay Zakāt altogether of the previous years after receiving the full amount then the Zakāt amount will be subtracted every year from the original loaned money. For instance, if the person decides to pay you after three years and thereafter you calculate Zakāt on those three years then the first year you will pay £25 from £1000, the second year you will pay £24.37 from £975 and third year £23.76 from £950.63 and so forth. This is because each year Zakāt is deemed as a valid debt which is deducted every year from the original amount.[3] If you however decide to pay Zakāt every year before receiving the full amount then you pay £25 every year regardless because no debt was incurred each year.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Zulaikha Yasir         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam    

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] رد المختار جلد ٢ ص ٣٠٥

(ﻭ) اﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ اﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ: ﻗﻮﻱ، ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ، ﻭﺿﻌﻴﻒ؛ (ﻓﺘﺠﺐ) ﺯﻛﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺇﺫا ﺗﻢ ﻧﺼﺎﺑﺎ ﻭﺣﺎﻝ اﻟﺤﻮﻝ، ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻓﻮﺭا ﺑﻞ (ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪﻳﻦ) اﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻛﻘﺮﺽ

 

[2] البحر الرائق جلد ٢ ص ٢٢٣

 قَسَّمَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ الدَّيْنَ عَلَى ثَلَاثَةِ أَقْسَامٍ: قَوِيٌّ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ الْقَرْضِ، وَمَالُ التِّجَارَةِ، وَمُتَوَسِّطٌ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ مَا لَيْسَ لِلتِّجَارَةِ كَثَمَنِ ثِيَابِ الْبِذْلَةِ وَعَبْدِ الْخِدْمَةِ وَدَارِ السُّكْنَى، وَضَعِيفٌ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ مَا لَيْسَ بِمَالٍ كَالْمَهْرِ وَالْوَصِيَّةِ، وَبَدَلِ الْخُلْعِ وَالصُّلْحِ عَنْ دَمِ الْعَمْدِ وَالدِّيَةِ، وَبَدَلِ الْكِتَابَةِ وَالسِّعَايَةِ فَفِي الْقَوِيِّ تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ إذَا حَالَ الْحَوْلُ، وَيَتَرَاخَى الْقَضَاءُ إلَى أَنْ يَقْبِضَ أَرْبَعِينَ دِرْهَمًا فَفِيهَا دِرْهَمٌ، وَكَذَا فِيمَا زَادَ بِحِسَابِهِ، وَفِي الْمُتَوَسِّطِ لَا تَجِبُ مَا لَمْ يَقْبِضْ نِصَابًا، وَيُعْتَبَرُ لِمَا مَضَى مِنْ الْحَوْلِ فِي صَحِيحِ الرِّوَايَةِ، وَفِي الضَّعِيفِ لَا تَجِبُ مَا لَمْ يَقْبِضْ نِصَابًا وَيَحُولُ الْحَوْلُ بَعْدَ الْقَبْضِ عَلَيْهِ،

 

 

[3] Burhanuddin Marghinani, Kitab Zakāt, Vol 1, p. 95

والمراد به دين له مطالب من جهة العباد حتى لا يمنع دين النذر والكفارة ودين الزكاة مانع حال بقاء النصاب لأنه ينتقص به النصاب،

Does Monetary Debt Affect Zakāt on Gold?

13th March 2024

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I currently have a debt of £20,000. I have £15,000 worth of gold in my possession which I do not intend to sell off to pay of my debt. Do I still need to pay Zakāt on the gold or is it waivered due to the debt?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Concerning your query, firstly note that there is a contemporary view about debt that immediate debts known as short-term debts; i.e. those that need to be paid back within the next 12 months can be waivered from your Zakāt calculation. As for long-term debts which do not need to be paid back within the next 12 months but after that, are not waivered and Zakāt must be paid on them. This is evident by the principle of a person who has not yet paid the mahr to his wife, if he intends on paying it within the next 12 months then it can be waivered from his Zakāt but if he intends do give it after 12 months then he must pay Zakāt on it. In your case, if the debt is to be paid off in the next 12 months, then it can be deducted from your Zakāt, but if there was an agreement of paying off your debt after 12 months then it will not be deducted from Zakāt calculation.[1] Despite of you not intending to sell your gold to pay off the debt, Islamically, gold silver and cash all fall under the same category of ruling. In other words, even by possessing gold and also being in debt in cash that overwhelms the value of gold would legally affect the Zakāt rulings on gold (or silver) and hence will be waivered if paid within 12 months that is.[2]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Maulana Hafiz Mahmud Ali        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Zakāt, vol 2, p. 261

(فَارِغٍ عَنْ دَيْنٍ لَهُ مُطَالِبٌ مِنْ جِهَةِ الْعِبَادِ)

سَوَاءٌ كَانَ لِلَّهِ كَزَكَاةٍ وَخَرَاجٍ أَوْ لِلْعَبْدِ، وَلَوْ كَفَالَةً أَوْ مُؤَجَّلًا، وَلَوْ صَدَاقَ زَوْجَتِهِ الْمُؤَجَّلَ لِلْفِرَاقِ

(قَوْلُهُ أَوْ مُؤَجَّلًا إلَخْ)

عَزَاهُ فِي الْمِعْرَاجِ إلَى شَرْحِ الطَّحَاوِيِّ، وَقَالَ: وَعَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ لَا يُمْنَعُ. وَقَالَ الصَّدْرُ الشَّهِيدُ: لَا رِوَايَةَ فِيهِ، وَلِكُلٍّ مِنْ الْمَنْعِ وَعَدَمِهِ وَجْهٌ.

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Zakāt, vol 2, p. 6

وَعَلَى هَذَا يُخْرَجُ مَهْرُ الْمَرْأَةِ فَإِنَّهُ يَمْنَعُ وُجُوبَ الزَّكَاةِ عِنْدَنَا مُعَجَّلًا كَانَ أَوْ مُؤَجَّلًا؛ لِأَنَّهَا إذَا طَالَبَتْهُ يُؤَاخَذُ بِهِ، وَقَالَ بَعْضُ مَشَايِخِنَا: إنَّ الْمُؤَجَّلَ لَا يَمْنَعُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ غَيْرُ مُطَالَبٍ بِهِ عَادَةً، فَأَمَّا الْمُعَجَّلُ فَيُطَالَبُ بِهِ عَادَةً فَيَمْنَعُ، وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ: إنْ كَانَ الزَّوْجُ عَلَى عَزْمٍ مِنْ قَضَائِهِ يَمْنَعُ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَى عَزْمِ الْقَضَاءِ لَا يَمْنَعُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَعُدُّهُ دَيْنًا وَإِنَّمَا يُؤَاخَذُ الْمَرْءُ بِمَا عِنْدَهُ فِي الْأَحْكَامِ.

 

Also visit previous fatwa on Zakāt on long-term debts: https://jknfatawa.co.uk/Zakāt-on-long-term-loans/

 

[2] Tabyyeen al-Haqaiq Sharh Kanz Daqaiq, Kitab Zakāt, vol 1, p. 255

[شُرُوط وُجُوبهَا]

وَإِنْ كَانَ مَالُهُ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ الدَّيْنِ زَكَّى الْفَاضِلَ إذَا بَلَغَ نِصَابًا لِفَرَاغِهِ عَنْ الدَّيْنِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ نُصُبٌ يَصْرِفُ الدَّيْنَ إلَى أَيْسَرِهَا قَضَاءً. مِثَالُهُ: إذَا كَانَ لَهُ دَرَاهِمُ وَدَنَانِيرُ، وَعُرُوضٌ لِلتِّجَارَةِ وَسَوَائِمُ مِنْ الْإِبِلِ، وَمِنْ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ، وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ يَسْتَغْرِقُ الْجَمِيعَ فَلَا زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ،

A Family Member Paying for My Zakat and for My Qurbani

5th March 2024

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Traditionally, my father has paid for my Zakāt and my grandad pays for my Qurbani. Once I started earning myself, I feared these won’t be accepted if done on my behalf, however both would like to continue as is. I currently:

  • transfer the zakat amount to my father’s bank without his approval
  • pay for an additional Qurbani myself via an online charity (which I have heard is not permissible), as I don’t know of any alternatives and my family won’t allow me to pay towards the one, they usually organise.

If you could you shed some light on this would be useful to know the rulings around this.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, as a general ruling to note that it is permissible for another person to pay Zakāt on your behalf. In this case, if your father or grandfather wish to pay for your Zakāt then it will be fulfilled with the condition that they notify you prior to paying it or you had prior awareness of them paying it on your behalf.[1] If they pay for it without your knowledge or you did not consent to it, then your Zakāt will not be fulfilled.[2] It is not necessary for you to transfer additional Zakāt money onto him without his knowledge if you knew that he has already paid for your Zakāt.

With regards to Qurbani, a person who possesses the required Nisab during the Qurbani days must offer Qurbani whether themselves or someone performing it on their behalf. The obligation of Qurbani is fulfilled if members of your family pay for the sacrifice on your behalf, regardless if they pay for it from their own wealth or not. An additional Qurbani from yourself is therefore not required. It is always commendable to arrange your own Qurbani but not necessary for its validity. It should be noted that when Qurbani is wajib, then the same principle in Zakāt i.e. consent is required unless they customarily perform Qurbani on your behalf whilst you being aware of it (in which case it will be fulfilled).[3]

Lastly, it is permissible for you to use an online charity to pay for your Qurbani as long as one has done sufficient research to ensure the reliability of the charity.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Samrena Kashaf          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam    

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Abideen, Raddul Muhtar, Kitab-uz Zakat, Vol. 2, page 268

ثُمَّ قَالَ فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة أَوْ وُجِدَتْ دَلَالَةُ الْإِذْنِ بِالْخَلْطِ كَمَا جَرَتْ الْعَادَةُ بِالْإِذْنِ مِنْ أَرْبَابِ الْحِنْطَةِ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ؛ وَكَذَلِكَ الْمُتَوَلِّي إذَا كَانَ فِي يَدِهِ أُوقِيَّاتٌ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ وَخَلَطَ غَلَّاتِهَا ضَمِنَ وَكَذَلِكَ السِّمْسَارُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَثْمَانَ أَوْ الْبَيَّاعُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَمْتِعَةَ يَضْمَنُ.

قَالَ فِي التَّجْنِيسِ: وَلَا عُرْفَ فِي حق السَّمَاسِرَةِ وَالْبَيَّاعِينَ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ وَالْأَمْتِعَةِ اهـ وَيَتَّصِلُ بِهَذَا الْعَالِمُ إذَا سَأَلَ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ شَيْئًا وَخَلَطَ يَضْمن

قُلْت: وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَنَّهُ لَوْ وُجِدَ الْعُرْفُ فَلَا ضَمَانَ لِوُجُودِ الْإِذْنِ حِينَئِذٍ دَلَالَةً. وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ عِلْمِ الْمَالِكِ بِهَذَا الْعُرْفِ لِيَكُونَ إذْنًا مِنْهُ دَلَالَةً

 

[2] Ibn Nujaym, Bahrur Raiq, Kitab-uz Zakat, Vol.2, page 226-227

وَلَوْ أَدَّى زَكَاةَ غَيْرِهِ بِغَيْرِ أَمْرِهِ فَبَلَغَهُ فَأَجَازَ لَمْ يَجُزْ؛ لِأَنَّهَا وَجَدَتْ نَفَاذًا عَلَى الْمُتَصَدِّقِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مِلْكُهُ، وَلَمْ يَصِرْ نَائِبًا عَنْ غَيْرِهِ فَنَفَذَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَلَوْ تَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ بِأَمْرِهِ جَازَ وَيَرْجِعُ بِمَا دَفَعَ عِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَشْتَرِطْ الرُّجُوعَ كَالْأَمْرِ بِقَضَاءِ الدَّيْنِ وَعِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ لَا رُجُوعَ لَهُ إلَّا بِالشَّرْطِ، وَتَمَامُهُ

فِي الْخَانِيَّة

[3] Imam Kasani, Badai Sinai, Kitubut Tudhiya, Vol.5, page 67

(وَمِنْهَا) أَنَّهُ تُجْزِئُ فِيهَا النِّيَابَةُ فَيَجُوزُ لِلْإِنْسَانِ أَنْ يُضَحِّيَ بِنَفْسِهِ وَبِغَيْرِهِ بِإِذْنِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا قُرْبَةٌ تَتَعَلَّقُ بِالْمَالِ فَتُجْزِئُ فِيهَا النِّيَابَةُ كَأَدَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ وَصَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ؛ وَلِأَنَّ كُلَّ أَحَدٍ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى مُبَاشَرَةِ الذَّبْحِ بِنَفْسِهِ خُصُوصًا النِّسَاءَ، فَلَوْ لَمْ تَجُزْ الِاسْتِنَابَةُ لَأَدَّى إلَى الْحَرَجِ، وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ الْمَأْذُونُ مُسْلِمًا أَوْ كِتَابِيًّا، حَتَّى لَوْ أَمَرَ مُسْلِمٌ كِتَابِيًّا أَنْ يَذْبَحَ أُضْحِيَّتَهُ يَجْزِيهِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكِتَابِيَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الذَّكَاةِ إلَّا أَنَّهُ يُكْرَهُ؛ لِأَنَّ التَّضْحِيَةَ قُرْبَةٌ وَالْكَافِرُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرْبَةِ لِنَفْسِهِ فَتُكْرَهُ إنَابَتُهُ فِي إقَامَةِ الْقُرْبَةِ لِغَيْرِهِ، وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ الْإِذْنُ نَصًّا أَوْ دَلَالَةً؛.

Zakāt on Stolen Gold

13th February 2024

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: My query is about 2 months after my Zakat due date my gold got stolen and I haven’t paid Zakat on it yet. Do I still need to pay Zakāt on the gold or not? And does it depend on whether all of the gold was stolen or a portion of it was stolen? 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

In reference to your query, as a general note Zakāt must be paid immediately after owning the Nisab (minimum threshold) of all Zakatable assets that last for one lunar year. In your case where the gold was stolen and Zakat was not yet paid for this gold, then if all of the gold was stolen then Zakāt will be waived from that person. In other words, Zakāt is now pardoned. However, if some portion of the gold was stolen then Zakāt must be calculated on the remainder potion. The amount of Zakāt payable will now be deducted from the original calculation.[1]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]  

Written by:  Apa Sumayya Qazi          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb Zakāt, vol 1, p. 198

مَسَائِلُ شَتَّى فِي الزَّكَاةِ

وَإِنْ هَلَكَ الْمَالُ بَعْدَ وُجُوبِ الزَّكَاةِ سَقَطَتْ الزَّكَاةُ، وَفِي هَلَاكِ الْبَعْضِ يَسْقُطُ بِقَدْرِهِ هَكَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ.

Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Kitāb Zakāt,  vol 2 p. 666

المبحث الرابع ـ هلاك المال بعد وجوب الزكاة

للفقهاء رأيان في سقوط الزكاة بعد وجوبها وهلاك المال:

1 – فقال الحنفية (3): إن هلك المال بعد وجوب الزكاة، سقطت الزكاة؛ كما أنه يسقط العشر وخراج المقاسمة؛ لأن الواجب جزء من النصاب، وتحقيقاً للتيسير، فإن الزكاة وجبت بقدرة مُيسِّرة أي بقاء اليسر إلى وقت أداء الزكاة، فيسقط الواجب بهلاك محله، سواء تمكن من الأداء أم لا؛ لأن الشرع علق الوجوب بقدرة ميسرة، والمعلق بقدرة ميسرة لا يبقى بدونها، والقدرة الميسرة هنا هي وصف النماء، لا النصاب.

 

 

Can Sadaqatul Fitr Be given to non-Muslims?

30th December 2022

 

Question: Can sadaqatul fitr be given to non-Muslims? For Instance, on Eid day can I give it to those homeless people sitting outside Tesco or Asda etc?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

We thank you for this important query. Concerning the query itself, the classical Hanafi jurists have differed whether sadaqatul fitr or any other wajib charity such as kaffarah or sadaqah of personal vow can be given to a non-Muslim or not and to which type of non-Muslim. First understand that there are different categories of non-Muslims which the classical literatures discuss. Understanding this is essential as each category has their distinct rulings. The classical jurists divide non-Muslims into three categories as follows;

 

  1. Ahlu dhimma – Those non-Muslims residing in Muslims lands under the protection of an Islamic government.
  2. Harbi – A non-Muslim residing in in a non-Muslim state who are at war against Muslims.
  3. Musta’min – A non-Muslim temporary sojourning in a Muslim land under protection.

 

By consensus, sadaqatul fitr cannot be given to the second and third category (primarily due to non-existence of peace). Sadaqatul fitr can be given to the ahlu dhimmah according to both Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah and Imām Muhammad rahimahullah. Imām Abū Yūsuf rahimahullah however disallows it. [1] He equates it to the ruling of Zakāt as in, just as Zakāt cannot be given to a non-Muslim by consensus, then wajib charity cannot be given to them also. Imām Muhammad rahimahullah despite the concession still prefers donating it to a Muslim. Imām Abū Haneefah’s rahimahullah reason for allowing it is because the purpose of sadaqah is to fulfil people’s needs which is rewarding to the donor similar to optional charity. This is fulfilled even by giving sadaqtul fitr to the ahlu dhimmah. Moreover, giving charity to such non-Muslims falls under the remit of kind treatment towards them which the Quran allows. Zakāt eligibility however is exceptional to this case due to the Hadeeth of Sayyiduna Mu’adh radhiyallahu anhu which specifies Muslims to be the only legitimate recipients of it. The reason for the underlying differences becomes apparent that Imām Abū Yūsuf rahimahullah equates sadaqtul fitr to Zakāt as both are obligatory charities whilst Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah equates it to optional charity. Imām Muhammad rahimahullah on the other hand prefers the middle ground in that he permits it but prefers to prioritise Muslims.[2]

The question is which of the above categories do today’s non-Muslims fall under? Muslims residing alongside non-Muslims in western lands makes it difficult to categorise non-Muslims into any of the above three categories due to the change of the social dynamics. Clearly, they do not belong to the ahlu dhimmah category and neither harbi due to truce existing between Muslims and non-Muslim government. Mustamin is also not applicable as they refer to those harbies sojourning in Muslim lands. We must therefore refer to the principle alluded by Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah which suggests that Islām does not prohibit Muslims from kind treatment towards non-Muslims who do not jeopardise the faith, lives and property of Muslims. Giving charity also includes kind treatment towards them.

So to conclude, with the exception of Zakāt any form of charity whether it is optional or wajib such as sadaqatul fitr can be given to present day non-Muslim beggars on the streets based on the above principle although prioritising Muslims would be better so to avoid the differences.  

 

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb Zakāt, vol 1, p. 188

الْبَابُ السَّابِعُ فِي الْمَصَارِفِ

وَأَمَّا أَهْلُ الذِّمَّةِ فَلَا يَجُوزُ صَرْفُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَيْهِمْ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ وَيَجُوزُ صَرْفُ صَدَقَةِ التَّطَوُّعِ إلَيْهِمْ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ، وَاخْتَلَفُوا فِي صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ وَالنُّذُورِ وَالْكَفَّارَاتِ قَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ وَمُحَمَّدٌ – رَحِمَهُمَا اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – يَجُوزُ إلَّا أَنَّ فُقَرَاءَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ أَحَبُّ إلَيْنَا كَذَا فِي شَرْحِ الطَّحَاوِيِّ. وَأَمَّا الْحَرْبِيُّ الْمُسْتَأْمَنُ فَلَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ الزَّكَاةِ وَالصَّدَقَةِ الْوَاجِبَةِ إلَيْهِ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ وَيَجُوزُ صَرْفُ التَّطَوُّعِ إلَيْهِ كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ.

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Zakāt, vol 2 p. 74

فَصْلٌ رُكْن صَدَقَة الْفِطْر

وَشَرَائِطِ الرُّكْنِ أَيْضًا مَا ذَكَرْنَا هُنَاكَ غَيْرَ أَنَّ إسْلَامَ الْمُؤَدَّى إلَيْهِ هَهُنَا لَيْسَ بِشَرْطٍ لِجَوَازِ الْأَدَاءِ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَمُحَمَّدٍ فَيَجُوزُ دَفْعُهَا إلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ، وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، وَالشَّافِعِيِّ شَرْطٌ وَلَا يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ إلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ إلَى الْحَرْبِيِّ

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Zakāt, vol 2 p. 352

(ولا) تدفع (إلى ذمي) لحديث معاذ (وجاز) دفع (غيرها وغير العشر) والخراج (إليه) أي الذمي ولو واجبا كنذر وكفارة وفطرة

(قوله: خلافا للثاني) حيث قال إن دفع سائر الصدقات الواجبة إليه لا يجوز اعتبارا بالزكاة، وصرح في الهداية وغيرها بأن هذه رواية عن الثاني، وظاهره أن قوله المشهور كقولهما (قوله: وبقوله يفتي) الذي في حاشية الخير الرملي عن الحاوي وبقوله نأخذ.

قلت: لكن كلام الهداية وغيرها يفيد ترجيح قولهما وعليه المتون (قوله: وأما الحربي) محترز الذمي (قوله: عن الغاية) أي غاية البيان، وقوله وغيرهما أي النهاية فافهم

 

[2] Sarakhsi, al-Mabsoot, Kitāb Sawm, vol 3 p. 111

بَابُ صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ

(قَالَ) : وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يَدْفَعَ صَدَقَةَ الْفِطْرِ إلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ وَعَلَى قَوْلِ الشَّافِعِيِّ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – لَا يَجُوزُ وَعَنْ أَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – ثَلَاثُ رِوَايَاتٍ فِي رِوَايَةٍ قَالَ: كُلُّ صَدَقَةٍ مَذْكُورَةٌ فِي الْقُرْآنِ لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُهَا إلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ فَعَلَى هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةِ يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ إلَيْهِمْ، وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ قَالَ: كُلُّ صَدَقَةٍ وَاجِبَةٌ بِإِيجَابِ الشَّرْعِ ابْتِدَاءً مِنْ غَيْرِ سَبَبٍ مِنْ الْعَبْدِ لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُهَا إلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ فَعَلَى هَذَا لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ إلَيْهِمْ، وَيَجُوزُ دَفْعُ الْكَفَّارَاتِ وَالنُّذُورِ إلَيْهِمْ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ قَالَ: كُلُّ صَدَقَةٍ هِيَ وَاجِبَةٌ لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُهَا إلَيْهِمْ فَعَلَى هَذَا لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ الْكَفَّارَاتِ وَإِنَّمَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ التَّطَوُّعَاتِ وَالشَّافِعِيُّ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – يَقِيسُ هَذَا بِزَكَاةِ الْمَالِ بِعِلَّةِ أَنَّهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَاجِبَةٌ فَإِنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ الْمَالِيَّةَ صِلَةٌ وَاجِبَةٌ لِلْمَحَاوِيجِ الْمُنَاسِبِينَ لَهُ فِي الْمِلَّةِ فَلَا يَمْلِكُ صَرْفَهَا إلَى غَيْرِهِمْ وَالْمَقْصُودُ مِنْهُ أَنْ يَتَقَوَّى بِهِ عَلَى الطَّاعَةِ، وَيَتَفَرَّغَ عَنْ السُّؤَالِ لِإِقَامَةِ صَلَاةِ الْعِيدِ، وَلَا يَحْصُلُ هَذَا الْمَقْصُودُ بِالصَّرْفِ إلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ كَمَا لَا يَحْصُلُ بِالصَّرْفِ إلَيَّ الْمُسْتَأْمَنِينَ فَكَمَا لَا يَجُوزُ صَرْفُهَا إلَيْهِمْ فَكَذَلِكَ إلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ.

(وَلَنَا) أَنَّ الْمَقْصُودَ سَدُّ خَلَّةِ الْمُحْتَاجِ، وَدَفَعَ حَاجَتِهِ بِفِعْلٍ هُوَ قُرْبَةٌ مِنْ الْمُؤَدِّي وَهَذَا الْمَقْصُودُ حَاصِلٌ بِالصَّرْفِ إلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ فَإِنَّ التَّصَدُّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ قُرْبَةٌ بِدَلِيلِ التَّطَوُّعَاتِ؛ لِأَنَّا لَمْ نُنْهَ عَنْ الْمَبَرَّةِ لِمَنْ لَا يُقَاتِلُنَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: {لَا يَنْهَاكُمْ اللَّهُ عَنْ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ} [الممتحنة: 8] الْآيَةُ بِخِلَافِ الْمُسْتَأْمَنِ فَإِنَّهُ مُقَاتِلٌ وَقَدْ نُهِينَا عَنْ الْمَبَرَّةِ مَعَ مَنْ يُقَاتِلُنَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: {إنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمْ اللَّهُ عَنْ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ} [الممتحنة: 9] الْآيَةُ، وَالْقِيَاسُ أَنْ يَجُوزَ صَرْفُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَيْهِمْ إنَّمَا تَرَكْنَا الْقِيَاسَ فِيهِ بِالنَّصِّ، وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – لِمُعَاذٍ «خُذْهَا مِنْ أَغْنِيَائِهِمْ وَرُدَّهَا فِي فُقَرَائِهِمْ» وَالْمُرَادُ بِهِ الزَّكَاةُ لَا صَدَقَةُ الْفِطْرِ وَالْكَفَّارَاتُ إذْ لَيْسَ لِلسَّاعِي فِيهَا وِلَايَةُ الْأَخْذِ فَبَقِيَ عَلَى أَصْلِ الْقِيَاسِ.

(قَالَ) : وَفُقَرَاءُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ أَحَبُّ إلَيَّ؛ لِأَنَّهُ أَبْعَدُ عَنْ الْخِلَافِ؛ وَلِأَنَّهُمْ يَتَقَوَّوْنَ بِهَا عَلَى الطَّاعَةِ وَعِبَادَةِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَالذِّمِّيُّ يَتَقَوَّى بِهَا عَلَى عِبَادَةِ الشَّيْطَانِ.

 

Is Zakāt Necessary if the Borrower Does not Pay Back?

10th October 2022

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If you have lent somebody money and have already been paying Zakāt on it for several years but no longer have hope of ever receiving that money back, must you continue to pay Zakāt on it or not?

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer: Thank for your query. In relation to your query, a loan given out to someone which now leads you to believe that you will not receive that money ever again falls under the similar ruling as Mal-e-Dhimaar which means inaccessible wealth whereby a person has lost hope of receiving their wealth back or the borrower denies the debt and no evidence or claim can be made against them.[1] The ruling for such debts is that you are no longer required to pay Zakāt on this wealth as it is out of your control.[2] After losing all hopes, if by chance the borrower ends up returning your money many years later and it fulfils all of the necessary conditions of Zakāt, then Zakāt would be necessary for that year only and not for the previous years.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Hidaayah, Kitaab uz Zakāt, vol 1, p 96

وهي مسئلة مال الضمار وفيه خلاف زفر والشافعي رحمهما الله ومن جملته المال المفقود والآبق والضال والمغصوب إذا لم يكن عليه بينة والمال الساقط في البحر والمدفون في المفازة إذا نسي مكانه والذي أخذه السلطان مصادرة ووجوب صدقة الفطر بسبب الآبق والضال والمغصوب على هذا الخلاف لهما أن السبب قد تحقق وفوات اليد غير مخل بالوجوب كمال ابن السبيل ولنا قول علي رضي الله عنه لا زكاة في مال الضمار ولأن السبب هو المال النامي ولا نماء إلا بالقدرة على التصرف ولا قدرة عليه وابن السبيل يقدر بنائبه والمدفون في البيت نصاب لتيسر الوصول إليه وفي المدفون في أرض أو كرم اختلاف المشايخ ولو كان الدين على مقر مليء أو معسر تجب الزكاة لإمكان الوصول إليه ابتداء

[2] Al Bahr al Raa’iq, Kitaab uz Zakāt, vol 2, p 222

وفي الشرع هو نوعان حقيقي وتقديري فالحقيقي الزيادة بالتوالد والتناسل والتجارات، والتقديري تمكنه من الزيادة بكون المال في يده أو في يد نائبه فلا زكاة على من لم يتمكن منها في ماله كمال الضمار، وهو في اللغة الغائب الذي لا يرجى فإذا رجي فليس بضمار، وأصله الإضمار، وهو التغييب والإخفاء، ومنه أضمر في قلبه شيئا، وفي الشرع كل مال غير مقدور الانتفاع به مع قيام أصل الملك كذا في البدائع فما في فتح القدير من أن مهر المرأة التي تبين أنها أمة، ودية اللحية التي تنبت بعد حلقها، والمال المتصادق على عدم وجوبه،

 

Ibn Abideen Shaami, Kitaab uz Zakāt, vol 1, p 266

قَوْلُهُ لَا زَكَاةَ فِي مَالِ الضِّمَارِ) الضِّمَارُ بِالضَّادِ الْمُعْجَمَةِ بِوَزْنِ حِمَارٍ. قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ: وَهُوَ فِي اللُّغَةِ الْغَائِبُ الَّذِي لَا يُرْجَى، فَإِذَا رُجِيَ لَيْسَ بِضِمَارٍ، وَأَصْلُهُ الْإِضْمَارُ، وَهُوَ التَّغْيِيبُ وَالْإِخْفَاءُ، وَمِنْهُ أَضْمَرَ فِي قَلْبِهِ شَيْئًا

 

Giving Qurbani Meat to Non-Muslims

13th July 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to feed Non-Muslims Qurbani meat and how much portion?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

In principle, the owner of the Qurbani animal has the choice to either retain the entire animal or to feed others. Islām however encourages Muslims to retain some of the meat and to distribute some portion onto others as was the practice amongst the noble companions. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam himself encouraged feeding others also.[1] Jurists have generally recommended, but not compulsory, that the meat should be divided into three portions; one for themselves, one for friends and family and one for the sadaqah.[2]  As for giving some portion of the Qurbani meat to non-Muslims then it is generally permissible. [3] The following narration can be used to substantiate its permissibility. Imam Mujahid rahimahullah reports that a sheep was slaughtered for Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn ‘Amr radhiyallahu anhu by a member of his family, and when he came, he said: Did you give some to our Jewish neighbour, did you give some to our Jewish neighbour? For I heard the Messenger of Allah say: “Jibreel kept urging me to treat neighbours kindly until I thought that he would make neighbours heirs.”[4]

 

Therefore, it is generally permitted to feed some Qurbani meat to non-Muslims. If the Qurbani was for a vow or a penalty then it won’t be permissible.[5]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Sunnan Tirmidhi, Abwab al-Adhahi, No: 1505

بَابُ مَا جَاءَ أَنَّ الشَّاةَ الوَاحِدَةَ تُجْزِي عَنْ أَهْلِ البَيْتِ

سَمِعْتُ عَطَاءَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ يَقُولُ: سَأَلْتُ أَبَا أَيُّوبَ الأَنْصَارِيَّ: كَيْفَ كَانَتِ الضَّحَايَا عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ فَقَالَ: «كَانَ الرَّجُلُ يُضَحِّي بِالشَّاةِ عَنْهُ وَعَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ، فَيَأْكُلُونَ وَيُطْعِمُونَ حَتَّى تَبَاهَى النَّاسُ، فَصَارَتْ كَمَا تَرَى»

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Udhiya,   vol 5 p. 80

فَصْلٌ فِي بَيَانُ مَا يُسْتَحَبُّ قَبْلَ التَّضْحِيَةِ وَبَعْدَهَا وَمَا يُكْرَهُ

 وَيُسْتَحَبُّ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى – عَزَّ شَأْنُهُ – {فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْبَائِسَ الْفَقِيرَ} [الحج: 28] وَرُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ «إذَا ضَحَّى أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيَأْكُلْ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ وَيُطْعِمْ مِنْهُ غَيْرَهُ»

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh, Bāb Shurootus Salāh, vol 6 p. 328

(قَوْلُهُ وَنُدِبَ إلَخْ) قَالَ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ: وَالْأَفْضَلُ أَنْ يَتَصَدَّقَ بِالثُّلُثِ وَيَتَّخِذَ الثُّلُثَ ضِيَافَةً لِأَقْرِبَائِهِ وَأَصْدِقَائِهِ وَيَدَّخِرَ الثُّلُثَ؛ وَيُسْتَحَبُّ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْهَا، وَلَوْ حَبَسَ الْكُلَّ لِنَفْسِهِ جَازَ لِأَنَّ الْقُرْبَةَ فِي الْإِرَاقَةِ وَالتَّصَدُّقِ بِاللَّحْمِ تَطَوُّعٌ

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitābul Udhiyah, Bāb Ma Yusthabbu fil Udhiyati…, vol 5 p. 300

يهب منها ما شاء للغنى والفقير والمسلم والذمى كذا فى الغياثية

 

Mufti Mahmood Ganghohi, Fatwa Mahmoodiya, Kitaab Al Udhiya, Baab  Fi Kismatil Lahmi,,, Vol 17, pg 434

غیر مسلم کو قربانی کا گوشت دینا جائز ہے لیکن معاوضہ خدمت میں نہ دے

 

[4]  Sunnan Tirmidhi, Abwab al-Adhahi, No: 1943

بَابُ مَا جَاءَ فِي حَقِّ الجِوَارِ

1943 – حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ شَابُورَ، وَبَشِيرٍ أَبِي إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَمْرٍو ذُبِحَتْ لَهُ شَاةٌ فِي أَهْلِهِ، فَلَمَّا جَاءَ قَالَ: أَهْدَيْتُمْ لِجَارِنَا اليَهُودِيِّ؟ أَهْدَيْتُمْ لِجَارِنَا اليَهُودِيِّ؟ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «مَا زَالَ جِبْرِيلُ يُوصِينِي بِالجَارِ حَتَّى ظَنَنْتُ أَنَّهُ سَيُوَرِّثُهُ» وَفِي البَابِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، وَأَنَسٍ، وَالمِقْدَادِ بْنِ الأَسْوَدِ، وَعُقْبَةَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ، وَأَبِي شُرَيْحٍ، وَأَبِي أُمَامَةَ: هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الوَجْهِ، وَقَدْ رُوِيَ هَذَا الحَدِيثُ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَيْضًا

 

[5] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh, Bāb Shurootus Salāh, vol 6 p. 327

(قَوْلُهُ وَيَأْكُلُ مِنْ لَحْمِ الْأُضْحِيَّةَ إلَخْ) هَذَا فِي الْأُضْحِيَّةَ الْوَاجِبَةِ وَالسُّنَّةِ سَوَاءٌ إذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ وَاجِبَةً بِالنَّذْرِ، وَإِنْ وَجَبَتْ بِهِ فَلَا يَأْكُلُ مِنْهَا شَيْئًا وَلَا يُطْعِمُ غَنِيًّا سَوَاءٌ كَانَ النَّاذِرُ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا لِأَنَّ سَبِيلَهَا التَّصَدُّقُ وَلَيْسَ لِلْمُتَصَدِّقِ ذَلِكَ

 

How to Calculate Zakāt on Committee or Kitty Savings?

5th July 2021

 

Question: How does one calculate Zakāt on savings through committee or kitty savings? It’s a type of saving scheme where a group of people contribute monthly a specific amount into a pot for a certain period and whoever’s name comes out is their turn to take the full sum. They must continue to contribute monthly to reimburse all of the members.   Appreciate if you could provide a detailed answer on this matter.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The type of scheme you have briefly described is very common amongst South Asian Indo-Pak community. It is a scheme where members support one another to receive a large sum of money in a short period which can take up to months or years to save. Many join this scheme either for personal savings or to fulfil large financial costs such as paying off a large sum of debt, pay a deposit for a mortgage, cash their house or for other essentials. The way the scheme works is that you have members comprising of family, relatives and acquaintances who mutually contribute monthly or weekly into a pot. The number of participants vary depending on the agreed duration and the amount received. The trustee takes responsibility for safe-keeping all of the weekly or monthly contributions into a pot. The trustee then draws a list of the names of the members for each week or month and whoever’s turn it is, they receive the large sum.

To illustrate this, let’s say for instance there are 24 members; each person contributing a sum of £200 a month and the committee durations lasts up to two years from January 2021 to December 2022.[1]  The sum of £200 is collected at the 1st of every month. This means that each person receives in total £4,800 through this committee scheme. A trustee draws up a list of names of all of the members for each month and whoever’s turn it is, they receive the full amount at the beginning of the month.[2] Each participant after receiving the sum of £4,800 on their turn must continue to pay the monthly £200 until the end of term (in our example, December 2022). So long as you contribute, you are the creditor but once you’ve taken the funds on your turn, you now become the debtor. In other words, you’ve taken back what you contributed so far but now fall into debt of the remainder by taking everyone else’s monthly contribution which is why you continue to give £200 every month thereafter so to reimburse all members. Hence it is a crediting and borrowing base system. The only person who doesn’t incur any debt is the one receiving the large sum on their turn at the end as by then, the contract ends.  In short, the principle being that your initial contribution before your turn belongs to you but whatever you receive surplus to your initial contribution on your turn now belongs to someone else.  It is important to note that accessing the funds is not like a typical personal savings in one’s bank account where one can access them at any time. You only receive the large sum upon your turn.

The implication this has when calculating Zakāt on funds received through such schemes depends on the following issues namely; ownership, paying Zakāt on debt, savings utilised for essential needs and the elapsing of a complete lunar year. To explain further, firstly according to the general principle as outlined by the jurists, Zakāt becomes necessary if a person fully owns the savings by which they mean both ownership and physical possession.[3] Once the savings reach the Nisāb threshold and a complete lunar year has elapsed then Zakāt becomes obligatory except that paying it immediately is not necessary until after taking possession over it on their turn.[4] If you are the last person to receive the funds then Zakāt must be paid on the previous years as well. [5]  It is necessary to calculate Zakāt on the amount you have contributed until your turn as after that is debt. So, for instance, in light of the above example if someone receives £4,800 after twelve months then they only need to calculate Zakāt on £2,400 once a complete lunar year has passed as the remaining half is now a debt.[6]  When receiving the funds on your turn and the amount has not reached the Nisab then Zakāt is not necessary. For instance, you received the £4,800 after a month then since you have only contributed £200 only so far (which is below the current Nisab rate) it won’t be Zakatable as the remainder £4,600 is a debt.

A second important issue to be considered is whether the savings will be used for one’s essentials or not. Zakāt only applies if the savings were not used for any personal essentials. As was highlighted above that people join the committee scheme to pay off large sums to either fulfil personal debt or for their essential needs, for instance refurbishing home etc. In light of the above example if the savings despite reaching the Nisāb threshold, was used for personal essentials or to repay someone else’s debt instantly then calculating Zakāt would not be necessary at all. [7]

This now leads onto the final point that is calculating Zakāt on debt. As was explained that each member incurs a debt through this scheme on the residue amount. The monthly contribution of £200 after receiving the funds is to reimburse everyone else. The general principle is that Zakāt is not levied on debt however, contemporary scholars have distinguished between long-term and short-term debt. Long-term debt refers to debt owed beyond twelve months and short-term debt are those debts owed within 12 months. The general view is that only short-term debts are deductible from Zakāt but Zakāt must be calculated on long-term debts, debts that remain with the person beyond twelve months.[8] Going by the above example, if for instance a person received £4,800 after three months then excluding the £600, they will deduct from the remaining £4,200 debt the £200 monthly payment until that year’s Zakāt due date within 12 months. The remaining debt beyond that which is classed as long-term debt will not be deductible i.e.  Zakāt must be paid on it in addition to the £600. In another scenario, for instance a person receives £4,800 after fifteen months then besides the £3,000 (the total savings) the residue debt of £1,800 if paid within the year then will be deducted from Zakāt.

The above was a general guide to calculating Zakāt on committee funds. We have tried simplifying as much as possible to avoid overcomplicating its understanding.  It is appreciated that only those involved in the scheme are able to relate to the examples given. What is important to remember is that how you classify the funds has implications on the ruling of Zakāt. The funds received on your turn is a combination of savings and debt provided you are not the last person on the list to receive it. Zakāt however will not apply if all of the funds are used to fulfil basic needs before your Zakāt due date within twelve months according to the lunar calendar. In the case of confusion, it is recommended to speak to a reliable and experienced Mufti for further clarification regarding your specific matter.

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] In most committee schemes, the duration extends when more people intend to join which increases the savings.

[2] Some trustees instead of drawing up a list prioritise those in need to receive the full savings at the beginning of the month.

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 1, p. 170

الْبَابُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي تَفْسِيرِهَا وَصِفَتِهَا وَشَرَائِطِهَا

مِنْهَا الْمِلْكُ التَّامُّ وَهُوَ مَا اجْتَمَعَ فِيهِ الْمِلْكُ وَالْيَدُ وَأَمَّا إذَا وُجِدَ الْمِلْكُ دُونَ الْيَدِ كَالصَّدَاقِ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ أَوْ وُجِدَ الْيَدُ دُونَ الْمِلْكِ كَمِلْكِ الْمُكَاتَبِ وَالْمَدْيُونِ لَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 218

شُرُوط وُجُوب الزَّكَاة

وَأَطْلَقَ الْمِلْكَ فَانْصَرَفَ إلَى الْكَامِلِ، وَهُوَ الْمَمْلُوكُ رَقَبَةً وَيَدًا فَلَا يَجِبُ عَلَى الْمُشْتَرِي فِيمَا اشْتَرَاهُ لِلتِّجَارَةِ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ، وَلَا عَلَى الْمَوْلَى فِي عَبْدِهِ الْمُعَدِّ لِلتِّجَارَةِ إذَا أَبَقَ لِعَدَمِ الْيَدِ، وَلَا الْمَغْصُوبِ، وَلَا الْمَجْحُودِ إذَا عَادَ إلَى صَاحِبِهِ كَذَا فِي غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ، وَلَا يَلْزَمُ عَلَيْهِ ابْنُ السَّبِيلِ؛ لِأَنَّ يَدَ نَائِبِهِ كَيَدِهِ كَذَا فِي مِعْرَاجِ الدِّرَايَةِ، وَمِنْ مَوَانِعِ الْوُجُوبِ الرَّهْنُ إذَا كَانَ فِي يَدِ الْمُرْتَهِنِ لِعَدَمِ مِلْكِ الْيَدِ

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 9

فَصْلٌ الشَّرَائِطُ الَّتِي تَرْجِعُ إلَى الْمَالِ

وَمِنْهَا الْمِلْكُ الْمُطْلَقُ وَهُوَ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَمْلُوكًا لَهُ رَقَبَةً وَيَدًا وَهَذَا قَوْلُ أَصْحَابِنَا الثَّلَاثَةِ، وَقَالَ زُفَرُ: ” الْيَدُ لَيْسَتْ بِشَرْطٍ ” وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الشَّافِعِيِّ فَلَا تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِي الْمَالِ الضِّمَارِ عِنْدَنَا خِلَافًا لَهُمَا.

 

[4] One may however choose to pay it in advance if they want to that is

 

[5] This is the general rule otherwise one may choose to pay beforehand if they wish.

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 9

 

فَصْلٌ الشَّرَائِطُ الَّتِي تَرْجِعُ إلَى الْمَالِ

وَتَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِي الدَّيْنِ مَعَ عَدَمِ الْقَبْضِ، وَتَجِبُ فِي الْمَدْفُونِ فِي الْبَيْتِ فَثَبَتَ أَنَّ الزَّكَاةَ وَظِيفَةُ الْمِلْكِ وَالْمِلْكُ مَوْجُودٌ فَتَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِيهِ إلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا يُخَاطَبُ بِالْأَدَاءِ لِلْحَالِ لِعَجْزِهِ عَنْ الْأَدَاءِ لِبُعْدِ يَدِهِ عَنْهُ وَهَذَا لَا يَنْفِي الْوُجُوبَ كَمَا فِي ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ.

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 225

شُرُوط وُجُوب الزَّكَاة

وَقَدَّمْنَا أَنَّ الْمَبِيعَ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ لَا تَجِبُ زَكَاتُهُ عَلَى الْمُشْتَرِي وَذَكَرَ فِي الْمُحِيطِ فِي بَيَانِ أَقْسَامِ الدَّيْنِ أَنَّ الْمَبِيعَ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ، قِيلَ: لَا يَكُونُ نِصَابًا؛ لِأَنَّ الْمِلْكَ فِيهِ نَاقِصٌ بِافْتِقَادِ الْيَدِ، وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ يَكُونُ نِصَابًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ عِوَضٌ عَنْ مَالٍ كَانَتْ يَدُهُ ثَابِتَةً عَلَيْهِ، وَقَدْ أَمْكَنَهُ احْتِوَاءُ الْيَدِ عَلَى الْعِوَضِ فَتُعْتَبَرُ يَدُهُ بَاقِيَةً عَلَى النِّصَابِ بِاعْتِبَارِ التَّمَكُّنِ شَرْعًا اهـ فَعَلَى هَذَا قَوْلُهُمْ: لَا تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ مَعْنَاهُ قَبْلَ قَبْضِهِ

وَأَمَّا بَعْدَ قَبْضِهِ فَتَجِبُ زَكَاتُهُ فِيمَا مَضَى كَالدَّيْنِ الْقَوِيِّ،

 

 

[6] So the remaining 12 months of £200 will be deducted from their Zakat calculation.

 

[7]  Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Zakat, vol 2 p. 260

(فَارِغٍ عَنْ دَيْنٍ لَهُ مُطَالِبٌ مِنْ جِهَةِ الْعِبَادِ)

قَوْلُهُ فَارِغٍ عَنْ دَيْنٍ) بِالْجَرِّ صِفَةٌ نِصَابٍ، وَأَطْلَقَهُ فَشَمِلَ الدَّيْنَ الْعَارِضَ كَمَا يَذْكُرُهُ الشَّارِحُ وَيَأْتِي بَيَانُهُ، وَهَذَا إذَا كَانَ الدَّيْنُ فِي ذِمَّتِهِ قَبْلَ وُجُوبِ الزَّكَاةِ، فَلَوْ لَحِقَهُ بَعْدَهُ لَمْ تَسْقُطْ الزَّكَاةُ لِأَنَّهَا ثَبَتَتْ فِي ذِمَّتِهِ فَلَا يُسْقِطُهَا مَا لَحِقَ مِنْ الدَّيْنِ بَعْدَ ثُبُوتِهَا جَوْهَرَةٌ

 

vol 2 p. 262

(وَ) فَارِغٍ (عَنْ حَاجَتِهِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ) لِأَنَّ الْمَشْغُولَ بِهَا كَالْمَعْدُومِ

قَوْلُهُ: وَفَارِغٍ عَنْ حَاجَتِهِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ) أَشَارَ إلَى أَنَّهُ مَعْطُوفٌ عَلَى قَوْلِهِ عَنْ دَيْنٍ (قَوْلُهُ وَفَسَّرَهُ ابْنُ مَلَكٍ) أَيْ فَسَّرَ الْمَشْغُولَ بِالْحَاجَةِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ وَالْأَوْلَى فَسَّرَهَا، وَذَلِكَ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَهِيَ مَا يَدْفَعُ الْهَلَاكَ عَنْ الْإِنْسَانِ تَحْقِيقًا كَالنَّفَقَةِ وَدُورِ السُّكْنَى وَآلَاتِ الْحَرْبِ وَالثِّيَابِ الْمُحْتَاجِ إلَيْهَا لِدَفْعِ الْحَرِّ أَوْ الْبَرْدِ أَوْ تَقْدِيرًا كَالدَّيْنِ، فَإِنَّ الْمَدْيُونَ مُحْتَاجٌ إلَى قَضَائِهِ بِمَا فِي يَدِهِ مِنْ النِّصَابِ دَفْعًا عَنْ نَفْسِهِ الْحَبْسَ الَّذِي هُوَ كَالْهَلَاكِ وَكَآلَاتِ الْحِرْفَةِ وَأَثَاثِ الْمَنْزِلِ وَدَوَابِّ الرُّكُوبِ وَكُتُبِ الْعِلْمِ لِأَهْلِهَا فَإِنَّ الْجَهْلَ عِنْدَهُمْ كَالْهَلَاكِ، فَإِذَا كَانَ لَهُ دَرَاهِمُ مُسْتَحَقَّةٌ بِصَرْفِهَا إلَى تِلْكَ الْحَوَائِجِ صَارَتْ كَالْمَعْدُومَةِ، كَمَا أَنَّ الْمَاءَ الْمُسْتَحَقَّ بِصَرْفِهِ إلَى الْعَطَشِ كَانَ كَالْمَعْدُومِ وَجَازَ عِنْدَهُ التَّيَمُّمُ.

 

[8] For more details on this see our fatwa

Zakāt on Long Term Loans – JKN Fatawa

Giving Zakāt to Your Sister; What are the Conditions?

30th June 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: My younger sister is a widow with two children. She has a job which can pay for her daughters fees only. She lives with her in-law who although are considerate but have financial limitations themselves. They do not finance her in any way. She comes to visit sometimes with my mother who is also a widow & cannot support her financially. We have no brothers and she cannot pay for her other living expenses because her salary is not enough. The bedroom set and TV in her room it’s from when her husband was alive. The jewellery that she has from her dowry and her husband belong now to her daughters. Both the daughter are minors now. My sister has also health issues like asthma. She is very proud and never asks for anything from us. I wanted to ask if she is eligible for Zakāt or not? As a sister is it not my first obligation towards relative. I am a housewife & my husband is the bread earner

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to your query, the general principle is that anyone who has additional savings equal or above the threshold of Nisāb or assets beyond their basic necessities; house, basic furniture, clothing and conveyance equivalent to the Nisāb value is considered rich and not eligible for Zakāt. It is only that person who possesses earnings equal or below the threshold of Nisāb or household assets but utilised for their daily essentials and have nothing thereafter who are eligible for Zakāt.[1]

Concerning your case, the dowry that was given to your sister at the time of marriage belongs to her unless she has fully gifted it to her daughters and is not in her possession anymore.[2]

She will calculate the value of the TV and any excess belongings she has in her possession.  If all of this combined reaches the value of Nisāb (612.35 grams of silver or 87.479 grams of gold) or any currency that equals this amount) then she is not eligible for Zakāt.[3] If however, those excess assets do not value to the Nisāb given above then she would be eligible to receive Zakāt. As a sister, you are allowed to give your Zakāt to her and in doing so it will be more rewarding. [4]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1]  Ibn Nujaym, Al Bahr al Raiq, Kitabuz Zakaat, vol 2, p 258

وَالْأَوْلَى أَنْ يُفَسَّرَ الْفَقِيرُ بِمَنْ لَهُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ كَمَا فِي النُّقَايَةِ أَخْذًا مِنْ قَوْلِهِمْ يَجُوزُ دَفْعُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَى مَنْ يَمْلِكُ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرَ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ تَامٍّ، وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرِقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ، وَلَا خِلَافَ فِي أَنَّهُمَا صِنْفَانِ هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ؛

 

[2] Raddul Muhtaar, Kitabuz Zakaat, Bab al Masraf, vol 2, p 339

 أَيْ مَصْرِفِ الزَّكَاةِ وَالْعُشْرِ، وَأَمَّا خُمُسُ الْمَعْدِنِ فَمَصْرِفُهُ كَالْغَنَائِمِ (هُوَ فَقِيرٌ، وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ) أَيْ دُونَ نِصَابٍ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرِ نَامٍ مُسْتَغْرِقٍ فِي الْحَاجَةِ.(وَمِسْكِينٌ مَنْ لَا شَيْءَ لَهُ) عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ، – لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {أَوْ مِسْكِينًا ذَا مَتْرَبَةٍ} [البلد: ١٦]- وَآيَةُ السَّفِينَةِ لِلتَّرَحُّمِ

 

[3] [3] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitabuz Zakaat, Bab al Masarif, vol 1, p 187

(مِنْهَا الْفَقِيرُ) وَهُوَ مَنْ لَهُ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ مَا دُونَ النِّصَابِ أَوْ قَدْرُ نِصَابٍ غَيْرُ نَامٍ وَهُوَ مُسْتَغْرَقٌ فِي الْحَاجَةِ فَلَا يُخْرِجُهُ عَنْ الْفَقِيرِ مِلْكُ نُصُبٍ كَثِيرَةٍ غَيْرِ نَامِيَةٍ إذَا كَانَتْ مُسْتَغْرَقَةً بِالْحَاجَةِ كَذَا فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ. التَّصَدُّقُ عَلَى الْفَقِيرِ الْعَالِمِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ التَّصَدُّقِ عَلَى الْجَاهِلِ كَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ.

 

[4] Al Bahr al Raaiq, Kitab uz Zakaata, Bab al Massarif, vol2, p262

قَوْلُهُ وَأَصْلِهِ، وَإِنْ عَلَا وَفَرْعِهِ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ) بِالْجَرِّ أَيْ لَا يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ إلَى أَبِيهِ وَجَدِّهِ، وَإِنْ عَلَا، وَلَا إلَى وَلَدِهِ وَوَلَدِ وَلَدِهِ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَنْفَعَةَ لَمْ تَنْقَطِعْ عَنْ الْمِلْكِ مِنْ كُلِّ وَجْهٍ كَمَا قَدَّمَهُ فِي تَعْرِيفِ الزَّكَاةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ عَلَيْهِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ رَقَبَةً وَمَنْفَعَةً، وَلَمْ يُوجَدْ فِي الْأُصُولِ وَالْفُرُوعِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ مَنْفَعَةً وَإِنْ وَجَدَ رَقَبَةً، وَفِي عَبْدِهِ وُجِدَ الْإِخْرَاجُ مَنْفَعَةً لَا رَقَبَةً كَذَا فِي الْمُسْتَصْفَى، وَفِيهِ إشَارَةٌ إلَى أَنَّ هَذَا الْحُكْمَ لَا يَخُصُّ الزَّكَاةَ بَلْ كُلُّ صَدَقَةٍ وَاجِبَةٍ لَا يَجُوزُ دَفْعُهَا لَهُمْ كَأَحَدِ الزَّوْجَيْنِ كَالْكَفَّارَاتِ وَصَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ وَالنُّذُورِ، وَقُيِّدَ بِأَصْلِهِ وَفَرْعِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ مَنْ سِوَاهُمْ مِنْ الْقَرَابَةِ يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ لَهُمْ، وَهُوَ أَوْلَى لِمَا فِيهِ مِنْ الصِّلَةِ مَعَ الصَّدَقَةِ كَالْإِخْوَةِ وَالْأَخَوَاتِ وَالْأَعْمَامِ وَالْعَمَّاتِ وَالْأَخْوَالِ وَالْخَالَاتِ الْفُقَرَاءِ وَلِهَذَا قَالَ فِي الْفَتَاوَى الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ: يَبْدَأُ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ بِالْأَقَارِبِ ثُمَّ الْمَوَالِي ثُمَّ الْجِيرَانِ

Husband Paying for his Wife’s Zakāt

9th September 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Can the husband pay Zakāt on his wife’s behalf without her knowledge?

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, a husband is allowed to pay Zakāt on behalf of his wife but only if she is aware that her husband will pay it for her. If he paid it without her knowledge of it nor she consented to it then it will not be fulfilled. She may consent to it either explicitly or implicitly for instance, if she is aware that her husband pays for her Zakāt every year during a particular month of the year then it is permissible.[1]

This being said, it is ideal for the husband to still notify her though so that she is aware of her obligation being fulfilled and so that she can make intention of her Zakāt being paid from the money that her husband has given. It must be noted that after paying it on her behalf, if he demands to be reimbursed then he can do so.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Raddul Muhtar, Kitaab uz Zakaat, vol 2, p 268

ثُمَّ قَالَ فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة أَوْ وُجِدَتْ دَلَالَةُ الْإِذْنِ بِالْخَلْطِ كَمَا جَرَتْ الْعَادَةُ بِالْإِذْنِ مِنْ أَرْبَابِ الْحِنْطَةِ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ؛ وَكَذَلِكَ الْمُتَوَلِّي إذَا كَانَ فِي يَدِهِ أُوقِيَّاتٌ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ وَخَلَطَ غَلَّاتِهَا ضَمِنَ وَكَذَلِكَ السِّمْسَارُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَثْمَانَ أَوْ الْبَيَّاعُ إذَا خَلَطَ الْأَمْتِعَةَ يَضْمَنُ. اهـ. قَالَ فِي التَّجْنِيسِ: وَلَا عُرْفَ فِي حَقِّ السَّمَاسِرَةِ وَالْبَيَّاعِينَ بِخَلْطِ ثَمَنِ الْغَلَّاتِ وَالْأَمْتِعَةِ اهـ وَيَتَّصِلُ بِهَذَا الْعَالِمُ إذَا سَأَلَ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ شَيْئًا وَخَلَطَ يَضْمَنُ.

قُلْت: وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَنَّهُ لَوْ وُجِدَ الْعُرْفُ فَلَا ضَمَانَ لِوُجُودِ الْإِذْنِ حِينَئِذٍ دَلَالَةً. وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ عِلْمِ الْمَالِكِ بِهَذَا الْعُرْفِ لِيَكُونَ إذْنًا مِنْهُ دَلَالَةً

 

Ibn Nujaym, Al bahr al Raaiq, Ktaab uz Zakaat, vol 2, p 226-227

وَلَوْ أَدَّى زَكَاةَ غَيْرِهِ بِغَيْرِ أَمْرِهِ فَبَلَغَهُ فَأَجَازَ لَمْ يَجُزْ؛ لِأَنَّهَا وَجَدَتْ نَفَاذًا عَلَى الْمُتَصَدِّقِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مِلْكُهُ، وَلَمْ يَصِرْ نَائِبًا عَنْ غَيْرِهِ فَنَفَذَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَلَوْ تَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ بِأَمْرِهِ جَازَ وَيَرْجِعُ بِمَا دَفَعَ عِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَشْتَرِطْ الرُّجُوعَ كَالْأَمْرِ بِقَضَاءِ الدَّيْنِ وَعِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ لَا رُجُوعَ لَهُ إلَّا بِالشَّرْطِ، وَتَمَامُهُ فِي الْخَانِيَّةِ