Does a Menstruating Female Traveller Pray Full Salāh or Qasr?

Does a Menstruating Female Traveller Pray Full Salāh or Qasr?

 31st December 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: A menstruating woman travels to a destination of more than 48 miles and intends to stay there for less than 15 days. She will be staying for 10 days only and during that time she will become clean from her periods. She will return home after 3-4 days since her purity. Must she shorten her Salāh as Qasr or pray the full Salāh for those remaining days before returning home?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

The case in question is quite complex as the Hanafi scholars have differed regarding this issue. The current position we adopt is that the menstruating woman in the aforesaid case must pray Qasr after becoming clean, the reason for which will be discussed below. However, we will first explore the reason for the differences between the Hanafi scholars so to remove any potential confusion on this matter. A simple rule to understand is that in the Shariah, a person becomes a Shar’ee traveller if they make the intention of travelling more than 48 miles and staying at their destination for less than 15 days. Such intention must be deemed valid otherwise they will not be considered a Shar’ee traveller and the concessions of travelling will not apply. There are overall two opinions regarding your issue;

 

1) A menstruating woman in question must read the full Salāh after becoming clean and cannot read Qasr. This is the main stream view of the Hanafi scholars including Ibn Abideen Shami rahimahullah, Allama Badruddeen al-Ayni rahimahullah, Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanvi rahimahullah, Mufti Rasheed Ahmad Ludhyanvi rahimahullah and Mufti Mahmood al-Hasan Gangohi rahimahullah.[1] Ibn Abideen Shami rahimahullah clarifies this rulings by stating that if a woman starts her journey whilst she is menstruating and then upon reaching her destination, she becomes clean or she travels for three days (in the earlier times they would measure distances by days so three days journey was the safr distance) and becomes clean for the rest of the two days journey then she must read the full Salāh and not Qasr. This is because as he states that nothing of her intention counts during her menses period.[2]

 

2) The second position is that a menstruating woman who intends a journey of 48 Shar’ee miles will be considered a Shar’ee traveller and will read Qasr upon becoming pure on her journey (or at her destination of less than 15 days).[3] This is a minority opinion but arguably the most convenient position as well. Amongst those who maintain this view include Allamah Shurunbulali rahimahullah and Burhan al-Din Ibn Mazah rahimahullah.

 

The reason for the underlying differences between the scholars is based on whether her intention is considered valid or not during her menses. The classical position is that a menstruating woman’s intention is not valid because Salāh is not obligatory on her so she is not a Shar’ee traveller. They equate her intention with a minor child as an analogy whose intention is not considered valid. For instance, if a child travels 48 miles from his home and during the journey reaches puberty then he must read the full Salāh because he did not have a valid intention in the first place. Similarly with a menstruating woman. This is different from a non-Muslim adult who started his journey of more than 48 miles and during this journey he accepts Islām, then he will pray Qasr. This is because a non-Muslim adult’s intention is considered to be valid and hence becomes a Shar’ee traveller.[4]

 

The scholars of the second position disagree with equating a menstruating woman’s intention to that of a minor child’s inability of intention but instead equate her to a non-Muslim adult’s intention before Islām. The difference between the two is that a child is not fully mukallaf and mukhatab (responsible and addressed to comply with rules of the Shariah and Allāh’s laws) due to their minor age whereas a menstruating woman is legally responsible in certain aspect of the Shariah (like for instance committing a crime etc). They argue that a non-Muslim adult not being able to pray due to his disbelief does not invalidate his intention. Likewise, a menstruating woman not being able to pray due to impurity does not necessarily invalidate her intention of travelling either.[5] One can also argue that a minor child and a menstruating woman are not analogous in intention because a menstruating woman is balighah whereas as a minor child is not, so their respective rulings will be different.

 

Some have also argued that travelling itself is not an act of worship so their intentions are not the same as that of Ibadah. In Ibadah, a menstruating woman’s intention is invalid due to impurity, but not the intention of travelling itself as purity is not essential for that. The classical jurists of the first opinion have refuted the reasoning of the this second position stating that a menstruating woman cannot be equated to a non-Muslim traveller. For a non-Muslim, his kufr is a major impediment which is his voluntary action and can be removed through his Islām whereas menstruation is involuntary that cannot be removed at her own accord.[6] She is therefore similar to a minor child’s intention as his sexual maturity (bulugh) is involuntary.

 

One notices the complexity of the issue on the account of the different reasons postulated by the Hanafi jurists. Both opinions are correct in their own respect and are based on plausible reasons and analogies. However, due to convenience, we are more inclined towards the opinion that the menstruating woman in question must perform Qasr upon becoming pure from her menstruation during her travel. This is also the position of our senior teacher, Shaykh Mufti Shabbir Ahmed Patel Sahib.[7] If she chooses to adopt the first position as in to read the full Salāh as a precaution then she may do so. What is necessary is to remain consistent in following one position only and not to arbitrarily switch between positions.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam      

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Allamah Badr al-Din al-Ayni, Al Binayah Sharhul Hidaya, Kitabus Salah, Vol 3, Pg 279

ولو طهرت الحائض في السفر، وبينهما وبين المقصد أقل من مسيرة سفر تتم، هو الصحيح

 

Mufti Mahmood Ganghohi, Fatwa Mahmoodiya, Kitaab Al Salah, Baab al salatul Musafir, Vol 7, Pg 502

حالت سفر میں حیض اور بہشتی زیور کی عبارت کی وضاحت

 

Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad Al Ludhyanvi, Ahsanul Fatawa, Kitaab Al Salah, Baab al salatul Musafir Vol 4, Pg 87

عورت سفر  میں وطن کے قریب جاکر  پاک ہوئی تو پوری نماز پڑھے

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb Ma Yufsidu Alsalaah…, vol 2 p. 135

طَهُرَتْ الْحَائِضُ وَبَقِيَ لِمَقْصِدِهَا يَوْمَانِ تُتِمُّ فِي الصَّحِيحِ كَصَبِيٍّ بَلَغَ بِخِلَافِ كَافِرٍ أَسْلَمَ.

(قَوْلُهُ تُتِمُّ فِي الصَّحِيحِ) كَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ. قَالَ ط وَكَأَنَّهُ لِسُقُوطِ الصَّلَاةِ عَنْهَا فِيمَا مَضَى لَمْ يُعْتَبَرْ حُكْمُ السَّفَرِ فِيهِ فَلَمَّا تَأَهَّلَتْ لِلْأَدَاءِ اُعْتُبِرَ مِنْ وَقْتِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ كَصَبِيٍّ بَلَغَ) أَيْ فِي أَثْنَاءِ الطَّرِيقِ وَقَدْ بَقِيَ لِمَقْصِدِهِ أَقَلُّ مِنْ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فَإِنَّهُ يُتِمُّ وَلَا يُعْتَبَرُ مَا مَضَى لِعَدَمِ تَكْلِيفِهِ فِيهِ ط (قَوْلُهُ بِخِلَافِ كَافِرٍ أَسْلَمَ) أَيْ فَإِنَّهُ يَقْصُرُ

قَالَ فِي الدُّرَرِ لِأَنَّ نِيَّتَهُ مُعْتَبَرَةٌ فَكَانَ مُسَافِرًا مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ بِخِلَافِ الصَّبِيِّ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَقْتِ يَكُونُ مُسَافِرًا، وَقِيلَ يُتِمَّانِ، وَقِيلَ يَقْصُرَانِ. اهـ. وَالْمُخْتَارُ الْأَوَّلُ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ وَغَيْرِهِ عَنْ الْخُلَاصَةِ.

قَالَ فِي الشُّرُنْبُلَالِيَّةِ: وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ الْحَائِضَ لَا تَنْزِلُ عَنْ رُتْبَةِ الَّذِي أَسْلَمَ فَكَانَ حَقُّهَا الْقَصْرَ مِثْلَهُ. اهـ.

وَأَجَابَ فِي نَهْجِ النَّجَاةِ بِأَنَّ مَانِعَهَا سَمَاوِيٌّ بِخِلَافِهِ اهـ أَيْ وَإِنْ كَانَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ النِّيَّةِ بِخِلَافِ الصَّبِيِّ، لَكِنْ مَنَعَهَا مِنْ الصَّلَاةِ مَا لَيْسَ بِصُنْعِهَا فَلَغَتْ نِيَّتُهَا مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ، بِخِلَافِ الْكَافِرِ فَإِنَّهُ قَادِرٌ عَلَى إزَالَةِ الْمَانِعِ مِنْ الِابْتِدَاءِ فَصَحَّتْ نِيَّتُهُ

 

As a side note, if a menstruating woman becomes pure during her journey and the remaining distance between her and her destination since her purity is more than 48 miles then she will read Qasr according to everyone.

 

[3] Imam Abu’l Ikhlas, Al-Shurunbulali, Hashiya al-Durar, Kitabul Salah, Baabul Musafir, Vol 1, Pg 132

وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ الْحَائِضَ لَا تَنْزِلُ عَنْ رُتْبَةِ الَّذِي أَسْلَمَ فَكَانَ حَقُّهَا الْقَصْرَ مِثْلَهُ.

 

Burhan al din Ibn Mazah, Al Muhit Al Burhani, Kitabul Salah, Vol 2, Pg 40

والرابعة: الحائض إذا طهرت في هذا الوقت.

والخامسة: الطاهرة إذا حاضت في هذا الوقت، وإذا كان مسافرا في أول الوقت، وصلى صلاة السفر ثم أقام في الوقت لا يتغير فرضه، وإن لم يصل حتى أقام في آخر الوقت ينقلب فرضه أربعا، وإن لم يبق من الوقت إلا قدر ما يسع بعض الصلاة.

وإذا أسلم الكافر في سفره وبينه وبين المقصد أقل من ثلاثة أيام أو إذا أدرك الصبي (٩٧أ١) في سفره وبينه وبين المقصد أقل من ثلاثة أيام، فقد اختلف المشايخ فيه بعضهم قالوا: الذي أسلم يصلي ركعتين فالذي بلغ يصلي أربعا وقال بعضهم: يصليان ركعتين.

وفي «متفرقات الفقيه أبي جعفر» : فإنهما يصليان أربعا؛ لأنهما لم يكونا مخاطبين؛

فلا يقصران الصلاة، وأما الحائض إذا طهرت في بعض الطريق قصرت الصلاة؛ لأنها مخاطبة.

وفي «الحاوي» : سئل عن صبي خرج من نوركارايريد بخارى، فلما بلغ كرمة بلغ، قال: يصلي ركعتين إلى بخارى، وكذلك الكافر إذا أسلم فأما الحائض إذا طهرت من حيضها تصلي أربعا إلى بخارى.

 

[4] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb Ma Yufsidu Alsalaah…, vol 2 p. 135

 

[5] Burhan al din Ibn Mazah, Al Muhit Al Burhani, Kitabul Salah, Vol 2, Pg 40

 

[6] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaah, Bāb Ma Yufsidu Alsalaah…, vol 2 p. 135

[7] See  Menstruating woman travelling and Salāh, (2019) Fatwa: https://islamicportal.co.uk/menstruating-women-travelling-and-salah/ [accessed 31st December 2021]

 

What to do if You See Blood on the first day and don’t See it Thereafter?

What to do if You See Blood on the first day and don’t See it Thereafter?

10th December 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: My period is late this month; I usually always get my period on the 11th. It is usually always on time however I think that stress from university and life has delayed it. I found some blood in my discharge during Asr today so I naturally did not pray.  I have not seen blood since Asr, however I did not pray Maghrib because this is the usual time of my period. Is this a sin because I saw nothing when I inserted a cotton like blood or anything. Was I supposed to pray Maghrib? I did not because I thought since it was the time of my daily period or close to it that I should not pray.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

Thank for your query. You would like to know if the Maghrib you missed was supposed to be prayed. The issue whether Maghrib Salāh was obligatory on you or not depends on whether you continued bleeding or not thereafter within 10 days from the first time you saw discharge other than white. If you did not see any blood at all after this then the blood you saw at the time of Asr was not Haydh but Istihadha.  Therefore, you must repeat your Asr and Maghrib without the need for ghusl. [1] Generally, one should delay the Salāh until the end of the mustahab prayer time to check whether the bleeding continues or not. As for Maghrib, it is mustahab to read the prayer as soon as possible.[2] Therefore, you should have done wudhu and prayed your Maghrib salah shortly after the time had started. You will now have to do qadha of your Asr and Maghrib.

If on the other hand you continued bleeding thereafter within 10 days of when you first saw the blood after Asr, then all the days from that Asr time will be as considered your period days. Therefore, you will not have to do qadha of the Asr and Maghrib you missed. The ruling is the same even if some days you saw blood and some days you didn’t i.e. those days will still be considered Haydh according to your normal habit. [3] But you will not count your period from the 11th rather from the Asr time that you saw the blood.

Another point to remember is that if you continued bleeding even after 10 days then you must refer back to your last Haydh and purity habit to determine which days were Haydh and which days were Istihadha. [4]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]  

 

 

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam    

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Taharah, Bābul Haidh , vol 1 p. 283

أقله ثلاثة بلياليها) الثلاث، فالإضافة لبيان العدد المقدر بالساعات الفلكية لا للاختصاص، فلا يلزم كونها ليالي تلك الأيام؛ وكذا قوله (وأكثره عشرة) بعشر ليال، كذا رواه الدارقطني وغيره

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Taharah, Bābul Haidh , vol 1 p. 294

وإن) انقطع لدون أقله تتوضأ وتصلي في آخر الوقت،

: (قوله لدون أقله) أي أقل الحيض وهو ثلاثة أيام (قوله في آخر الوقت) أي وجوبا بركوي، والمراد آخر الوقت المستحب دون المكروه كما هو ظاهر سياق كلام الدرر وصدر الشريعة

 

[2] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitābul Salaah, Bābul Mawaqeet…, vol 1 p. 52

ويستحب تعجيل المغرب في كل زمان. كذا في الكافي

 

[3] Fathul Qadeer, Kitāb al Taharāt, Bāb al Haydh , vol 1 pg 172

أنَّ اسْتِيعَابَ الدَّمِ مُدَّةَ الْحَيْضِ لَيْسَ بِشَرْطٍ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ فَيُعْتَبَرُ أَوَّلُهُ وَآخِرُهُ كَالنِّصَابِ فِي بَابِ الزَّكَاةِ

وَرَوَى ابْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ أَنَّهُ يُعْتَبَرُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الدَّمُ فِي الْعَشْرِ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ زُفَرَ. وَرَوَى أَبُو يُوسُفَ عَنْهُ وَبِهِ أَخَذَ أَنَّ الطُّهْرَ إذَا كَانَ أَقَلَّ مِنْ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ لَا يُفْصَلُ. وَقِيلَ هُوَ آخِرُ أَقْوَالِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى.……… وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَشَايِخُ عَلَى قَوْلِهِ فِيمَا إذَا اجْتَمَعَ طُهْرَانِ مُعْتَبَرَانِ وَصَارَ أَحَدُهُمَا حَيْضًا لِاسْتِوَاءِ الدَّمِ بِطَرَفَيْهِ حَتَّى صَارَ كَالدَّمِ الْمُتَوَالِي، فَقِيلَ يَتَعَدَّى حُكْمُهُ إلَى الطَّرَفِ الْأَخِيرِ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ الْكُلُّ حَيْضًا، وَقِيلَ لَا يَتَعَدَّى. قَالَ فِي الْمُحِيطِ: هُوَ الْأَصَحُّ. مِثَالُهُ: رَأَتْ يَوْمَيْنِ دَمًا وَثَلَاثَةً طُهْرًا وَيَوْمًا دَمًا وَثَلَاثَةً طُهْرًا وَيَوْمًا دَمًا فَعَلَى الْأَوَّلِ الْكُلُّ حَيْضٌ لِأَنَّ الطُّهْرَ الْأَوَّلَ دَمٌ لِاسْتِوَائِهِ بِدَمَيْهِ فَكَأَنَّهَا رَأَتْ سِتَّةً دَمًا وَأَرْبَعَةً طُهْرًا، وَعَلَى الثَّانِي السِّتَّةُ الْأُولَى حَيْضٌ فَقَطْ

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb at-Taharāt, Bāb fid dima mukhtas bin Nisa, vol 1, p. 41

الطُّهْرُ الْمُتَخَلِّلُ بَيْنَ الدَّمَيْنِ وَالدِّمَاءِ فِي مُدَّةِ الْحَيْضِ يَكُونُ حَيْضًا وَلَوْ خَرَجَ أَحَدُ الدَّمَيْنِ عَنْ مُدَّةِ الْحَيْضِ بِأَنْ رَأَتْ يَوْمًا دَمًا وَتِسْعَةً طُهْرًا وَيَوْمًا دَمًا مَثَلًا لَا يَكُونُ حَيْضًا؛ لِأَنَّ الدَّمَ الْأَخِيرَ لَمْ يُوجَدْ فِي مُدَّةِ الْحَيْضِ.وَلَا يَبْتَدِئُ الْحَيْضُ بِالطُّهْرِ عَلَى هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةِ وَلَا يُخْتَمُ بِهِ وَهِيَ رِوَايَةُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَرَوَى أَبُو يُوسُفَ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ أَنَّ الطُّهْرَ الْمُتَخَلِّلَ بَيْنَ الدَّمَيْنِ إذَا كَانَ أَقَلَّ مِنْ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْمًا لَمْ يُفْصَلْ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْ الْمُتَأَخِّرِينَ أَفْتَوْا بِهَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا أَسْهَلُ عَلَى الْمُفْتِي وَالْمُسْتَفْتِي. كَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ وَهَكَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ وَالْأَخْذُ بِهَذَا أَيْسَرُ كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ وَعَلَيْهِ اسْتَقَرَّ رَأْيُ الصَّدْرِ الشَّهِيدِ حُسَامِ الدِّينِ وَبِهِ يُفْتَى. كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ. فَإِنْ لَمْ يُجَاوِزْ الْعَشَرَةَ فَالطُّهْرُ وَالدَّمُ كِلَاهُمَا حَيْضٌ سَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ مُبْتَدَأَةً أَوْ مُعْتَادَةً وَإِنْ جَاوَزَ الْعَشَرَةَ فَفِي الْمُبْتَدَأَةِ حَيْضُهَا عَشَرَةُ أَيَّامٍ وَفِي الْمُعْتَادَةِ مَعْرُوفَتُهَا فِي الْحَيْضِ حَيْضٌ وَالطُّهْرُ طُهْرٌ. هَكَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Taharah, Bāb Al-Haidh, vol 1 p. 301.

 وَإِنْ كَانَتْ فِي الْحَيْضِ، فَإِنْ جَاوَزَ الْعَشَرَةَ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَقَعْ فِي زَمَانِ الْعَادَةِ نِصَابٌ انْتَقَلَتْ زَمَانًا وَالْعَدَدُ بِحَالِهِ يُعْتَبَرُ مِنْ أَوَّلِ مَا رَأَتْ. وَإِنْ وَقَعَ فَالْوَاقِعُ فِي زَمَانِهَا فَقَطْ حَيْضٌ وَالْبَاقِي اسْتِحَاضَةٌ، فَإِنْ كَانَ الْوَاقِعُ مُسَاوِيًا لِعَادَتِهَا عَدَدًا فَالْعَادَةُ بَاقِيَةٌ وَإِلَّا انْتَقَلَتْ الْعَادَةُ عَدَدًا إلَى مَا رَأَتْهُ نَاقِصًا، وَإِنْ لَمْ يُجَاوِزْ الْعَشَرَةَ فَالْكُلُّ حَيْضٌ. فَإِنْ لَمْ يَتَسَاوَيَا صَارَ الثَّانِي عَادَةً وَإِلَّا فَالْعَدَدُ بِحَالِهِ،

 

[4] Kasāni, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Tahrah,  Fasl al-Haidh , vol 1 p. 41

  وأما) صاحبة العادة في الحيض إذا كانت عادتها عشرة فزاد الدم عليها فالزيادة استحاضة، وإن كانت عادتها خمسة فالزيادة عليها حيض معها إلى تمام العشرة لما ذكرنا في المبتدأة بالحيض، وإن جاوز العشرة فعادتها حيض، وما زاد عليها استحاضة

لقول النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – «المستحاضة تدع الصلاة أيام أقرائها» أي: أيام حيضها، ولأن ما رأت في أيامها حيض بيقين، وما زاد على العشرة استحاضة بيقين، وما بين ذلك متردد بين أن يلحق بما قبله فيكون حيضا، فلا تصلي، وبين أن يلحق بما بعده فيكون استحاضة فتصلي، فلا تترك الصلاة بالشك

 وَإِنْ كَانَتْ فِي الْحَيْضِ، فَإِنْ جَاوَزَ الْعَشَرَةَ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَقَعْ فِي زَمَانِ الْعَادَةِ نِصَابٌ انْتَقَلَتْ زَمَانًا وَالْعَدَدُ بِحَالِهِ يُعْتَبَرُ مِنْ أَوَّلِ مَا رَأَتْ. وَإِنْ وَقَعَ فَالْوَاقِعُ فِي زَمَانِهَا فَقَطْ حَيْضٌ وَالْبَاقِي اسْتِحَاضَةٌ، فَإِنْ كَانَ الْوَاقِعُ مُسَاوِيًا لِعَادَتِهَا عَدَدًا فَالْعَادَةُ بَاقِيَةٌ وَإِلَّا انْتَقَلَتْ الْعَادَةُ عَدَدًا إلَى مَا رَأَتْهُ نَاقِصًا، وَإِنْ لَمْ يُجَاوِزْ الْعَشَرَةَ فَالْكُلُّ حَيْضٌ. فَإِنْ لَمْ يَتَسَاوَيَا صَارَ الثَّانِي عَادَةً وَإِلَّا فَالْعَدَدُ بِحَالِهِ،

 

 

Is Botox Permissible or Not?

Is Botox Permissible or Not?

                           18th November 2021

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question:  I was wondering whether it is possible to give botox treatments and fillers. Eg. To enhance beauty etc?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In reference to your query, it is permissible to perform botox and filler treatments as these procedures do not permanently alter ones’ bodily features that does not fall under the category of tagh’yeer. It is merely injecting a substance so to temporarily freeze the muscles. Tagh’yeer means to permanently alter one’s natural features by adding or removing a certain bodily limb for beautification that is contrary to what Allāh Almighty naturally created one upon.[1]. The effects of botox and fillers o the other hand is not permanent and lasts for a month or so. The treatment is continuously performed if the aesthetic effects are desired. It is a non-intrisve method so it does not require a surgical procedure.

To further explain, botox is most commonly associated with reducing muscle tension around certain features of the face enhancing volume and consistency. This is achieved by causing the facial muscles to stiffen and reduce contraction, resulting in an evener skin surface. Botox is semi-permanent usually lasting 3-4 months and requires continuation if one chooses to. It is also used for several other treatments such as excessive sweating, over-reactive bladder and chronic migraines etc.[2]

Dermal filler is similar to botox that enhances and adds plumpness to certain areas of the face particularly the lips, sides of the mouth and cheeks. It can further be used to add volume to the forehead and assist in smoothing out wrinkles. However, as mentioned that botox usually involves injecting a solution containing non-toxic bacteria powder, which is then mixed into a saline dissolvent. The solution contains three main ingredients that are required for a successful outcome, the bacteria, human albumin (which is the donated blood plasma of humans) and sodium chloride. The human plasma is what causes the use of botox to become haram, as it is forbidden to take benefit from any part of the human body for any reasons including aesthetic.[3]

Furthermore, dermal fillers contain calcium hydroxylapatite (which is non-animal derived mineral), hyaluronic acid, Polyalkylimide, Polylactic acid, PMMA.[4] There are different types of dermal filler that are used specifically for enhancing certain areas. Juvéderm filler is made from a hyaluronic acid gel whilst Restylane filler is a non-animal derived hyaluronic acid gel. However, there are fillers such as Collagen which is used to smooth out wrinkles and lines originally made from sanitized cows’ skin.[5]

The following types of fillers are derived specifically from hyaluronic acid with additions of the main ingredients. Sculptra, Captique, Hylaform and Radiesse fillers are permissible to be injected into the skin due to the base ingredient of hyaluronic acid. Some fillers are considered vegan in terms of the ingredients used and are required by law to be tested on animals therefore, removing the vegan-friendly label.[6]

Though botox and filler are not Haram when the conditions are met one should consider the possible side effects and risks of each procedure. Breathing difficulties, bruising, swelling and in severe cases nerve damage. If one does not feel the need to perform these procedures then best avoided. One must understand that from an Islamic perspective they are unnecessary forms of beautification for verily Allah looks at one’s heart and not at his outward appearance. A final point on this is that the above explanation  of botox is based on the current understanding of the procedure and ingredients. If it contains impure ingredients then it will not be permissible at all.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Muftiya Gul-e-Maryam         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Sharah Sahih Bukhari Libn Battaal, باب: المتفلجات للحسن, Vol 9, Pg 167

قال الطبرى: فى هذا الحديث البيان عن رسول الله أنه لا يجوز لامرأة تغيير شىء من خلقها الذى خلقها الله عليه بزيادة فيه أو نقص منه التماس التحسن به لزوج أو غيره، لأن ذلك نقض منها خلقها إلى غير هيئته،

 

[2]See https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/158647.php

 

[3] Muheet Al Burhani, Kitab Istihsaan, Vol 5, Pg 373

 وإنما لم يجز الانتفاع بعظم الخنزير والآدمي؛ أما الخنزير فلأنه نجس العين بجميع أجزائه، والانتفاع بالنجس حرام، وأما الآدمي فقد قال بعض مشايخنا: إنه لم يجز الانتفاع بأجزائه لنجاسته، وقال بعضهم: لم يجز الانتفاع به لكرامته وهو الصحيح، فإن الله تعالى كرم بني آدم وفضلهم على سائر الأشياء، وفي الانتفاع بأجزائه نوع إهانة به.

[4] https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320510.php#what-are-dermal-fillers

 

[5] Muheet Al Burhani, Kitab Istihsaan, Vol 5, Pg 373

ثم جلد الميتة يطهر بالدباغ، فكذا عظمه يطهر باليبس، فيجوز الانتفاع به، فيجوز التداوي به.
وإنما لم يجز الانتفاع بعظم الخنزير والآدمي؛

[6] https://www.glamourmagazine.co.uk/article/plastic-and-cosmetic-surgery-for-vegans-information

 

Are Permanent Hair Dyes Permissible?

Are Permanent Hair Dyes Permissible?

26th August 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Are Muslim women allowed to dye their hair with natural colours permanently? Kindly provide a detailed answer for this.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

 

Generally, it is permissible for women and men to dye their hair. It is recommended to dye the hair using henna because it is Sunnah. The noble companions would use henna to dye their hair and beard.[1]However, there are certain points which need to be taken into consideration.

1: Permanent hair dye even though it is labelled as “permanent”, is in actual fact not permanent and lasts between 6 to 10 weeks in most cases.[2] It is important to note that the ruling of taghyeer (alteration) – changing one’s natural creation that Allāh Almighty made a person upon does not apply. Taghyeer is a result of permanent change to one’s natural outlook for embellishment to any bodily part either by adding or removing something which is prohibited. If it is temporary beautification then it is not prohibited on the account of taghyeer.[3]

2)In permanent hair dye or any hair dye one must ensure there is no ingredient which leaves a coating on the hair. As water will not be able to pass through the coating therefore wudhu and ghusl will not be complete.[4] Some hair dyes either coat the hair or merely colour the hair only. It is better to verify from the manufacturers or retailers first before purchasing them.

PPD (Paraphenylenediamine) is a key ingredient in permanent hair dyes. It is an oxidative precursor which reacts with agents such as ammonia and hydrogen peroxide in the hair dye. PPD works by entering the hair fibres and reacting with the oxidative agents. This then forms large coloured pigments inside of the hair fibres which provides its permanent colour. PPD does not form a waterproof seal over the hair strands, rather it alters the natural colour of the smaller hair fibres. PPD can be found in many semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes though one must check the label on purchasing as a precaution. However, an individual must remain mindful of the allergic reactions that can be caused by PPD. Temporary and semi-permanent hair dyes, contain colourants that form a layer over the hair strands, merely providing a colour that can be removed after a few weeks of washing. Therefore, they remain waterproof as they prevent water from reaching the hair strands. PPD (permanent hair dyes apart from black) are permissible to use due to not being waterproof. As they colour the natural hair fibres and do not provide a sealant over them.[5]

Another ingredient used in hair dye is Hydrogen peroxide (H202). It works by changing the hair pigment called melanin. Therefore, it does not coat the hair and thus it would be permissible to use.[6]

3) Another point to consider is that the ingredients must be pure. It won’t be permissible to use if it contains any impure ingredient.  If the hair dye contains alcohol extracted from grapes and dates then it is not permissible to use. Alcohol extracted from anything else such as wheat, figs, petrol, chemicals are not considered impure according to Imām Abu Hanifah rahimahullah and Imām Abū Yusuf rahimahullah.[7]

4) One should preferably avoid using hair dyes which contain harmful ingredients. As some hair dyes are known to contain toxic chemicals or to cause hair loss etc.[8]

5) It would be permissible to dye the hair with any other colour with the exception of black.[9]

Sayyidunā Abdullāh Ibn Abbās radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam has said; “There shall come such people towards the end of time where they will colour their hair with black like (the colour of) a pigeon’s chest but they shall not scent the fragrance of paradise.” [10]

To apply black hair-dye with the purpose of deceiving others is prohibited. For adornment purposes, it is better to refrain from as it would be considered makrooh but not Haram.[11]

6) A final point that the type of hair colour chosen should not be done with the intention of imitating those of other faiths.

Sayyidunā Abdullah ibn Umar radhiyallahu anhuma narrates that the Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Change the white hair but do not imitate the Jews.”[12]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitābul Karahiyah, Volume 8, Pg 208 

 ولا بأس للنساء بخضاب اليد والرجل ما لم يكن خضاب فيه تماثيل ويكره للرجال والصبيان لأن ذلك تزين وهو مباح للنساء دون الرجال ولا بأس بخضاب الرأس واللحية بالحناء والوشمة للرجال والنساء لأن ذلك سبب لزيادة الرغبة والمحبة بين الزوجين

 

Al- Mabsoot al Sarakhsi, Kitabul Taharee, Vol 10, Pg 199

وأما من اختضب لأجل التزين للنساء والجواري فقد منع من ذلك بعض العلماء رحمهم الله تعالى والأصح أنه لا بأس به، هو مروي عن أبي يوسف – رحمه الله تعالى – قال: كما يعجبني أن تتزين لي يعجبها أن أتزين له

 

[2].[online]Available at:<https://www.pantene.co.uk/en-gb/hair-tips/coloured-hair/how-long-does-hhttps://www.pantene.co.uk/en-gb/hair-tips/coloured-hair/how-long-does-hair-dye-lastair-dye-last> [Accessed 17 August 2021].

 

[3] Muhamad Uthman Shabir, Ahkaam Jarahatul Tajmeel fi Fiqhil Islami, Pg 11

حرم اسلام الوشم والوسم والقشر ما لا فيها من تغيير الخلقة الاصلية بما هو باق وتعذيب إلانسان بلا ضرورة . وأجاز الاستعمال ما لا يكون باقيا من األصباغ كالكحل و الحناء والكتم والحمرة وغير ذلك

Imam Qurtubi, Tafseer Qurtubi, Vol 5, Pg 393

وهذه الأمور كلها قد شهدت الأحاديث بلعن فاعلها وأنها من الكبائر ، واختلف في المعنى الذي نهى لأجلها ، فقيل : لأنها من باب التدليس ، وقيل : من باب تغيير خلق الله تعالى كما قال ابن مسعود ، وهو أصح ، وهو يتضمن المعنى الأول ، ثم قيل : هذا المنهي عنه إنما هو فيما يكون باقياً ؛ لأنه من باب تغيير خلق الله تعالى ، فأما مالا يكون باقياً كالكحل والتزين به للنساء فقد أجاز العلماء ذلك “ انتهى من “.

[4] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitābul Taharat, vol 1, Pg 26

والخضاب إذا تجسد ويبس يمنع تمام الوضوء والغسل كذا في السراج الوهاج ناقلا عن الوجيز … وإن كان على رأسها خضاب فمسحت على الخضاب إذا اختلطت البلة بالخضاب وخرجت عن حكم الماء المطلق لا يجوز المسح كذا في الخلاصة والله أعلم

 

[5] Truthabouthaircolor.com. 2021. How Does PPD Hair Dye Work | Truth About Hair Colour. [online] Available at: <https://www.truthabouthaircolor.com/hair-dye-health/how-does-ppd-dye-work>. [Accessed 17 August 2021].

 

Helmenstine, A., 2019. The Science Behind How Hair Coloring Works. [online] ThoughtCo. Available at: <https://www.thoughtco.com/salon-hair-color-chemistry-602183>  [Accessed 17 August 2021].

 

[6] Compound Interest. 2015. The Chemistry of Permanent Hair Dyes. [online] Available at: <https://www.compoundchem.com/2015/05/14/hair-dyes/>  [Accessed 17 August 2021].

[7] Please see our detailed fatwa on alcohol and hair dye at https://jknfatawa.co.uk/hair-dye-containing-alcohol/

 

[8] Al- Quran, Surah Baqarah, Verse 195

وَاَنۡفِقُوۡا فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ وَلَا تُلۡقُوۡا بِاَيۡدِيۡكُمۡ اِلَى التَّهۡلُكَةِ ۖ  ۛۚ وَاَحۡسِنُوۡا  ۛۚ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُحِبُّ الۡمُحۡسِنِيۡنَ

 

[9] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Masa’il Shataa, vol 6, Pg 756

(قوله جاز في الأصح) وهو مروي عن أبي يوسف فقد قال: يعجبني أن تتزين لي امرأتي كما يعجبها أن أتزين لها والأصح أنه لا بأس به في الحرب وغيره واختلفت الرواية في أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فعله في عمره والأصح لا وفصل في المحيط بين الخضاب بالسواد قال عامة المشايخ: إنه مكروه وبعضهم جوزه مروي عن أبي يوسف، أما بالحمرة فهو سنة الرجال وسيما المسلمين اهـ منح ملخصا وفي شرح المشارق للأكمل والمختار أنه – صلى الله عليه وسلم – خضب في وقت، وتركه في معظم الأوقات، ومذهبنا أن الصبغ بالحناء والوسمة حسن كما في الخانية قال النووي: ومذهبنا استحباب خضاب الشيب للرجل والمرأة بصفرة أو حمرة وتحريم خضابه بالسواد على الأصح

 

[10] Sunnan Nasai, Kitabul Zeenah, Baab  alnahee anil kidhaab bisawad, Vol 8, Pg 326, No. 9293

عن ابن عباس رفعه قال :يَكُونُ قَوْمٌ يَخْضِبُونَ فِي آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ بِالسَّوَادِ كَحَوَاصِلِ الْحَمَامِ لاَ يَرِيحُونَ رَائِحَةَ الْجَنَّة

 

[11] Please see our detailed fatwa on dying the hair black to please the husband.  https://jknfatawa.co.uk/women-dying-their-hair/

 

[12] Sunnan Nasai, Kitabul Zeenah, Baabul izni bilkizaab, Vol 8, Pg 325 No. 9291

أَخْبَرَنِي عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ جَنَابٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ غَيِّرُوا الشَّيْبَ وَلاَ تَشَبَّهُوا بِالْيَهُودِ

 

 

Menopausal Woman Seeing Blood

Menopausal Woman Seeing Blood

1st June 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If a woman who has reached above the age of fifty and her menses bleeding has stopped for some time, is this considered menopause? She however sees bleeding after a long time but on and off but no regular pattern. Is this bleeding be classed as periods? Finally, is it possible for menstrual bleeding to return during menopause. Kindly provide a detailed answer on the subject

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: In reference to the above question, a menopausal woman seeing blood after a long time without any fixed days would usually not be classed as menstruation.[1] The Hanafi jurists have differed as to the exact age that a woman reaches menopause. The age varies between 55-60 and the general fatwa is given on this although there is a view of 50 as well.[2] So in your case, if after the age of 50 her bleeding stopped completely but now experiences unexpected bleeding after many years that is on and off without a fixed habit then this will not be classed as menstruation, as her bleeding had ceased previously.[3]  However. a menopausal woman who experiences bleeding is however a cause for concern and can only occur due to a number of circumstances;

  • Polyps- Growths that develop from the tissue lining the uterus, they may cause both irregular and heavy bleeding.
  • Endrometrial Atrophy- The endrometrium is the inner lining of the uterus, after menopause the lining becomes weaker and thinner as a result of the low hormone levels, this may further cause bleeding.
  • Endrometrial Hyperplasia- Here the uterus lining thickens causing the bleeding. However, in severe cases atypical hyperplasia can occur which the cells lining the uterus become abnormal causing endrometrial cancer. [4]

 

It is advisable for a menopausal woman to consult a medical professional on this matter.

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Gul-e-Maryam         Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Mabsoot Sarakhsi, Kitab Haidh, Vol 3, Pg 150

وكان محمد بن مقاتل الرازي – رحمه الله تعالى – يقول: هذا إذا لم يحكم بإياسها أما إذا انقطع عنها الدم زمانا حتى حكم بإياسها، وكانت بنت تسعين سنة أو نحو ذلك فرأت الدم بعد ذلك لم يكن حيضا، وكان محمد بن إبراهيم الميداني – رحمه الله تعالى – يقول: إن رأت دما سائلا كما تراه في زمان حيضها، فهو حيض، وإن رأت بلة يسيرة لم يكن ذلك حيضا بل ذلك بلل من فم الرحم فكان فاسدا لا يتعلق به حكم الحيض فهذا بيان أنواع الدماء الفاسدة.

 

[2] Ikhtiyaar Li Ta’leel Mukhtar, Kitab Talaq,Vol 3, Pg 176

واختلف أصحابنا في حد الإياس، قال بعضهم: يعتبر بأقرانها من قرابتها، وقيل يعتبر بتركيبها لأنه يختلف بالسمن والهزال. وعن محمد أنه قدره بستين سنة. وعنه في الروميات بخمس وخمسين، وفي المولدات ستين، وقيل خمسين سنة، والفتوى على خمس وخمسين من غير فصل وهو رواية الحسن عن أبي حنيفة، وعنه أيضا ما بين خمس وخمسين إلى ستين.

 

[3] Muheet Al Burbani,Kitab Haidh , Vol 1, Pg 212

وتفسير الآيسة على هذه الرواية أن تبلغ من السن ما لا يحيض مثلها، فإذا بلغت هذا المبلغ وانقطع دمها يحكم بإياسها. فإن رأت بعد ذلك دما فلا يكون حيضا على هذه الرواية و

 

[4] See https://m.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Perimenopausal-Bleeding-and-Bleeding-After-Menopause

Contraceptive Pills and Menstrual Bleeding

Contraceptive Pills and Menstrual Bleeding

4th January 2021

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I have a query regarding the combined pill form of contraception women take. This form of contraception requires to take the pill for 21 days and have a break from it for 7 days. During the 7 days one will experience a bleeding like a period (but not her actual period). I understand intercourse during menstruation time is not permitted. However, it is unclear to me whether this 7 day bleeding period would also come under the time sex is not permitted? Please could I have some clarification on this.

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

Thank you for your question. In regards to your query, the combined pill is taken as a form of contraception is a pill that prevents the ovaries from releasing an egg each month (ovulation). It also thickens the mucus in the neck of the womb, so it is harder for sperm to penetrate the womb and reach an egg. This form of contraception is said to be 99% effective when taken correctly. The pill is taken orally on a cycle of 21 days with a 7 day break in between. Breakthrough bleeding and spotting is very common with the pill.[1]

Breakthrough bleeding and spotting is a common side effect of such birth control pills. It is especially common in the first three months of using hormonal birth control. This could be due to the changes in the levels of hormones or the inconsistency of taking the pill etc. [2] It is therefore important to note that this breakthrough bleeding that happens during the 21 days of taking the pill cannot be disregarded Islamically as it affects the overall ruling of the period bleeding.

The general rule therefore would depend on whether you had a complete pure period of minimum 15 days before your next habitual bleeding.  If you had 15 days of no bleeding and then bled for 3 days or more then this will be considered as periods Islamically. It doesn’t matter whether the bleeding occurred during the 21 days or the 7 days. Hence, if this bleeding falls during the 7 days or the 21 days, intercourse will not be allowed. However, if less than 15 days of cleanliness have passed since the last period and one starts bleeding then this bleeding will be considered as istihadha – dysfunctional bleeding, during which intercourse is allowed.[3]

For illustration purpose, say someone has started taking the 21 days pill and on the first day saw bleeding and she has a habit of 5 days, so they finish their periods on day 5. After competing  the 21 days, they again bleed even if this is just spotting, and this spotting carries on for more than 3 days then Islamically this spotting will be considered as period as there has been a gap of 15 days of cleanliness. In this time, they will not be able to have intercourse.

Just say they start a proper bleed again when they start taking the pill, if this bleeding is within 10 days of the spotting happening then all the days will be considered as period. If the proper bleeding is after 10 days of the spotting then this bleeding will not be classed as period Islamically rather it will be considered as istihadha.[4]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam  

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] nhs.uk. 2020. Combined Pill. [online] Available at: <https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/contraception/combined-contraceptive-pill/> [Accessed 3 January 2021].

 

[2] Santos-Longhurst, A., 2019. Breakthrough Bleeding on The Pill: Causes, Diagnosis, And Stopping It. [online] Healthline. Available at: <https://www.healthline.com/health/womens-health/breakthrough-bleeding-on-the-pill> [Accessed 4 January 2021].

[3]Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Taharah, Bāb Al-Haidh, vol 1 p. 298

قوله لا يمنع صوما إلخ) أي ولا قراءة ومس مصحف ودخول مسجد وكذا لا تمنع عن الطواف إذا أمنت من اللوث قهستاني عن الخزانة ط. مطلب في حكم وطء المستحاضة ومن بذكره نجاسة

(قوله وجماعا) ظاهره جوازه في حال سيلانه وإن لزم منه تلويث، وكذا هو ظاهر غيره من المتون والشروح وكذا قولهم: يجوز مباشرة الحائض فوق الإزار وإن لزم منه التلطخ بالدم، وتمامه في ط.

وأما ما في شرح المنية في الأنجاس من أن التلوث بالنجاسة مكروه فالظاهر حمله على ما إذا كان بلا عذر والوطء عذر، ألا ترى أنه يحل على القول بأن رطوبة الفرج نجسة مع أن فيه تلوثا بالنجاسة، فتخصيص الحل بوقت عدم السيلان يحتاج إلى نقل صريح ولم يوجد، بل قدمنا على شروح الهداية التصريح بأن حل الوطء بعد أكثر الحيض غير متوقف على الانقطاع فافهم.

 

Kasāni, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Tahrah,  Fasl al-Haidh , vol 1 p. 41

أما الاستحاضة فهي ما انتقص عن أقل الحيض، وما زاد على أكثر الحيض، والنفاس، ثم المستحاضة نوعان مبتدأة، وصاحبة عادة والمبتدأة نوعان مبتدأة بالحيض، ومبتدأة بالحبل، وصاحبة العادة نوعان صاحبة العادة في الحيض، وصاحبة العادة في النفاس. أما) المبتدأة بالحيض، وهي التي ابتدئت بالدم، واستمر بها فالعشرة من أول الشهر حيض؛ لأن هذا دم في أيام الحيض، وأمكن جعله حيضا فيجعل حيضا، وما زاد على العشرة يكون استحاضة، لأنه لا مزيد للحيض على العشرة، وهكذا في كل شهر. وأما) صاحبة العادة في الحيض إذا كانت عادتها عشرة فزاد الدم عليها فالزيادة استحاضة، وإن كانت عادتها خمسة فالزيادة عليها حيض معها إلى تمام العشرة لما ذكرنا في المبتدأة بالحيض، وإن جاوز العشرة فعادتها حيض، وما زاد عليها استحاضة لقول النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – «المستحاضة تدع الصلاة أيام أقرائها» أي: أيام حيضها، ولأن ما رأت في أيامها حيض بيقين، وما زاد على العشرة استحاضة بيقين، وما بين ذلك متردد بين أن يلحق بما قبله فيكون حيضا، فلا تصلي، وبين أن يلحق بما بعده فيكون استحاضة فتصلي، فلا تترك الصلاة بالشك

 

[4] Fathul Qadeer, Kitāb al Taharāt, Bāb al Haydh , vol 1 pg 172

أَنَّ اسْتِيعَابَ الدَّمِ مُدَّةَ الْحَيْضِ لَيْسَ بِشَرْطٍ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ فَيُعْتَبَرُ أَوَّلُهُ وَآخِرُهُ كَالنِّصَابِ فِي بَابِ الزَّكَاةِ

وَرَوَى ابْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ أَنَّهُ يُعْتَبَرُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الدَّمُ فِي الْعَشْرِ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ زُفَرَ. وَرَوَى أَبُو يُوسُفَ عَنْهُ وَبِهِ أَخَذَ أَنَّ الطُّهْرَ إذَا كَانَ أَقَلَّ مِنْ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ لَا يُفْصَلُ. وَقِيلَ هُوَ آخِرُ أَقْوَالِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى.……… وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَشَايِخُ عَلَى قَوْلِهِ فِيمَا إذَا اجْتَمَعَ طُهْرَانِ مُعْتَبَرَانِ وَصَارَ أَحَدُهُمَا حَيْضًا لِاسْتِوَاءِ الدَّمِ بِطَرَفَيْهِ حَتَّى صَارَ كَالدَّمِ الْمُتَوَالِي، فَقِيلَ يَتَعَدَّى حُكْمُهُ إلَى الطَّرَفِ الْأَخِيرِ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ الْكُلُّ حَيْضًا، وَقِيلَ لَا يَتَعَدَّى. قَالَ فِي الْمُحِيطِ: هُوَ الْأَصَحُّ. مِثَالُهُ: رَأَتْ يَوْمَيْنِ دَمًا وَثَلَاثَةً طُهْرًا وَيَوْمًا دَمًا وَثَلَاثَةً طُهْرًا وَيَوْمًا دَمًا فَعَلَى الْأَوَّلِ الْكُلُّ حَيْضٌ لِأَنَّ الطُّهْرَ الْأَوَّلَ دَمٌ لِاسْتِوَائِهِ بِدَمَيْهِ فَكَأَنَّهَا رَأَتْ سِتَّةً دَمًا وَأَرْبَعَةً طُهْرًا، وَعَلَى الثَّانِي السِّتَّةُ الْأُولَى حَيْضٌ فَقَطْ.

 

Bleaching the Eyebrows

Bleaching the Eyebrows

13th November 2020

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I wanted to ask if bleaching your eyebrows (lighter or darker) is permissible?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, eyebrow bleaching is a chemical procedure by applying a specific type of cream onto the eyebrows to make the thick and dark hairs lighter in appearance and to take their natural colours out.[1]

It is generally permissible to bleach the eyebrows in order to draw out their natural colour. One must however avoid bleaching them using the colour black for the purpose of covering the white hairs. One must ensure that impure ingredients are not used in the bleaching process. Also, the chemical used should not form a coating over the eyebrow hairs as this would stop water from reaching the hairs hence wudhu and fardh ghusl would not be valid.[2]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam        

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Pros And Cons Of Eyebrow Bleaching – with Procedure and Side Effects, Available at https://www.beautyglimpse.com/pros-and-cons-of-eyebrow-bleaching-you-must-know-before-giving-it-a-shot [accessed November 2020]

 

[2] Raddul Muhtar ala Durril Mukhtar, Kitāb Al-Kuntha, Masail Shatta, Vol 6, pg. 756

)قَوْلُهُ جَازَ فِي الْأَصَحِّ) وَهُوَ مَرْوِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِي يُوسُفَ فَقَدْ قَالَ: يُعْجِبُنِي أَنْ تَتَزَيَّنَ لِي امْرَأَتِي كَمَا يُعْجِبُهَا أَنْ أَتَزَيَّنَ لَهَا وَالْأَصَحُّ أَنَّهُ لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ فِي الْحَرْبِ وَغَيْرِهِ وَاخْتَلَفَتْ الرِّوَايَةُ فِي أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – فَعَلَهُ فِي عُمْرِهِ وَالْأَصَحُّ لَا وَفَصَّلَ فِي الْمُحِيطِ بَيْنَ الْخِضَابِ بِالسَّوَادِ قَالَ عَامَّةُ الْمَشَايِخِ: إنَّهُ مَكْرُوهٌ وَبَعْضُهُمْ جَوَّزَهُ مَرْوِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، أَمَّا بِالْحُمْرَةِ فَهُوَ سُنَّةُ الرِّجَالِ وَسِيَّمَا الْمُسْلِمِينَ اهـ مِنَحٌ مُلَخَّصًا وَفِي شَرْحِ الْمَشَارِقِ لِلْأَكْمَلِ وَالْمُخْتَارُ أَنَّهُ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – خَضَّبَ فِي وَقْتٍ، وَتَرَكَهُ فِي مُعْظَمِ الْأَوْقَاتِ، وَمَذْهَبُنَا أَنَّ الصَّبْغَ بِالْحِنَّاءِ وَالْوَسْمَةِ حَسَنٌ كَمَا فِي الْخَانِيَّةِ قَالَ النَّوَوِيُّ: وَمَذْهَبُنَا اسْتِحْبَابُ خِضَابِ الشَّيْبِ لِلرَّجُلِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ بِصُفْرَةٍ أَوْ حُمْرَةٍ وَتَحْرِيمُ خِضَابِهِ بِالسَّوَادِ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ لِقَوْلِهِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «غَيِّرُوا هَذَا الشَّيْبَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا السَّوَادَ

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Raiq, Kitabul Karahiya, Vol 8, Pg. 208

وَلَا بَأْسَ بِخِضَابِ الرَّأْسِ وَاللِّحْيَةِ بِالْحِنَّاءِ وَالْوَشْمَةِ لِلرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ لِأَنَّ ذلك سَبَبٌ لِزِيَادَةِ الرَّغْبَةِ وَالْمَحَبَّةِ بين الزَّوْجَيْنِ

 Maraqi Al Falah, Fasl Fe Tamam Ahkam Wudhu, Vol 1, Pg. 30-31

افترض أي” وجب بتغميضها العين بخارج ورمص وشمع” كعجين االجسد إلى يصل أن” الماء يمنع شيء أي غسل ما تحته بعد إزالته المانع

 

The Ruling on the Bleeding During Miscarriage

The Ruling on the Bleeding During Miscarriage

8th October 2020

 Question: If a pregnant women experiences bleeding, thereafter she learns she is going through a miscarriage, will this bleeding be counted as haiz – periods – or nifaas -post natal bleeding?  Also, will the ruling be any different if she was miscarrying twins or multiple babies?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

To begin with as a general note, normally any bleeding a pregnant woman experiences is not classed as periods regardless of the number of days she bleeds. This is based on the report of Sayyidah A’isha radhiyallahu anha who said that a pregnant woman does not menstruate when she sees blood.[1] Furthermore, scholars explain that when a woman conceives, her womb is blocked (due to carrying the foetus) which suggests that the bleeding she sees maybe due to reasons other than the cause of menstrual bleeding. [2] As a result, the laws of menstruation during this state do not apply for instance, praying Salāh etc.

The case however is different when she is experiencing a miscarriage. There are many reasons why a woman has a miscarriage but mostly it is due to a genetic disorder in the baby for instance the chromosomes which help the baby to develop are either too many or not enough.[3]  In reference to your case, the ruling would vary depending on the age of the foetus. If the bodily limbs of the foetus were fully developed and the soul of life has entered it which according to a sound Hadith occurs after 120 days (four months) then the bleeding she sees will be classed as nifas (post-natal) bleeding. If the miscarriage occurred before four months and the bleeding during her early pregnancy was because she was going through a miscarriage then this will be classed as menstrual bleeding provided that she bleeds minimum of three days and night that was preceded with a complete pure period. If she bleeds for less than three days and nights then it will be Istihadhah (dysfunctional bleeding).[4]  The ruling remains the same if she had twins or multiple babies if the miscarriage occurred around the same time because this takes the rulings as one single gestation period.[5]

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Bayhaqi, Sunnan al-Kubra, No: 1543

بَابُ الْحَيْضِ عَلَى الْحَمْلِ

وَأَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ الْحَافِظُ، أنا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ، أنا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ الْحَرْبِيُّ، نا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ، وَالْحَوْضِيُّ قَالَا: نا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَاشِدٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ مُوسَى، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي رَبَاحٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: ” الْحَامِلُ لَا تَحِيضُ إِذَا رَأَتِ الدَّمَ فَلْتَغْتَسِلْ وَتُصَلِّي

[2] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb at-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 298

[الِاسْتِحَاضَة وَأَحْكَامُهَا]

دَمُ الْحَامِلِ لَيْسَ بِحَيْضٍ، وَإِنْ كَانَ مُمْتَدًّا عِنْدَنَا وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ: هُوَ حَيْضٌ فِي حَقِّ تَرْكِ الصَّوْمِ، وَالصَّلَاةِ، وَحُرْمَةِ الْقُرْبَانِ لَا فِي حَقِّ أَقْرَاءِ الْعِدَّةِ،…….. ………(وَلَنَا) قَوْلُ عَائِشَةَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا – الْحَامِلُ لَا تَحِيضُ، وَمِثْلُ هَذَا لَا يُعْرَفُ بِالرَّأْيِ فَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّهَا قَالَتْهُ سَمَاعًا مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – وَلِأَنَّ الْحَيْضَ اسْمٌ لِلدَّمِ الْخَارِجِ مِنْ الرَّحِمِ، وَدَمُ الْحَامِلِ لَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ الرَّحِمِ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَجْرَى الْعَادَةَ أَنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ إذَا حَبِلَتْ يَنْسَدُّ فَمُ الرَّحِمِ، فَلَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ شَيْءٌ فَلَا يَكُونُ حَيْضًا

[3] See the NHS website on the effects of miscarriage, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Miscarriage/ [accessed 7th October 2020]

 

[4] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb at-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 37

[الْفَصْلُ الثَّانِي فِي النِّفَاسِ]

السَّقْطُ إنْ ظَهَرَ بَعْضُ خَلْقِهِ مِنْ أُصْبُعٍ أَوْ ظُفْرٍ أَوْ شَعْرِ وَلَدٍ فَتَصِيرُ بِهِ نُفَسَاءَ. هَكَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَظْهَرْ شَيْءٌ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ فَلَا نِفَاسَ لَهَا فَإِنْ أَمْكَنَ جَعْلُ الْمَرْئِيِّ حَيْضًا يُجْعَلُ حَيْضًا وَإِلَّا فَهُوَ اسْتِحَاضَةٌ. وَإِنْ رَأَتْ دَمًا قَبْلَ إسْقَاطِهِ وَدَمًا بَعْدَهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ مُسْتَبِينَ الْخَلْقِ فَمَا رَأَتْهُ قَبْلَهُ لَا يَكُونُ حَيْضًا وَهِيَ نُفَسَاءُ فِيمَا رَأَتْهُ بَعْدَهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مُسْتَبِينَ الْخَلْقِ فَمَا رَأَتْهُ قَبْلَ الْإِسْقَاطِ حَيْضٌ إنْ أَمْكَنَ جَعْلُهُ حَيْضًا هَكَذَا فِي النِّهَايَةِ

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb at-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 302-303

It is important to note that jurists do acknowledge that bodily limbs form before 120 days. The ruling however is determined not merely by the formation of the limbs but during ensoulment as well because it is at this point that the foetus is defined as a living being.

بَابُ الْحَيْضِ

(ظَهَرَ بَعْضُ خَلْقِهِ كَيَدٍ أَوْ رِجْلٍ) أَوْ أُصْبُعٍ أَوْ ظُفُرٍ أَوْ شَعْرٍ، وَلَا يَسْتَبِينُ خَلْقُهُ إلَّا بَعْدَ مِائَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْمًا (وَلَدٌ) حُكْمًا (فَتَصِيرُ) الْمَرْأَةُ (بِهِ نُفَسَاءَ وَالْأَمَةُ أُمَّ وَلَدٍ وَيَحْنَثُ بِهِ) فِي تَعْلِيقِهِ وَتَنْقَضِي بِهِ الْعِدَّةُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَظْهَرْ لَهُ شَيْءٌ فَلَيْسَ بِشَيْءٍ، وَالْمَرْئِيُّ حَيْضٌ إنْ دَامَ ثَلَاثًا وَتَقَدَّمَهُ طُهْرٌ تَامٌّ وَإِلَّا اسْتِحَاضَةٌ

مَطْلَبٌ فِي أَحْوَالِ السِّقْطِ وَأَحْكَامِهِ وَأَمَّا مَعْنًى فَلِأَنَّ الْمَقْصُودَ سُقُوطُ الْوَلَدِ سَوَاءٌ سَقَطَ بِنَفْسِهِ أَوْ أَسْقَطَهُ غَيْرُهُ ح (قَوْلُهُ وَلَا يَسْتَبِينُ خَلْقُهُ إلَخْ) قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ: الْمُرَادُ نَفْخُ الرُّوحِ وَإِلَّا فَالْمُشَاهَدُ ظُهُورُ خَلْقِهِ قَبْلَهَا اهـ وَكَوْنُ الْمُرَادِ بِهِ مَا ذُكِرَ مَمْنُوعٌ. وَقَدْ وَجَّهَهُ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَغَيْرِهَا بِأَنَّهُ يَكُونُ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْمًا نُطْفَةً وَأَرْبَعِينَ عَلَقَةً وَأَرْبَعِينَ مُضْغَةً. وَعِبَارَتُهُ فِي عِقْدِ الْفَرَائِدِ قَالُوا: يُبَاحُ لَهَا أَنْ تُعَالِجَ فِي اسْتِنْزَالِ الدَّمِ مَا دَامَ الْحَمْلُ مُضْغَةً أَوْ عَلَقَةً وَلَمْ يُخْلَقْ لَهُ عُضْوٌ، وَقَدَّرُوا تِلْكَ الْمُدَّةَ بِمِائَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْمًا، وَإِنَّمَا أَبَاحُوا ذَلِكَ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِآدَمِيٍّ. اهـ كَذَا فِي النَّهْرِ. أَقُولُ: لَكِنْ يُشْكِلُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ الْبَحْرِ: إنَّ الْمُشَاهَدَ ظُهُورُ خَلْقِهِ قَبْلَ هَذِهِ الْمُدَّةِ، وَهُوَ مُوَافِقٌ لِمَا فِي بَعْضِ رِوَايَاتِ الصَّحِيحِ «إذَا مَرَّ بِالنُّطْفَةِ ثِنْتَانِ وَأَرْبَعُونَ لَيْلَةً بَعَثَ اللَّهُ إلَيْهَا مَلَكًا فَصَوَّرَهَا وَخَلَقَ سَمْعَهَا وَبَصَرَهَا وَجِلْدَهَا» وَأَيْضًا هُوَ مُوَافِقٌ لِمَا ذَكَرَهُ الْأَطِبَّاءُ

فَقَدْ ذَكَرَ الشَّيْخُ دَاوُد فِي تَذْكِرَتِهِ أَنَّهُ يَتَحَوَّلُ عِظَامًا مُخَطَّطَةً فِي اثْنَيْنِ وَثَلَاثِينَ يَوْمًا إلَى خَمْسِينَ، ثُمَّ يَجْتَذِبُ الْغِذَاءَ وَيَكْتَسِي اللَّحْمَ إلَى خَمْسٍ وَسَبْعِينَ، ثُمَّ تَظْهَرُ فِيهِ الْغَاذِيَةُ وَالنَّامِيَةُ وَيَكُونُ كَالنَّبَاتِ إلَى نَحْوِ الْمِائَةِ، ثُمَّ يَكُونُ كَالْحَيَوَانِ النَّائِمِ إلَى عِشْرِينَ بَعْدَهَا فَتُنْفَخُ فِيهِ الرُّوحُ الْحَقِيقِيَّةُ الْإِنْسَانِيَّةُ. اهـ مُلَخَّصًا.

نَعَمْ نَقَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَنَّهُ اتَّفَقَ الْعُلَمَاءُ عَلَى أَنَّ نَفْخَ الرُّوحِ لَا يَكُونُ إلَّا بَعْدَ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ أَيْ عَقِبَهَا كَمَا صَرَّحَ بِهِ جَمَاعَةٌ. وَعَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ بَعْدَ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرَةِ أَيَّامٍ وَبِهِ أَخَذَ أَحْمَدُ، وَلَا يُنَافِي ذَلِكَ ظُهُورَ الْخَلْقِ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ؛ لِأَنَّ نَفْخَ الرُّوحِ إنَّمَا يَكُونُ بَعْدَ الْخَلْقِ،

 

Also see Mufti Mahmoodul Hasan Gangohi, Fatawa Mahmoodiyyah vol 5, p. 199, Mufti Rasheed Ahmad Ludhiyanwi, Ahsanul Fatawa, vol 2, p. 71-72

 

[5] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb at-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 37

[الْفَصْلُ الثَّانِي فِي النِّفَاسِ]

وَنِفَاسُ التَّوْأَمَيْنِ مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ. كَذَا فِي الْكَافِي وَشَرْطُ التَّوْأَمَيْنِ أَنْ يَكُونَ بَيْنَ الْوَلَدَيْنِ أَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ وَإِذَا كَانَ بَيْنَهُمَا سِتَّةُ أَشْهُرٍ أَوْ أَكْثَرُ فَهُمَا حَمْلَانِ وَنِفَاسَانِ.

وَإِنْ وَلَدَتْ ثَلَاثَةً بَيْنَ الْأَوَّلِ وَالثَّانِي أَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ وَكَذَلِكَ بَيْنَ الثَّانِي وَالثَّالِثِ لَكِنْ بَيْنَ الْأَوَّلِ وَالثَّالِثِ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ يُجْعَلُ حَمْلًا وَاحِدًا. كَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ.

 

Removing Bodily Hair with Laser

Removing Bodily Hair with Laser

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                22nd June 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: What is the ruling regarding laser hair removal?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

In reference to your query laser hair removal is a cosmetic procedure that uses a powerful laser or intense pulsed light (IPL) to remove unwanted hair. This light source heats and destroys hair follicles in the skin, that disrupts hair growth.[1] It is permissible for a woman to remove any bodily and facial hair – except for the eyebrows – via any method such as laser hair removal, waxing, shaving etc as no clear prohibition of removing any bodily hair is reported in the Hadeeth as long as the treatment does not harm the person in any way.[2]

It must be noted that if she needs to remove the hair of the area between her navel and knees then it will not be permissible for anyone else other than herself or her husband to remove it as this area is classed as her awrah – private area – to other women which cannot be shown to anyone, except to her husband.[3]

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cosmetic-procedures/laser-hair-removal/

 

[2]Ibn Abideen shami, Radul Muhtar ala Durril Mukhtar, Kitabul Hazr wal Ibaha, vol 6, pg 373

( قَوْلُهُ وَالنَّامِصَةُ إلَخْ ) ذَكَرَهُ فِي الِاخْتِيَارِ أَيْضًا وَفِي الْمُغْرِبِ .
النَّمْصُ : نَتْفُ الشَّعْرِ وَمِنْهُ الْمِنْمَاصُ الْمِنْقَاشُ ا هـ وَلَعَلَّهُ مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى مَا إذَا فَعَلَتْهُ لِتَتَزَيَّنَ لِلْأَجَانِبِ ، وَإِلَّا فَلَوْ كَانَ فِي وَجْهِهَا شَعْرٌ يَنْفِرُ زَوْجُهَا عَنْهَا بِسَبَبِهِ ، فَفِي تَحْرِيمِ إزَالَتِهِ بُعْدٌ ، لِأَنَّ الزِّينَةَ لِلنِّسَاءِ مَطْلُوبَةٌ لِلتَّحْسِينِ ، إلَّا أَنْ يُحْمَلَ عَلَى مَا لَا ضَرُورَةَ إلَيْهِ لِمَا فِي نَتْفِهِ بِالْمِنْمَاصِ مِنْ الْإِيذَاءِ .
وَفِي تَبْيِينِ الْمَحَارِمِ إزَالَةُ الشَّعْرِ مِنْ الْوَجْهِ حَرَامٌ إلَّا إذَا نَبَتَ لِلْمَرْأَةِ لِحْيَةٌ أَوْ شَوَارِبُ فَلَا تَحْرُمُ إزَالَتُهُ بَلْ تُسْتَحَبُّ ا هـ ، وَفِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة عَنْ الْمُضْمَرَاتِ : وَلَا بَأْسَ بِأَخْذِ الْحَاجِبَيْنِ وَشَعْرِ وَجْهِهِ مَا لَمْ يُشْبِهْ الْمُخَنَّثَ ا هـ وَمِثْلُهُ فِي الْمُجْتَبَى تَأَمَّلْ

 

Saheeh al-Bukhari

عن علقمة قال لعن عبد الله الواشمات والمتنمصات والمتفلجات للحسن المغيرات خلق الله فقالت أم يعقوب ما هذا ؟ قال عبد الله وما لي لا ألعن من لعن رسول الله وفي كتاب الله ؟ قالت والله لقد قرأت ما بين اللوحين فما وجدته قال والله لئن قرأتيه لقد وجدتيه { وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه وما نهاكم عنه فانتهوا }

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitabul Karahiyah, vol 5, p327

وَأَمَّا بَيَانُ الْقِسْمِ الثَّانِي) فَنَقُولُ: نَظَرُ الْمَرْأَةِ إلَى الْمَرْأَةِ كَنَظَرِ الرَّجُلِ إلَى الرَّجُلِ، كَذَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ. وَهُوَ الْأَصَحُّ، هَكَذَا فِي الْكَافِي. وَلَا يَجُوزُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَنْظُرَ إلَى بَطْنِ امْرَأَةٍ عَنْ شَهْوَةٍ، كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِيَّةِ. وَلَا يَنْبَغِي لِلْمَرْأَةِ الصَّالِحَةِ أَنْ تَنْظُرَ إلَيْهَا الْمَرْأَةُ الْفَاجِرَةُ؛ لِأَنَّهَا تَصِفُهَا عِنْدَ الرِّجَالِ فَلَا تَضَعُ جِلْبَابَهَا، وَلَا خِمَارَهَا عِنْدَهَا، وَلَا يَحِلُّ أَيْضًا لِامْرَأَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ أَنْ تَكْشِفَ عَوْرَتَهَا عِنْدَ أَمَةٍ مُشْرِكَةٍ أَوْ كِتَابِيَّةٍ إلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ أَمَةً لَهَا، كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ.

Does Stimulation and Orgasm Necessitate Ghusl and Break the Fast?

Does Stimulation and Orgasm Necessitate Ghusl and Break the Fast?

2nd June 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: What is the ruling for a woman who reaches a climax (orgasms but no ejaculation) due to clitoral stimulation (from her husband) through fore playing, hugging, fondling etc without actual intercourse.

  1. Is ghusl necessary?
  2. Will her fast be invalidated.
  3. If so, is kaffarah necessary? or qadha sufficient. Kindly provide a detailed response.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

In reference to your query, please note that there are a few stages which lead to orgasm.

1- Arousal- Feeling sexual pleasure and excitement due to sexual activity such as clitoral stimulation and an erection in the case with men.

2- Plateau- This is when the orgasm ascends, and the body prepares for the orgasm.

4- Orgasm- An orgasm is a feeling of intense pleasure felt due to sexual activity. It is an intensely pleasurable release of sexual tension accompanied with contractions of the genital muscles. Some women and most men will ejaculate during an orgasm. After an orgasm, there will be a refractory period where a person will not be able to have another orgasm.

5- Ejaculation- Release of seminal fluid. [1]

In order to understand the ruling of each stage, the following terms for fluid discharged during foreplay or sexual intercourse must be noted.

  1. Madhi -pre-seminal fluid – which is a thin white fluid, or a thin clear odourless fluid. This breaks wudhu but does not render ghusl as wajib (compulsory).
  2. Mani -seminal ejaculation- this is thick white fluid for men. For women, it is a yellow thin fluid as mentioned in the hadeeth. [2] This makes ghusl wajib

It must be noted that there is no difference in the rulings in whichever manner sexual pleasure is experienced followed by seminal ejaculation whether during wakefulness or sleep; whether through foreplay, masturbation, sexual thoughts or a wet dream. [3]

Regarding the rulings, sexual excitement is attained either due to foreplay etc or actual sexual relationship with penetration. The rulings vary in both scenarios and depend on whether ejaculation took place or not. We begin with the injunction of the former i.e. stimulation through foreplay etc first. The stages of arousal and plateau through stimulation does not in principle break the fast nor renders ghusl wajib but necessitates wudhu if madhi was discharged. During the stage of arousal, clitoral stimulation may take place and this is when the clitoris (part of a woman’s private parts) is touched for sexual pleasure. Clitoral stimulation in itself does not break wudhu nor the fast. A woman deriving pleasure from clitoral stimulation is more or less the same as a man having an erection during sexual pleasure. Just as an erection in itself without any fluid discharge does not break wudhu nor the fast and nor makes ghusl wajib then likewise, clitoral stimulation does not necessitate ghusl, wudhu nor breaks her fast. If she discharges madhi (white or clear pre-seminal fluid) then just wudhu is necessary. Like stimulation, the stage of orgasm that follows through foreplay without seminal ejaculation in itself does not make ghusl compulsory nor does it invalidate the fast.[4] When the Quran mentions the ruling of ghusl, it says that do ghusl if you are in the state of janabat. Janabat, as the scholars explain, is the state of seminal ejaculate (inzaal) with pleasure (ladhat & shawat). This explains both seminal ejaculation and pleasure are conditional for ghusl to become wajib.[5] Hence if there is a mere pleasure but no ejaculation then ghusl does not apply. Although orgasm is a sign of a person’s desires being fulfilled, mere fulfilment of desire without ejaculation does not make ghusl necessary and nor is that fast broken because the condition of ejaculation (inzaal) is not present.

The Hanafi jurists cite a particular but relevant ruling that if a woman has a wet dream and during the dream, she felt her desires being fulfilled and experiences the same pleasure of sexual climax (like orgasm) but did not ejaculate then she will not have to do ghusl. This demonstrates that sexual climax and orgasm without ejaculation does not make ghusl necessary (nor breaks the fast as mentioned above).[6] Fatawa Mahmoodia also discusses that if during foreplay a woman’s body is filled with sexual excitement and reaches orgasm but does not ejaculate seminal fluid then ghusl is not compulsory on her. Also, it has been mentioned that if a man fulfils his desire by rubbing his penis on to his thigh but does not ejaculate seminal fluid then ghusl is not wajib on him. Again, this shows that fulfilling one’s desire to its peak without ejaculation does not render ghusl wajib.[7]

So to summarise, the following scenarios and rulings regarding clitoris stimulation or orgasm with women without real sexual intercourse are,

  • Stimulation without any discharge of madhi (pre-seminal fluid) or mani (seminal fluid – yellowish discharge) does not break wudhu, fast and nor ghusl become wajib.
  • Stimulation or orgasm with a discharge of madhi only but no ejaculation of seminal fluid i.e. mani. In this case, wudhu will break but it does not necessitate ghusl nor does it break the fast.[8]
  • Stimulation or orgasm with the discharge of mani makes ghusl necessary and also breaks the fast but only qadha and not kaffarah.[9]
  • Reaching sexual climax with the discharge of fluid however one is not sure if this fluid is mani or madhi then ghusl will be wajib as a precaution, the fast will break and just qadha becomes necessary.[10]

So to conclude, the situation mentioned in your question about clitoris stimulation or orgasm without seminal ejaculation does not make ghusl wajib, nor does it break the fast.

The above discussion was in reference to sexual pleasure without actual intercourse. If actual intercourse did take place then mere penetration in either of the two passages necessitates ghusl and breaks the fast regardless if there was seminal ejaculation or not or whether sexual stimulation and orgasm did exist or not. According to a prophetic Hadeeth, just the meeting of the two private parts with penetration necessitates ghusl. Likewise, the fast breaks and both qadha and kaffarah become necessary.[11]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam      

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] See the links for more details.

https://www.nhs.uk/common-health-questions/sexual-health/what-is-an-orgasm/

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/232318

https://www.everydayhealth.com/sexual-health/the-male-orgasm.aspx

 

[2] Mishkat al-Masabeeh, Kitab Altahara, Bab Alghusl, Pg 48

….. ماء الرجل غليظ ابيض و ماء المرأة رقيق اصفر

 

Ibn Abideen, Raddul Muhtar, Kitab Taharah, Baab ghusl, Vol 1, p. 151

وَفُرِضَ) الْغُسْلُ (عِنْدَ) خُرُوجِ (مَنِيٍّ) مِنْ الْعُضْوِ وَإِلَّا فَلَا يُفْرَضُ اتِّفَاقًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ فِي حُكْمِ الْبَاطِنِ (مُنْفَصِلٍ عَنْ مَقَرِّهِ) هُوَ صُلْبُ الرَّجُلِ وَتَرَائِبُ الْمَرْأَةِ، وَمَنِيُّهُ أَبْيَضُ وَمَنِيُّهَا أَصْفَرُ،

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitab Altaharah, Vol 1, pg. 17

لْفَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ فِي الْمَعَانِي الْمُوجِبَةِ لِلْغُسْلِ وَهِيَ ثَلَاثَةٌ) مِنْهَا الْجَنَابَةُ وَهِيَ تَثْبُتُ بِسَبَبَيْنِ أَحَدُهُمَا خُرُوجُ الْمَنِيِّ عَلَى وَجْهِ الدَّفْقِ وَالشَّهْوَةِ مِنْ غَيْرِ إيلَاجٍ بِاللَّمْسِ أَوْ النَّظَرِ أَوْ الِاحْتِلَامِ أَوْ الِاسْتِمْنَاءِ مِنْ الرَّجُلِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ فِي النَّوْمِ وَالْيَقَظَةِ

 

[4] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Alraiq, Kitaab Altahara, Vol 1, p. 106

خُرُوجَ مَنِيِّهَا إلَى فَرْجِهَا الْخَارِجِ شَرْطٌ لِوُجُوبِ الْغُسْلِ عَلَيْهَا، وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى كَذَا فِي مِعْرَاجِ الدِّرَايَةِ

 

Ibn Abideen, Raddul Muhtar, Kitab Sawm, Vol 2, p. 398

 (أو جامع فيما دون الفرج ولم ينزل)

يعني في غير السبيلين

(قوله: ولم ينزل) .

أما لو أنزل قضى فقط كما سيذكره المصنف أي بلا كفارة قال في الفتح وعمل المرأتين كعمل الرجال جماع أيضا فيما دون الفرج لا قضاء على واحدة منهما إلا إذا أنزلت ولا كفارة مع الإنزال. اهـ. (قوله: يعني في غير السبيلين) أشار لما في الفتح حيث قال أراد بالفرج كلا من القبل والدبر، فما دونه حينئذ التفخيذ والتبطين اهـ أي؛ لأن الفرج لا يشمل الدبر لغة وإن شمله حكما قال في المغرب الفرج قبل الرجل والمرأة باتفاق أهل اللغة ثم قال وقوله القبل والدبر كلاهما فرج يعني في الحكم.

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Al-Rraiq, Kitaab Altahara, Vol 1, p. 81

أَنَّ الْوُضُوءَ يَجِبُ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ مِنْ الْمُبَاشَرَةِ أَيْضًا قَالَ وَلَمْ أَقِفْ عَلَيْهِ إلَّا فِي الْقُنْيَةِ، وَفِيهِ تَأَمُّلٌ، فَإِنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَذْكُرُوا فِي مُبَاشَرَةِ الرَّجُلِ لِلْمَرْأَةِ عَلَى قَوْلِهِمَا إلَّا عَلَى الرَّجُلِ اهـ.
وَقَدْ يُقَالُ لَا حَاجَةَ إلَى التَّنْصِيصِ عَلَى الْحُكْمِ فِي الْمَرْأَةِ، فَإِنَّ مِنْ الْمَعْلُومِ أَنَّ كُلَّ حُكْمٍ ثَبَتَ لِلرِّجَالِ ثَبَتَ لِلنِّسَاءِ؛ لِأَنَّهُنَّ شَقَائِقُ الرِّجَالِ إلَّا مَا نُصَّ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ فِي الْمُسْتَصْفَى الْأَصْلُ فِي النِّسَاءِ أَنْ لَا يُذْكَرْنَ؛ لِأَنَّ مَبْنَى حَالِهِنَّ عَلَى السَّتْرِ؛ وَلِهَذَا لَمْ يُذْكَرْنَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ حَتَّى شَكَوْنَ فَنَزَلَ قَوْله تَعَالَى {إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ} [الأحزاب: ٣٥] إلَّا إذَا كَانَ الْحُكْمُ مَخْصُوصًا بِهِنَّ كَمَسْأَلَةِ الصَّغِيرَةِ الْآتِيَةِ فِي الْغُسْلِ.

 

[5] Inayah, Kitab Taharah, Vol 1, Pg. 61

وَلَنَا أَنَّ الْأَمْرَ بِالتَّطْهِيرِ يَتَنَاوَلُ الْجُنُبَ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا} [المائدة: ٦] وَالْجُنُبُ فِي اللُّغَةِ مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنْهُ الْمَنِيُّ عَلَى وَجْهِ الشَّهْوَةِ، يُقَالُ أَجْنَبَ الرَّجُلُ: إذَا قَضَى شَهْوَتَهُ مِنْ الْمَرْأَةِ، فَالْأَمْرُ بِالتَّطْهِيرِ يَتَنَاوَلُ مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنْهُ الْمَنِيُّ عَلَى وَجْهِ الشَّهْوَةِ، وَغَيْرُهُ لَيْسَ فِي مَعْنَاهُ فَلَا يُقَاسُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَا يَلْحَقُ بِهِ

 

Inayah, Kitab Taharah, Vol 1, Pg. 60

قَالَ (وَالْمَعَانِي الْمُوجِبَةُ لِلْغُسْلِ إنْزَالُ الْمَنِيِّ عَلَى وَجْهِ الدَّفْقِ وَالشَّهْوَةِ مِنْ الرَّجُلِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ حَالَةَ النَّوْمِ وَالْيَقِظَةِ)

 

Imam Qurtubi, Tafseer Qurtubi

ورجل جُنُب: غريب. والجنابة مخالطة الرّجل المرأة. التاسعة ـ والجمهور من الأُمّة على أن الجُنُب هو غير الطاهر من إنزال أو مجاوزة خِتانٍ. وروِي عن بعض الصحابة ألاّ غسل إلاّ من إنزال لقوله عليه السلام: ” إنما الماء من الماء ” أخرجه مسلم.

Tafseer Jalalyn

{ وَلاَ جُنُباً } بإيلاج أو إنزال ونصبه على الحال وهو يطلق على المفرد وغيره

 

[6] Fathul Qadeer, Kitaab Altaharah, Vol 1 pg. 62

وَلَوْ احْتَلَمَتْ وَوَجَدَتْ لَذَّةَ الْإِنْزَالِ لَكِنْ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ مَاؤُهَا إلَى فَرْجِهَا الظَّاهِرِ لَا غُسْلَ عَلَيْهَا فِي ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ. قَالَ الْحَلْوَانِيُّ: وَبِهِ يُؤْخَذُ

وَلَوْ تَذَكَّرَ الِاحْتِلَامَ وَالشَّهْوَةَ وَلَمْ يَرَ بَلَلًا لَا يَجِبُ اتِّفَاقًا،…..

Fatawa hindiyya, Kitab al Tahara, Vol 1, Pg 17

وَلَوْ تَذَكَّرَ الِاحْتِلَامَ وَلَذَّةَ الْإِنْزَالِ وَلَمْ يَرَ بَلَلًا لَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْغُسْلُ وَالْمَرْأَةُ كَذَلِكَ فِي ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ خُرُوجَ مَنِيِّهَا إلَى فَرْجِهَا الْخَارِجِ شَرْطٌ لِوُجُوبِ الْغُسْلِ عَلَيْهَا وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى. هَكَذَا فِي مِعْرَاجِ الدِّرَايَةِ

 

[7] Mufti Ganghohi, Fatawa Mahmodiya, Kitab Altahara, Vol 8, pg. 151– 152

اگر ععورت مرد سے لپٹی چمٹی ہے پھر جوش چڑھتا ہے بغیر دخول طبیعت بھڑ جاتی ہے اور خواہش جاتی رہتی ہے لیکن منی نہیں نکلتی نظر آتی ہے ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔؟     جواب: غسل واجب نہیں ہوگا۔

۔۔۔۔۔۔ اپنے زانوؤں سے ذکر کو رگڑ کر شہوت زائل کرتا ہے لیکن منی کا خروج نہیں کرتا۔۔۔۔۔ جواب: غسل واجب نہیں ہوگا۔

 

[8] Jawharatun Niyarah Kitab Al-Sawm, vol, p.139

قَوْلُهُ فَإِنْ أَنْزَلَ بِقُبْلَةٍ أَوْ لَمْسٍ فَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ دُونَ الْكَفَّارَةِ) لِوُجُودِ مَعْنَى الْجِمَاعِ وَهُوَ الْإِنْزَالُ عَنْ شَهْوَةٍ بِالْمُبَاشَرَةِ وَأَمَّا الْكَفَّارَةُ فَتَفْتَقِرُ إلَى كَمَالِ الْجِنَايَةِ لِأَنَّهَا عُقُوبَةٌ فَلَا يُعَاقَبُ بِهَا إلَّا بَعْدَ بُلُوغِ الْجِنَايَةِ نِهَايَتَهَا وَلَمْ تَبْلُغْ نِهَايَتَهَا لِأَنَّ نِهَايَتَهَا الْجِمَاعُ فِي الْفَرْجِ وَإِنْ لَمَسَ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حَائِلٍ إنْ وَجَدَ حَرَارَةَ الْبَدَنِ وَأَنْزَلَ أَفْطَرَ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ حَرَارَةَ الْبَدَنِ لَا يُفْطِرُ وَإِنْ أَنْزَلَ إذَا كَانَ الْحَائِلُ ضَعِيفًا وَعَلَى هَذَا حُرْمَةُ الْمُصَاهَرَةِ وَلَوْ قَبَّلَتْ الصَّائِمَةُ زَوْجَهَا فَأَنْزَلَتْ أَفْطَرَتْ وَكَذَا إذَا أَنْزَلَ هُوَ وَإِنْ أَمَذَى أَوْ أَمَذَتْ لَا يَفْسُدُ الصَّوْمُ

 

Jawharatun Niyarah Kitab Al-Sawm, vol, p.138

(قَوْلُهُ فَإِنْ نَامَ فَاحْتَلَمَ لَمْ يُفْطِرْ) لِقَوْلِهِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «ثَلَاثٌ لَا يُفْطِرْنَ الصَّائِمَ الْقَيْءُ وَالْحِجَامَةُ وَالِاحْتِلَامُ» وَلِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُوجَدْ صُورَةُ الْجِمَاعِ وَلَا مَعْنَاهُ وَهُوَ الْإِنْزَالُ عَنْ شَهْوَةٍ بِالْمُبَاشَرَةِ

https://www.issm.info/sexual-health-qa/do-women-ejaculate/

https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health-history/can-women-ejaculate-depends-who-you-ask

 

[9] Marghinani, Hidaya, Kitab Alsawm, Baab ma yufsidu alsawm, Vol1, p. 12

ولأنه لم توجد صورة الجماع ولا معناه وهو الإنزال عن شهوة بالمباشرة “

…ولو أنزل بقبلة أو لمس فعليه القضاء دون الكفارة ” لوجود معنى الجماع ووجود المنافي صورة أو معنى يكفي لإيجاب القضاء احتياطا، أما الكفارة فتفتقر إلى كمال الجناية لأنها تندرئ بالشبهات كالحدود

 

Kasani, Bada’ia Sana’ia, Kitab Alsawm, Vol 2, p. 93

وَلَوْ جَامَعَ امْرَأَتَهُ فِيمَا دُونَ الْفَرْجِ فَأَنْزَلَ أَوْ بَاشَرَهَا أَوْ قَبَّلَهَا أَوْ لَمَسَهَا بِشَهْوَةٍ فَأَنْزَلَ يَفْسُدُ صَوْمَهُ، وَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ وَلَا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ.

وَكَذَا إذَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فَأَنْزَلَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ لِوُجُودِ الْجِمَاعِ مِنْ حَيْثُ الْمَعْنَى وَهُوَ قَضَاءُ الشَّهْوَةِ بِفِعْلِهِ وَهُوَ الْمَسُّ بِخِلَافِ النَّظَرِ فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِجِمَاعٍ أَصْلًا

 

[10] Fatawa hindiyya, Kitab al Tahara, Vol 1, Pg. 17

شَكَّ أَنَّهُ مَنِيٌّ أَوْ مَذْيٌ فَعَلَيْهِ الْغُسْلُ

[11] Inayah, Kitab Taharah, Vol 1, Pg. 62

(وَالْتِقَاءُ الْخِتَانَيْنِ مِنْ غَيْرِ إنْزَالٍ) لِقَوْلِهِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «إذَا الْتَقَى الْخِتَانَانِ وَتَوَارَتْ الْحَشَفَةُ وَجَبَ الْغُسْلُ، أَنْزَلَ أَوْ لَمْ يُنْزِلْ» وَلِأَنَّهُ سَبَبُ الْإِنْزَالِ وَنَفْسُهُ يَتَغَيَّبُ عَنْ بَصَرِهِ وَقَدْ يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ لِقِلَّتِهِ فَيُقَامُ مَقَامَهُ،