Islamic Ruling on Rhinoplasty

                              4th November 2023

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: What is the Islamic ruling on having a nose job (rhinoplasty) if the nose is large in proportion to my face keeping in mind that I have generally been harassed by family members because of my nose.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In general, alteration of physical attributes for the sake of beauty is not permissible. This is derived from the ayah:

وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَـَٔامُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ ءَاذَانَ ٱلْأَنْعَـٰمِ وَلَـَٔامُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنَ وَلِيًّۭا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًۭا مُّبِينًۭا

I will certainly mislead them and delude them with empty hopes. Also, I will order them and they will slit the ears of cattle1 and alter Allah’s creation.” And whoever takes Satan as a guardian instead of Allah has certainly suffered a tremendous loss.[1]

 

Scholars have commented under this verse the prohibition of physically altering any body parts against its purposeful nature.  If one must undergo a certain treatment to treat the deformity, in other words restoring the limb to its natural condition or removing an existing illness then this is permissible due to necessity. This is derived from the following legal principle,

الضَّرُورَاتُ تُبِيحُ الْمَحْظُورَاتِ

Necessity permits prohibitions [2]

This is usually applied in the context of there being an absolute need such that without it, one would experience severe harm.  In the case of what is considered necessity when it comes to altering physical attributes, the jurists have given examples of having extra fingers on the hand, or generally anything outside of what is considered to be ‘normal physical attributes.’  In such a case, so long as there is an overriding belief that, for example, removing that extra finger, will not cause a loss of life, it is permissible for that that extra digit to be removed.[3]

In your case, having a larger nose does not in principle fall under the conditions of necessity. There is an element of anguish that you may experience for having a larger nose, but when that is part of your natural look then reducing its size to make yourself look better does not necessarily fulfil the criteria of necessity. I would recommend referring to counselling which could be a very useful tool to come to terms with what you have. As Muslims, should be grateful with what Allāh Almighty has ordained for us and note that physical appearance is not the criterion to happiness but good character and piety.

لَئِن شَكَرْتُمْ لَأَزِيدَنَّكُمْ

If you are grateful, I will certainly give you more [4]

The Messenger of Allāh said, “Indeed Allāh does not look at your appearances or your wealth but He looks at your hearts and your deeds.” [5]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

 

Written by:  Maulana Hafiz Mahmud Ali        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam  

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Surah An-Nisa: [4:119]

 

[2] Ibn Nujaim. Al-ashbah wa An-Nadhair, p.73

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Karahiyyah, vol 5, p. 360

إذا أراد الرجل أن يقطع إصبعا زائدة أو شيئا آخر قال نصير رحمه الله تعالى إن كان الغالب على من قطع مثل ذلك الهلاك فإنه لا يفعل وإن كان الغالب هو النجاة فهو في سعة من ذلك رجل أو امرأة قطع الإصبع الزائدة من ولده قال بعضهم لا يضمن ولهما ولاية المعالجة وهو المختار

 

[4] Surah Al-Ibrahim [14:7]

 

[5] Sahih Muslim No: 34

Fat Transfer: Permissible or Not?

30th October 2023

 

Question: I would like to know what is the ruling on getting a fat transfer/grafting for my face by transferring some of one’s own body fat onto the face when the face looks sunken and unsymmetrical. And what if someone wants to transfer their own fat onto another body part such as the butt or breast to reshape their size then is this permissible?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

To begin with, the cosmetic industry is a million-dollar industry profiting on peoples’ desires to undergo certain physical changes. Fat transfer or known as fat grafting is one of many modern medical procedures used to reshape, remedy or modify certain body parts to improve the physical appearance. Whilst Islām allows beautification for women in general, it demarcates the boundaries of permissible and non-permissible forms of beautification. To answer your question, we must first briefly explore its procedure and its effect on the physical body.

 

What is the medical procedure of fat transfer and what does it treat?

Fat transfer is a minimal invasive cosmetic procedure that transfers one’s own body fat from one place to another to increase the volume size of the desired area. The plastic surgeon harvests small amount of excess fat from those areas containing more fat such as the belly, thighs and hips using a liposuction needle and then injects its tiny droplets into the tissues of the face, cheeks, under the eyes, lips (lip augmentation), breast (breast augmentation) or buttocks (Brazillian butt lifts). The extracted fat is first purified and then an incision is made where the fat is reinserted. The area is then closed with dissolvable stitches. The procedure can last between one to four hours depending on where the fat is being injected. The larger the volume size required, the longer the procedure. Fat transfer is done for many reasons such as to add a natural look to the area by reconstructing the shape of the area, correcting uneven shapes or repairing damaged areas for instance repairing facial scars, and reducing wrinkles.[1] Given the details of the procedure, many opt for it mostly to enhance their youthful appearance in order to increase self-confidence and reduce anxiety. Some however opt for it to correct the deformity to restore the shape to its natural appearance as opposed to beautification.[2]

The treatment is permanent and surgeons advise patience of its potential risks after the surgery for instance bruises, swellings, soreness, bleeding under the skin nerve damage and build up of fluid. Fat transfer is significantly different from filler treatments. Fillers inject hyaluronic acid in the desired area that is synthetically manufactured in labs. It is a non-invasive procedure used to protrude a small area of the face and lips etc. It takes place in a very short period and the procedure is reversable and temporary. Contrarily, fat transfer uses the body’s own natural fat to treat large volume loss of an area. It is an invasive procedure that takes place in an operational theatre up to few hours where the patient is sedated. The procedure is non-reversible leaving a permanent effect. It is important to understand this distinction so as not to conflate both of their respective Islamic rulings.

 

Islamic Principles Concerning Fat Transfer

There are three important aspects to be considered for fat transfer procedure. First is whether such cosmetic treatment constitutes alteration of Allāh’s natural creation or not. Secondly, whether or not such medical procedure falls under necessity for the sake of restoring the natural look and finally, using one’s own body fat as a treatment. Concerning the first issue, Allāh Almighty created us in this natural body and entrusted human beings with it and prohibited any form of alteration that infringes its natural creation. Alteration (or known as taghyeer) entails a significant change to one’s natural body permanently that is contrary to its purposeful creation. Allāh Almighty states in the Quran quoting Iblis when he was permanently expelled from Jannah saying, “……..and I shall surely command them (of unlawful things) and they will most certainly alter the creation of Allāh.”[3]

Allamah Alusi rahimahullah comments on the word taghyeer used in this verse,

وتغيير فطرة الله تعالى التي هي الإسلام واستعمال الجوارح والقوى فيما لا يعود على النفس كمالا ولا يوجب لها من الله سبحانه زلفى.

“Alteration of Allāh’s innate creation is Islām (i.e. changing one’s natural religion) and using the bodily limbs and strength in a way that does not return (i.e. benefit) the person in its complete sense and neither does it necessitate in drawing one closer to Allāh”[4]

 

Using the bodily limbs in a way that does not benefit it completely is to imply that either it causes harm to the body or it is unnecessary. Shaykh Khalid Saifullah Rahmani summarises the explanation of taghyeer in light of the exegete scholars under the above verse stating that it means the alteration is so significant that the purposeful nature of one’s creation is lost or someone perpetrates a certain act that opposes one’s own natural creation. An example he discusses is the prohibition of sterilising oneself to permanently block pregnancy or insemination. This is due to permanently blocking something that Allāh naturally created in us.[5] Undergoing such changes requires a surgical operation which either adds or removes something unnecessary from the body and leaves a permanent effect. Citing Ibn Jareer Tabari rahimahullah, Allamah Ibn Hajr rahimahullah states that a woman is not permitted to change certain parts of her natural body by adding or removing something for beautification irrespective for her husband or for someone else.[6]  This also includes altering certain bodily parts to enhance one’s youthful appearance. The hadeeth for instance prohibits women from parting their teeth and attaching (human) hair with their own because women used to do that to make themselves look younger.[7] It also becomes a form of deception because tampering with the body by undergoing certain changes for beautification is to conceal one’s natural appearance.

The second issue is undergoing a medical procedure to restore one’s natural looks by treating an illness, treating the abnormal condition, removing harm or correcting a defect. A general survey of the classical fiqh corpora reveals that such procedures are generally permitted because the aim is removing the harm or an unnatural defect. Jurists for instance permit a person to amputate an additional finger or to surgically remove an illness through an invasive procedure.[8] Likewise, creating gaps in the teeth for beautification is prohibited but doing so for treatment or to remove a defect is permissible.[9] Restoring the natural look by removing the defect or an illness falls under the remit of dharuriyāt and hājiyāt meaning genuine duress and necessity, both of which the Shariah consider.[10] Arguably, in specific instances where the patient uses fat transfer only to treat the abnormal condition and remove the defect would fall under necessity.

Finally, using one’s own fat for medical treatment. As a general rule, fat and blood are considered impure and after exiting the body, they cannot be utilised. Moreover, one’s own body parts are a sacred trust which cannot be exploited for unnecessary purposes. Hanafi jurists have for instance disallowed transplanting bodily organs without necessity due to its sacredness.[11] However, if it is used to replace a dysfunctional organ to restore one’s health then it is permitted.[12] Likewise in a hypothetical scenario, if a qualified Muslim doctor prescribes drinking blood as the only form of cure then it is permitted only when there is no equally effective medicine to treat the illness.[13] Such examples imply that prohibitions are compromised in instances of genuine necessity but only to the extent that is necessary.[14]

 

Summative Points about Fat Transfer

In light of the above discussion, we conclude with the following points about fat transfer;

  1. The natural body is a trust from Allāh Almighty that must not be tampered with contrary to its purposeful nature.
  2. Beatification is generally permitted for women to please their husbands so long as it does not involve alteration of the natural creation as described above.
  3. Having fat transfer procedures done to enhance one’s youthful appearance and increase attraction such as a butt-lift and breast augmentation is not permissible as it constitutes a form of altering one’s natural creation and the use of impurity for treatment. Likewise, having it transferred onto the face would not be permitted unless the volume size of the face is significantly deformed.
  4. If the procedure is for treating abnormality by restoring the area to its natural condition, repairing damage such as removing facial scars and cuts or reshaping to its natural volume size that was significantly deformed or reduced due to an existing illness then this would be permissible and would fall under the remit of necessity. This should be left as a last resort after exhausting other permissible avenues not equally effective as fat transfer. Moreover, the risks involved must not lead to greater harm nor should its harm outweigh the benefits. We generally recommend people to consult a Muslim expert in the field the viability of the procedure in light of their circumstances whilst noting the Islamic principles as described above.

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] See Surgical fat transfer – NHS (www.nhs.uk),

Fat Transfer: Surgeries, Results, Risks & What to Expect (clevelandclinic.org),

Surgical fat transfer – NHS (www.nhs.uk),

Fat Transfer To Face – Fat Transfer Under Eyes | UK Aesthetic

What Does Brazilian Butt Lift Surgery Do? (webmd.com)

Breast augmentation – Mayo Clinic  [accessed on October 2023]

 

[2] Ibid

[3] Surah Nisa [4:119]

 

[4] Rooh Ma’ani vol 3 p. 144, Surah Nisa [4:119]

 

[5] Jadeed Fiqhi Masail vol 5, p. 98

 

[6] Ibn Hajr, vol 10, p. 377.

قَالَ الطَّبَرِيُّ لَا يَجُوزُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ تَغْيِيرُ شَيْءٍ مِنْ خِلْقَتِهَا الَّتِي خَلَقَهَا اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِزِيَادَةٍ أَوْ نَقْصٍ الْتِمَاسَ الْحُسْنِ لَا لِلزَّوْجِ وَلَا لِغَيْرِهِ كَمَنْ تَكُونُ مَقْرُونَةَ الْحَاجِبَيْنِ فَتُزِيلُ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا تَوَهُّمُ الْبَلَجَ أَوْ عَكْسَهُ

Ibn Jareer however strictly disapproves of women removing any kind of facial hair whether on the beard or moustache. Majority of the scholars however allow it as that does not entail altering one’s own natural creation.

 

[7] Jadeed Fiqhi Masail vol 1 p. 303

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus al-Hadhr wal Ibahat, vol 21 p. 454-455

فَصْلٌ فِي النَّظَرِ وَالْمَسِّ

وَوَصْلُ الشَّعْرِ بِشَعْرِ الْآدَمِيِّ حَرَامٌ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ شَعْرَهَا أَوْ شَعْرَ غَيْرِهَا لِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – «لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْوَاصِلَةَ وَالْمُسْتَوْصِلَةَ وَالْوَاشِمَةَ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِمَةَ وَالْوَاشِرَةَ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِرَةَ وَالنَّامِصَةَ وَالْمُتَنَمِّصَةَ» النَّامِصَةُ الَّتِي تَنْتِفُ الشَّعْرَ مِنْ الْوَجْهِ وَالْمُتَنَمِّصَةُ الَّتِي يُفْعَلُ بِهَا ذَلِكَ

(قَوْلُهُ «لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْوَاصِلَةَ» إلَخْ) الْوَاصِلَةُ: الَّتِي تَصِلُ الشَّعْرَ بِشَعْرِ الْغَيْرِ وَاَلَّتِي يُوصَلُ شَعْرُهَا بِشَعْرٍ آخَرَ زُورًا وَالْمُسْتَوْصِلَةُ: الَّتِي يُوصَلُ لَهَا ذَلِكَ بِطَلَبِهَا وَالْوَاشِمَةُ: الَّتِي تَشِمُ فِي الْوَجْهِ وَالذِّرَاعِ، وَهُوَ أَنْ تَغْرِزَ الْجِلْدَ بِإِبْرَةٍ ثُمَّ يُحْشَى بِكُحْلٍ أَوْ نِيلٍ فَيَزْرَقُّ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِمَةُ: الَّتِي يُفْعَلُ بِهَا ذَلِكَ بِطَلَبِهَا وَالْوَاشِرَةُ: الَّتِي تُفْلِجُ أَسْنَانَهَا أَيْ تُحَدِّدُهَا وَتُرَقِّقُ أَطْرَافَهَا تَفْعَلُهُ الْعَجُوزُ تَتَشَبَّهُ بِالشَّوَابِّ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِرَةُ: الَّتِي يُفْعَلُ بِهَا بِأَمْرِهَا اهـ اخْتِيَارٌ، وَمِثْلُهُ فِي نِهَايَةِ ابْنِ الْأَثِيرِ وَزَادَ أَنَّهُ رُوِيَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهَا – أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ: لَيْسَ الْوَاصِلَةُ بِاَلَّتِي تَعْنُونَ. وَلَا بَأْسَ أَنْ تَعْرَى الْمَرْأَةُ عَنْ الشَّعْرِ، فَتَصِلَ قَرْنًا مِنْ قُرُونِهَا بِصُوفٍ أَسْوَدَ وَإِنَّمَا الْوَاصِلَةُ الَّتِي تَكُونُ بَغِيًّا فِي شَبِيهَتِهَا فَإِذَا أَسَنَّتْ وَصَلَتْهَا بِالْقِيَادَةِ وَالْوَاشِرَةُ كَأَنَّهُ مِنْ وَشَرَتْ الْخَشَبَةَ بِالْمِيشَارِ غَيْرِ مَهْمُوزٍ

 

Umdatul Qari vol 19, p. 225

(لِلْحسنِ) ، يتَعَلَّق بالمتفلجات أَي: لأجل الْحسن، قيد بِهِ لِأَن الْحَرَام مِنْهُ هُوَ الْمَفْعُول لطلب الْحسن، أما إِذا احْتِيجَ إِلَيْهِ لعلاج أَو عيب فِي السن وَنَحْوه فَلَا بَأْس بِهِ، وَقَالَ النَّوَوِيّ: يفعل ذَلِك الْعَجُوز وَشبههَا إِظْهَارًا للصغر وَحسن الْأَسْنَان، وَهَذَا الْفِعْل حرَام على الفاعلة وَالْمَفْعُول بهَا

 

[8] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Karahiyyah, vol 5, p. 360

لَا بَأْسَ بِقَطْعِ الْعُضْوِ إنْ وَقَعَتْ فِيهِ الْآكِلَةُ لِئَلَّا تَسْرِيَ كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِيَّةِ لَا بَأْسَ بِقَطْعِ الْيَدِ مِنْ الْآكِلَةِ وَشَقِّ الْبَطْنِ لِمَا فِيهِ كَذَا فِي الْمُلْتَقَطِ.

 

[9] Mirqat Sharh Mishkat vol 7, p. 2819

وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ: لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْوَاشِمَاتِ وَالْمُسْتَوْشِمَاتِ وَالْمُتَنَمِّصَاتِ وَالْمُتَفَلِّجَاتِ لِلْحُسْنِ الْمُغَيِّرَاتِ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ

(وَالْمُتَفَلِّجَاتِ) : بِكَسْرِ اللَّامِ الْمُشَدَّدَةِ، وَهِيَ الَّتِي تَطْلُبُ الْفَلَجَ، وَهُوَ بِالتَّحْرِيكِ فُرْجَةٌ مَا بَيْنَ الثَّنَايَا وَالرُّبَاعِيَّاتِ، وَالْفَرْقُ بَيْنَ السِّنِينَ عَلَى مَا فِي النِّهَايَةِ، وَالْمُرَادُ بِهِنَّ النِّسَاءُ اللَّاتِي تَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ بِأَسْنَانِهِنَّ رَغْبَةً فِي التَّحْسِينِ، وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ: هِيَ الَّتِي تُبَاعِدُ مَا بَيْنَ الثَّنَايَا وَالرُّبَاعِيَّاتِ بِتَرْقِيقِ الْأَسْنَانِ بِنَحْوِ الْمِبْرَدِ، وَقِيلَ: هِيَ الَّتِي تُرَقِّقُ الْأَسْنَانَ وَتُزَيِّنُهَا، وَاللَّامُ فِي قَوْلِهِ: (لِلْحُسْنِ) : لِلتَّعْلِيلِ، وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يَكُونَ التَّنَازُعُ فِيهِ بَيْنَ الْأَفْعَالِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ، وَالْأَظْهَرُ أَنْ يَتَعَلَّقَ بِالْأَخِيرِ. قَالَ النَّوَوِيُّ: فِيهِ إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى أَنَّ الْحَرَامَ هُوَ الْمَفْعُولُ لِطَلَبِ الْحُسْنِ، أَمَّا لَوِ احْتَاجَتْ إِلَيْهِ لِعِلَاجٍ أَوْ عَيْبٍ فِي السِّنِّ وَنَحْوِهِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ.

 

[10] Shaykh Khalid Saifullah Rahmani, Muhadharat Usul al-Fiqh p. 255

 

[11]  Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Karahiyyah, vol 5, p. 434-5

الْبَابُ الثَّامِنَ عَشَرَ فِي التَّدَاوِي وَالْمُعَالَجَاتِ

الِانْتِفَاعُ بِأَجْزَاءِ الْآدَمِيِّ لَمْ يَجُزْ قِيلَ لِلنَّجَاسَةِ وَقِيلَ لِلْكَرَامَةِ هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ كَذَا فِي جَوَاهِرِ الْأَخْلَاطِيِّ.

 

 

[12] See Jadeed Fiqhi Masail vol 5 pp. 65-85 for detailed discussion on organ transplantation

 

[13] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Karahiyyah, vol 5, p. 434-5

الْبَابُ الثَّامِنَ عَشَرَ فِي التَّدَاوِي وَالْمُعَالَجَاتِ

يَجُوزُ لِلْعَلِيلِ شُرْبُ الدَّمِ وَالْبَوْلِ وَأَكْلُ الْمَيْتَةِ لِلتَّدَاوِي إذَا أَخْبَرَهُ طَبِيبٌ مُسْلِمٌ أَنَّ شِفَاءَهُ فِيهِ وَلَمْ يَجِدْ مِنْ الْمُبَاحِ مَا يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ

 

[14] Ibn Nujaym, Al-Ashbah wa Nazair, p. 73

الضَّرُورَاتُ تُبِيحُ الْمَحْظُورَاتِ

مَا أُبِيحَ لِلضَّرُورَةِ يُقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهَا

COVID Vaccine: Halāl or Not?

8th January 2021

 

Question: With the rollout of the vaccines, is it permissible for Muslims to take it in spite of the certain speculations being circulated about it like altering the DNA, containing foetal cells and so on? Appreciate the clarity on the matter. 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The recent government’s rollout of the vaccine has created hope for some whilst for others, it has grown scepticism. Much of the confusion surrounding the vaccine is due to miss-information that is being widely circulated amongst people. There are three types of vaccines that have been rolled out, Pfizer, Moderna and the Oxford- AstraZeneca vaccine. Two doses are given as currently twelve weeks apart in the form of a jab in the upper arm. They work by stimulating the immune system to produce its own defence against the virus.  The most vulnerable and those of high risk are given the vaccine such as people above the age of 80, living in care homes and health care workers. The vaccines are known to carry some side effects but very mild for instance, fatigue, headache, sore arms due to the jab and aches and pains.[1]

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccine are not known to contain any animal ingredients such as gelatine or animal fat.[2] It is purely vegetarian and therefore Halāl and permissible to take. It is believed that this is also the similar case with the Oxford vaccine. It is however confirmed that it contains small traces of ethanol (0.002 g of per dose of 0.5 ml), but does not cause any noticeable effect.[3] We have discussed elsewhere that ethanol is not deemed impure as mostly it is derived from other than grapes and dates and is synthetically manufactured.[4] Some have argued that the vaccines contain foetal – cell lining from the aborted foetus. If this is the case then it does not render the vaccine Harām because the cell linings are so minute that they disappear leaving no traces behind like the case with alcohol converting into vinegar, thus permissible.[5]

We are not aware of any information that the vaccine alters the DNA. Even if it was the case then this is not to a significant degree in the way that it has been overly exaggerated. The vaccine has been manufactured to boost the body’s immune system in preparing it to repel the virus. It is true that the vaccine may cause side effects as highlighted above, however it is very remote. It depends on the individual’s health condition as some may have an allergic reaction towards a specific ingredient in the vaccine. This is the similar case with any other medication. If it is proven to be effective and its benefit outweighs its harms then a small harm can be endured to prevent a greater harm.[6] Hence, it still does not render it Harām.

A final note on this issue, there’s nothing wrong in someone feeling hesitant in taking the COVID vaccine. This is the individual’s right upon whom the vaccine cannot be forced. Where the problem lies is individuals advocating an anti-vaccine campaign to create fear mongering amongst people based on unsubstantiated evidences. The balance therefore is that if it contains no Harām ingredients then it is permissible to take. If someone chooses to refrain then that is their prerogative but to actively discourage Muslims from taking it by creating fear is not the best of solutions.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine – NHS (www.nhs.uk) (December 2020) [accessed 5th January 2020]

[2] Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine – NHS (www.nhs.uk) (December 2020) [accessed 5th January 2020]

[3]  Covid-19: What are the ingredients in the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine? – Cambridgeshire Live (cambridge-news.co.uk),  Information for UK recipients on COVID 19 Vaccine AstraZeneca – GOV.UK (www.gov.uk) [both accessed 6th January 2020]

 

[4] Mufti Abdul Waheed, (2020), Islamic Ruling on Alcohol Contained Products, available at Islamic-Rulling-on-Alcohol-Contained-Products.pdf (jknfatawa.co.uk)

 

[5] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 45

[الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي تَطْهِيرِ الْأَنْجَاسِ]

(الْبَابُ السَّابِعُ فِي النَّجَاسَةِ وَأَحْكَامِهَا وَفِيهِ ثَلَاثَةُ فُصُولٍ)

(وَمِنْهَا) الِاسْتِحَالَةُ تَخَلَّلَ الْخَمْرُ فِي خَابِيَةٍ جَدِيدَةٍ طَهُرَتْ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ. كَذَا فِي الْقُنْيَةِ. الْخُبْزُ الَّذِي عُجِنَ بِالْخَمْرِ لَا يَطْهُرُ بِالْغَسْلِ وَلَوْ صُبَّ فِيهِ الْخَلُّ وَذَهَبَ أَثَرُهَا يَطْهُرُ. كَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ.

الرَّغِيفُ إذَا أُلْقِيَ فِي الْخَمْرِ ثُمَّ صَارَ الْخَمْرُ خَلًّا فَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ طَاهِرٌ إذَا لَمْ يَبْقَ رَائِحَةُ الْخَمْرِ وَكَذَا فِي الْبَصَلِ إذَا أُلْقِيَ فِي الْخَمْرِ ثُمَّ تَخَلَّلَ؛ لِأَنَّ مَا فِيهِ مِنْ أَجْزَاءِ الْخَمْرِ صَارَ خَلًّا. هَكَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ.

 

Muheet Burhani vol 1. p. 191

وقد ذكرنا أن من مذهب محمد رحمه الله أن النجس يصير طاهراً بالتغيير، يفتى فيه بقول محمد رحمه الله لمكان عموم البلوى

 

[6] Ibn Nujaym, Al-Ashabh wan Nazair, p. 74

يُتَحَمَّلُ الضَّرَرُ الْخَاصُّ؛ لِأَجْلِ دَفْعِ ضَرَرِ الْعَامِّ.

Is Orthodontic Treatment Permissible?

24th February 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I am aware of a Hadīth where Allāh Almighty cursed the one who files their teeth (amongst other things). I am considering having orthodontic treatment to correct tooth crowding, but in order to do this, they would have to shave the sides of the teeth around 2mm to make space and then place braces so to straighten the teeth to prevent them from protruding out of the mouth and ease when biting food. is this permissible?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

Orthodontic treatment covers a wide range of problems relating to the teeth, such as underbite, overbite, overcrowding and misplaced midline etc.[1] Different treatments are used depending on the situation to correct the condition e.g. braces, aligners and jaw repositioning. In the above case of overcrowding, the teeth would need to be reshaped this is known as ‘slenderising’, thereafter braces be attached to ensure the teeth remain aligned. [2]

Concerning your query, the prohibition in the Hadīth by the Noble Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, refers to those occasions when women in those days filed and shaped their teeth to increase their beauty and to look younger.[3]

This resulted in purposefully enhancing or decreasing the natural features that Allāh Almighty created a person with. This type of change falls under the category of tagh’yeer al-khalq [altering the natural creation of Allāh I],[4] which is not allowed under any circumstance. Your case, on the other hand, is due to a medical reason (overcrowding of the teeth) which is to realign the shapes of the teeth to their natural position so to avert the difficulty when biting or chewing food. This prohibition, therefore, does not apply to you and you are permitted to undertake this treatment.[5]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Apa Gul-e-Maryam        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] https://www.colgate.com/en-us/oral-health/life-stages/teen-oral-care/what-is-orthodontics

 

[2] https://www.smileworksliverpool.co.uk/blog/overcrowding-in-adults/

 

[3] Sharah Nawawi A’la Muslim, Hadith No 2125, Vol 14 , Pg 106

بالفاء والجيم والمراد مفلجات الأسنان بأن تبرد ما بين أسنانها الثنايا والرباعيات وهو من الفلج بفتح الفاء واللام وهي فرجة بين الثنايا والرباعيات وتفعل ذلك العجوز ومن قاربتها في السن إظهارا للصغر وحسن الأسنان لأن هذه الفرجة اللطيفة بين الأسنان تكون للبنات الصغار

 

[4] Sharah Sahih Bukhari Li Ibn Battaal, , Vol 9, Pg 167

باب: المتفلجات للحسن

فى هذا الحديث البيان عن رسول الله أنه لا يجوز لامرأة تغيير شىء من خلقها الذى خلقها الله عليه بزيادة فيه أو نقص منه التماس التحسن به لزوج أو غيره، لأن ذلك نقض منها خلقها إلى غير هيئته، وسواء فلجت اسنانها المستوية البنية ووشرتها أو كانت لها أسنان طوال فقطعت طلبا للحسن،

 

[5] Fathul Bari, Vol 10,Pg 377

قوله باب المتنمصات

قال ويستثنى من ذلك ما يحصل به الضرر والأذية كمن يكون لها سن زائدة أو طويلة تعيقها في الأكل أو إصبع زائدة تؤذيها أو تؤلمها فيجوز ذلك والرجل في هذا الأخير

Sharah Nawawi A’la Muslim, Hadith No 2125, Vol 14 , Pg 107

وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ الْمُتَفَلِّجَاتُ لِلْحُسْنِ فَمَعْنَاهُ يَفْعَلْنَ ذَلِكَ طَلَبًا لِلْحُسْنِ وَفِيهِ إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى أَنَّ الْحَرَامَ هُوَ الْمَفْعُولُ لطلب الحسن أما لواحتاجت إِلَيْهِ لِعِلَاجٍ أَوْ عَيْبٍ فِي السِّنِّ وَنَحْوِهِ فلابأس والله أعلم

 

 

Sterilization due to Health Problems

       9th February 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Just a question that is sterilization allowed for someone who has health issues? I have kidney stones and also gallbladder stones. I’m waiting for surgery and have tried all the temporary contraception which has given me really bad side effects and I cannot tolerate them anymore.

Alhamdulillah, I have four kids but now I will struggle if I have anymore because of my health so was thinking of going for the permanent treatment of sterilization but not sure if I’m allowed. Please advise me on this matter.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, if you are due for a medical surgery to remove your kidney and gallbladder stones then opting for sterilisation is not permissible. Islamically, it is permissible to undergo an operation to remove a harmful substance from your body such as kidney and gallbladder stones.[1] If it is due to the general struggle because of having four children then sterilization will still not be permissible. Sterilisation is the process of blocking or cutting the fallopian tube so to permanently stop the possibility of conceiving a child in the future. This is considered amongst the irreversible forms of contraception that is tantamount to castration as in, to permanently inhibit the possibility of producing children in the future. This is prohibited due to a few reasons. Firstly, it is reported that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam prevented Sayyidunā Uthmān ibn Maz’oon radhiyallahu anhu from refraining from marriage. Then Sayyidunā Uthmān radhiyallahu anhu states that had the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam permitted us then we would have castrated ourselves.[2] The statement ‘we would have castrated ourselves’ was either an exaggerated statement knowing that it was prohibited but would have inevitably led him of castrating himself regardless,[3] or the statement implied that he assumed castration was permitted until on another occasion the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam prohibited it upon enquiring of its ruling.[4] Secondly, amongst the natural creation of women is to conceive children and to permanently inhibit pregnancy is a form of altering Almighty Allāh’s natural creation.[5] Lastly, preservation of progeny is amongst the five essentials of our religion[6] and sterilisation, (be it for a male or a female) violates this important essential. Based on these reasons, the Hanafi jurists ruled castration or sterilization as prohibited.[7]

As a general rule to note, the prohibition of male-castration equally applies to female sterilisation due to the same underlying reasons. The only time where scholars have allowed female sterilization is if the woman’s life is at risk which is proven to be near certain and advised by reliable doctors (preferably Muslim).[8] This is because after religion, preserving one’s life takes priority over other essentials including progeny. Your case however is not the matter of life and death but rather general struggle which is not uncommon for many parents. It is advisable that you use those forms of temporary contraception that is suited to your well-being after consulting a reliable doctor.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Karāhiyyat, Bāb al-Jarahat Bani Adam, vol 5, p. 440

لَا بَأْسَ بِقَطْعِ الْعُضْوِ إنْ وَقَعَتْ فِيهِ الْآكِلَةُ لِئَلَّا تَسْرِيَ كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِيَّةِ

لَا بَأْسَ بِقَطْعِ الْيَدِ مِنْ الْآكِلَةِ وَشَقِّ الْبَطْنِ لِمَا فِيهِ كَذَا فِي الْمُلْتَقَطِ.

وَلَا بَأْسَ بِشَقِّ الْمَثَانَةِ إذَا كَانَتْ فِيهَا حَصَاةٌ وَفِي الْكَيْسَانِيَّاتِ فِي الْجِرَاحَاتِ الْمَخُوفَةِ وَالْقُرُوحِ الْعَظِيمَةِ وَالْحَصَاةِ الْوَاقِعَةِ فِي الْمَثَانَةِ وَنَحْوِهَا إنْ قِيلَ قَدْ يَنْجُو وَقَدْ يَمُوتُ أَوْ يَنْجُو وَلَا يَمُوتُ يُعَالَجُ وَإِنْ قِيلَ لَا يَنْجُو أَصْلًا لَا يُدَاوَى بَلْ يُتْرَكُ كَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ.

 

[2] Bukhari, No: 5073

بَابُ مَا يُكْرَهُ مِنَ التَّبَتُّلِ وَالخِصَاءِ

وَعَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ قَالَ: رَدَّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى عُثْمَان ابْن مَظْعُونٍ التَّبَتُّلَ وَلَوْ أَذِنَ لَهُ لَاخْتَصَيْنَا

 

[3] Mirqat sharhu Mishkat vol 5, p. 2042 – Shamila

(لَاخْتَصَيْنَا) أَيْ: لَجَعَلَ كُلٌّ مِنَّا نَفْسَهُ خَصِيًّا كَيْلَا يَحْتَاجَ إِلَى النِّسَاءِ. قَالَ الطِّيبِيُّ: ” كَانَ مِنْ حَقِّ الظَّاهِرِ أَنْ يُقَالَ: لَوْ أَذِنَ لَتَبَتَّلْنَا، فَعَدَلَ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ: اخْتَصَيْنَا إِرَادَةً لِلْمُبَالَغَةِ أَيْ: لَوْ أَذِنَ لَبَالَغْنَا فِي التَّبَتُّلِ حَتَّى بِالِاخْتِصَاءِ، وَلَمْ يُرِدْ بِهِ حَقِيقَةً لِأَنَّهُ غَيْرُ جَائِزٍ. قَالَ النَّوَوِيُّ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -: ” كَانَ ذَلِكَ ظَنًّا مِنْهُمْ جَوَازُ الِاخْتِصَاءِ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ هَذَا الظَّنُّ مُوَافِقًا فَإِنَّ الِاخْتِصَاءَ فِي الْآدَمِيِّ حَرَامٌ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا، وَكَذَا يَحْرُمُ خِصَاءُ كُلِّ حَيَوَانٍ لَا يُؤْكَلُ، وَأَمَّا الْمَأْكُولُ فَيَجُوزُ فِي صِغَرِهِ وَيَحْرُمُ فِي كِبَرِهِ

Ibn Hajar, Fathul Bari, vol 9, p.118 – Shamila

وَقَالَ الطِّيبِيُّ قَولُهُ وَلَوْ أَذِنَ لَهُ لَاخْتَصَيْنَا كَانَ الظَّاهِرُ أَنْ يَقُولَ وَلَوْ أَذِنَ لَهُ لَتَبَتَّلْنَا لَكِنَّهُ عَدَلَ عَنْ هَذَا الظَّاهِرِ إِلَى قَولِهِ لَاخْتَصَيْنَا لِإِرَادَةِ الْمُبَالَغَةِ أَيْ لَبَالَغْنَا فِي التَّبَتُّلِ حَتَّى يُفْضِيَ بِنَا الْأَمْرُ إِلَى الِاخْتِصَاءِ وَلَمْ يُرِدْ بِهِ حَقِيقَةَ الِاخْتِصَاءِ لِأَنَّهُ حَرَامٌ

[4] Al-Ayni, commentary Bukhari vol 20, p. 72 – Shamila

لَو أذن فِي الِانْقِطَاع عَن النِّسَاء وغيرهن من ملاذ الدُّنْيَا لاختصينا لدفع شَهْوَة النِّسَاء لتمكننا من التبتل، قَالَ: وَهَذَا مَحْمُول على أَنهم كَانُوا يظنون جَوَاز الاختصاء باجتهادهم وَلم يكن ظنهم هَذَا مُوَافقا، فَإِن الاختصاء فِي الْآدَمِيّ حرَام مُطلقًا. وَقَالَ شَيخنَا زين الدّين، رَحمَه الله: وَفِي كل من جوابي الْقُرْطُبِيّ وَالنَّوَوِيّ نظر، بل الْجَواب الصَّحِيح أَنه: لَو وَقع إِذن من النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فِيمَا سَأَلَهُ عَنهُ عُثْمَان بن مَظْعُون من التبتل لجَاز لَهُم الاختصاء، لِأَن اسْتِئْذَان عُثْمَان فِي التبتل كَانَت صورته استئذانا فِي الاختصاء كَمَا هُوَ مُبين فِي حَدِيث عَائِشَة بنت قدامَة بن مَظْعُون عَن أَبِيهَا عَن أَخِيه عُثْمَان بن مَظْعُون، أَنه قَالَ: يَا رَسُول الله {إِنَّه ليشق علينا الْعزبَة فِي الْمَغَازِي، أفتأذن لي يَا رَسُول الله فِي الخصاء فأختصى؟ فَقَالَ رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم: (لَا وَلَكِن عَلَيْك يَا ابْن مَظْعُون بالصيام فَإِنَّهُ مجفر)

 

[5] Sarakhsi, al-Mabsoot, vol 15 p. 150

[بَابُ إجَارَةِ الدُّورِ وَالْبُيُوتِ]

خِصَاءُ بَنِي آدَمَ فَذَلِكَ مَنْهِيٌّ عَنْهُ وَهُوَ مِنْ جُمْلَةِ مَا يَأْمُرُ بِهِ الشَّيْطَانُ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى {وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ}

Shaykh Khalid Sayfullah Rahmani, Kitab al-Fatawa, vol 6, p. 230

[6] The five essentials are preservation of religion, life, intellect, progeny and wealth.

[7] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Karāhiyyah, Bāb Istibra, vol 9 p. 558

(وَ) جَازَ (خِصَاءُ الْبَهَائِمِ) حَتَّى الْهِرَّةِ، وَأَمَّا خِصَاءُ الْآدَمِيِّ فَحَرَامٌ قِيلَ وَالْفَرَسِ وَقَيَّدُوهُ بِالْمَنْفَعَةِ وَإِلَّا فَحَرَامٌ

(قَوْلُهُ وَقَيَّدُوهُ) أَيْ جَوَازُ خِصَاءِ الْبَهَائِمِ بِالْمَنْفَعَةِ وَهِيَ إرَادَةُ سِمَنِهَا أَوْ مَنْعُهَا عَنْ الْعَضِّ بِخِلَافِ بَنِي آدَمَ فَإِنَّهُ يُرَادُ بِهِ الْمَعَاصِي فَيَحْرُمُ أَفَادَهُ الأتقاني عَنْ الطَّحَاوِيِّ.

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Karāhiyyah, vol 5, p. 436

[الْبَاب التَّاسِع عَشْر فِي الْخِتَان وَالْخِصَاء وَحَلَقَ الْمَرْأَة شَعَرهَا ووصلها شعر غَيْرهَا]

خِصَاءُ بَنِي آدَمَ حَرَامٌ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ وَأَمَّا خِصَاءُ الْفَرَسِ فَقَدْ ذَكَرَ شَمْسُ الْأَئِمَّةِ الْحَلْوَانِيُّ فِي شَرْحِهِ أَنَّهُ لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ عِنْدَ أَصْحَابِنَا وَذَكَرَ شَيْخُ الْإِسْلَامِ فِي شَرْحِهِ أَنَّهُ حَرَامٌ

 

[8] Shaykh Khalid Sayfullah Rahmani, Kitab al-Fatawa, vol 6, p. 236, Mufti Ismail Kacholwi, Fatawa Deeniyya, vol 5, p. 249, Fatawa Mahmoodiyyah, vol 18, p. 291

Removing certain body Parts due to Medical Risk

3rd March 2018

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: My wife has been diagnosed BRCA1 gene disorder that puts her at a risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer. This is partly due to this being inherited through family as her mother and sister are now suffering cancer from them both. The consultant advised her to have both of her breasts removed to avoid the risk of developing cancer in the future. She must also consider surgery to remove her ovaries to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Ovarian and breast cancer runs in her family and that preventative surgery will reduce her risk of developing the Cancer. In such circumstances, is it permissible to remove those parts of her body because of the high risk she faces?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

Preserving ones health by curing an illness is part of our Islamic teachings. Every Muslim has the right to remove harm from them-self especially if such a harm is more likely to result in a greater harm.[1] Based on the information gathered on the subject through reliable websites and talking to medical professions, BRACA1 are human genes that produce tumour suppressor proteins that help repair damaged DNA. When genes are mutated and don’t function properly, the damaged DNA are not repaired properly. As a result, cells are more likely to develop additional genetic alterations that can lead to cancer. Further sources suggest that women who suffer BRACA1 disorder are of greater risk of developing breast cancer compared to ovarian cancer (the chances being around 40% only).[2] This shows the strong connection between BRACA1 disorder and cancer, particularly breast cancer. The surgical procedure varies depending on the size of the tumour in the breast.[3] Hence as a preventative surgery, parts of the breast tissues are removed so to prevent the cancer developing in the breast. Where the risk of ovarian cancer increases then her ovaries are then removed.

From the Islamic legal perspective, Muslim Jurists have allowed severing a defective limb as a necessity if the illness found in the limb is likely to spread throughout the body. Likewise, they have also allowed to surgically remove a harmful substance so to recover from an illness caused by it.[4] For the rule of necessity to apply, the potential harm must be near certain or strong probability (ghalaba dhann) that is based on sound knowledge from experts and that such surgical operation is necessary to prevent a greater harm.[5] This should be indicated by an existing illness that if not treated, then a greater harm is more than likely to ensue. Many scholars state that this expert advice should come from a Muslim profession, because of him being aware of the commands of Islām and being able to differentiate between Halāl and Harām.[6]

In the above such case, if the above condition of necessity is fulfilled then your wife, suffering from BRCA1 disorder putting her at a high risk of developing breast cancer, is permitted to undergo a surgical operation of removing some parts of her breast if this happens to be the only effective procedure effective in preventing cancer considering that the symptoms of the cancer have already begun. With regards to removing her ovaries, then it is permissible only if the risk of ovarian cancer is high like in the case with breast cancer otherwise not permitted.

 [Allãh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] Ibn Nujaym, Al-Ashbah wan Nazair,  p. 72

أَصْلُهَا قَوْلُهُ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ {لَا ضَرَرَ وَلَا ضِرَارَ} أَخْرَجَهُ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُوَطَّإِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَبِيهِ مُرْسَلًا، وَأَخْرَجَهُ الْحَاكِمُ فِي الْمُسْتَدْرَكِ وَالْبَيْهَقِيِّ وَالدَّارَقُطْنِيّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، وَأَخْرَجَهُ ابْنُ مَاجَهْ مِنْ حَدِيثِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَعُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ.

[2] https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/genetics/brca-fact-sheet#q17

https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/patient/breast-treatment-pdq

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/BRCA1

[3] The two known methods are Lumpectomy; preserves shape of the breast if the tumour is small, and Mastectomy; removal of the entire breast if the tumour is too large.

[4] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Karāhiyyat, Bāb al-Jarahat Bani Adam, vol 5, p. 440 – Shamila

لَا بَأْسَ بِقَطْعِ الْعُضْوِ إنْ وَقَعَتْ فِيهِ الْآكِلَةُ لِئَلَّا تَسْرِيَ كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِيَّةِ

لَا بَأْسَ بِقَطْعِ الْيَدِ مِنْ الْآكِلَةِ وَشَقِّ الْبَطْنِ لِمَا فِيهِ كَذَا فِي الْمُلْتَقَطِ.

وَلَا بَأْسَ بِشَقِّ الْمَثَانَةِ إذَا كَانَتْ فِيهَا حَصَاةٌ وَفِي الْكَيْسَانِيَّاتِ فِي الْجِرَاحَاتِ الْمَخُوفَةِ وَالْقُرُوحِ الْعَظِيمَةِ وَالْحَصَاةِ الْوَاقِعَةِ فِي الْمَثَانَةِ وَنَحْوِهَا إنْ قِيلَ قَدْ يَنْجُو وَقَدْ يَمُوتُ أَوْ يَنْجُو وَلَا يَمُوتُ يُعَالَجُ وَإِنْ قِيلَ لَا يَنْجُو أَصْلًا لَا يُدَاوَى بَلْ يُتْرَكُ كَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ.

Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Nadwatu Hayat al-Insāniyyah, vol 8 p. 817

Surgeries with the purpose of treating congenital illnesses or those due to accident after birth to either restore the shape (of a defective limb) or the safe functioning of a limb for habitual use is permissible in the Shari’ah which the majority view as consistent with the ruling of treatment to restore a defect or fault occurred to a person that is harmful to the limb or body.   

[5] Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, Kitāb al-Hadhr wal Ibāhat, Matlab Thalth-Halat Dharoorah, vol 3 p. 513

1 – أن تكون الضرورة قائمة لا منتظرة في المستقبل، أي أن يحصل في الواقع خوف الهلاك على النفس أو المال بغلبة الظن بحسب التجارب، أو التحقق من خطر التلف، لو لم يأكل، ويكفي في ذلك الظن، كما في الإكراه على أكل الحرام، فلا يشترط فيه التيقن ولا الإشراف على الموت، بل لو انتهى إلى هذه الحالة لم يفد الأكل ولم يحل الأكل كما صرح الشافعية.

[6] For more details of the condition of Dharoorah see Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, vol 9 p. 429-32

Denture Implants

26th December 2017

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: My father in law’s teeth are all falling out and it causes him in difficulty in consuming food. He is thinking about getting denture implants done. Is this permissible?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Denture implants, or artificial teeth generally come in two forms; detachable and non-detachable. Non-detachable one requires a surgical operation in order to remove the teeth as opposed to detachable ones. Islamically, there is no harm for any old person, such as your father in-law, to have denture implants of either type if all of the teeth have fallen [or falling] due to old age to easily allow consumption of food especially strong solid foods. This is permitted under the ruling of removing extreme difficulty (raf’ul haraj) and constrain (mushaqat), a justified principle in determining legal rulings. It is recommended that he uses detachable ones first, but if he struggles with it then to resort to Non-detachable ones. It must be remembered that detachable dentures must be removed during Fardh Ghusl.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

Is Seeking Medical Treatment Necessary?

20th March 2017

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I was born with a condition called cystic fibrosis. I suffer with thick mucus around my lungs, my digestive system and other organs around my body. At the minute I’m having lot of problems with my pancreas. It’s stopping and blocking enzymes entering my stomach.  I eat a lot but still end up losing weight. I suffer with really bad constipation and my bladder has gone really weak. I take over 45 different tablets a day of nebulisers and inhalers. My situation is not good and I’m deteriorating day by day. My situation is such that I need a lung transplant. I put my life in Allāh’s hands and if my time is up then it’s up. Is it sinful me to refuse a transplant which has the possibility of saving my life as well as killing me? Please guide me in this matter.

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

Seeking medical treatment has been encouraged in Islām and should not be refused especially if the means are available. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam instructed the believers to seek medical treatment during times of urgency. Sayyidunā Usama Ibn Shareek radhiyallahu anhu reports that the Companions once asked, ‘O Messenger of Allāh! Should we seek medication?’ He replied, “Yes. O servants of Allāh seek medical treatment because Allāh has not placed any illness except has also placed its cure except for one illness; death.”[1] The Hadeeth scholars explain that the prophet’s command was of Istihbāb – preferable command, and not an obligatory one. The context of the Hadeeth suggests that the prophet’s instruction was to indicate that seeking medical treatment is not against reliance upon Allāh Almighty, as was previously assumed by some Companions which led them to this enquiry.[2]

From a juristic point of view, inevitable cure from any medical treatment falls under the remit of dhanni (speculative) knowledge. This means that doctors prescribing medication and carrying out surgical operation to permanently cure the patient is not something that is based on knowledge of certainty (yaqeeni) in spite of the advancement in the field of medicine and surgery. Even organ transplantation does not guarantee permanent restoration of health albeit it contains many benefits. This however does not dismiss the importance of seeking medication since the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam himself encouraged it. It is due to this reason why the Hanafi jurists ruled seeking medical treatment is mustahab – desirable only. Therefore, you should opt for a lung transplant when you have the chance if the doctors have assured you recovery in this otherwise refusing shall not make you sinful.[3]

A point to remember is that as Muslims we believe that cure ultimately lies in the hands of Allāh Almighty. The classical jurists never deemed medication as compulsory because they understood that medication does not reach the level of certainty like food and water in respect to sustaining of one’s life and health.  However, continuous advancements of the medical industry leads to discovering new ahkāms – rulings. It is possible that exceptions can be made from the general rule depending on the specific medication and the individual’s circumstances. What is important is that saving one’s own life is necessary. Should in the future a particular medicine or surgical operation guarantee to be lifesaving and unanimously agreed by all doctors then accepting it would be necessary and refusing would be a sin.

[Allãh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] Abū Dāwood

 عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ شَرِيكٍ قَالَ: «قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَفَنَتَدَاوَى؟ قَالَ: ” نَعَمْ، يَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ! تَدَاوَوْا، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَضَعْ دَاءً إِلَّا وَضَعَ لَهُ شِفَاءً، غَيْرَ دَاءٍ وَاحِدٍ، الْهَرَمُ» “. رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ، وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ، وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ

[2] Mirqat sharh Mishkāt No: 4532

 (نَعَمْ) : وَأَمَّا قَوْلُ الطِّيبِيِّ: الْفَاءُ عَطْفٌ عَلَى مُقَدَّرٍ تَسْتَدْعِيهِ الْهَمْزَةُ يَعْنِي: أَنَعْتَبِرُ الطِّبَّ فَنَتَدَاوَى أَوْ نَتَوَكَّلُ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَنَتْرُكُ التَّدَاوِيَ؟ فَلَا خَفَاءَ أَنَّهُ لَا يُلَائِمُهُ الْجَوَابُ بِقَوْلِهِ: نَعَمْ، وَأَيْضًا جَعْلُ التَّوَكُّلِ مِنْ قِسْمِ تَرْكِ التَّدَاوِي غَيْرَ صَحِيحٍ فِي الْمَعْنَى. (يَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ) : إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى أَنَّ التَّدَاوِيَ لَا يُنَافِي الْعُبُودِيَّةَ، وَلَا يَدَعُ التَّوَكُّلَ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ، وَلِذَا قَالَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ: ” اعْقِلْ وَتَوَكَّلْ “.(تَدَاوُوا) : تَأْكِيدًا لِمَا فُهِمَ مِنْ قَوْلِهِ: ” نَعَمْ “، وَالْمَعْنَى تَدَاوُوا وَلَا تَعْتَمِدُوا فِي الشِّفَاءِ عَلَى التَّدَاوِي، بَلْ كُونُوا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ مُتَوَكِّلِينَ عَلَيْهِ، وَمُفَوِّضِينَ الْأُمُورَ إِلَيْهِ،

Thathreeb fi Sharhi Taqreeb 184  vol 8

 (السَّادِسَةُ) فِيهِ اسْتِحْبَابُ التَّدَاوِي وَهُوَ مَذْهَبُ أَصْحَابِنَا وَجُمْهُورِ السَّلَفِ وَعَامَّةِ الْخَلَفِ وَفِيهِ رَدٌّ عَلَى مَنْ أَنْكَرَ التَّدَاوِيَ مِنْ غُلَاةِ الصُّوفِيَّةِ، وَقَالَ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ بِقَضَاءٍ وَقَدَرٍ فَلَا حَاجَةَ إلَى التَّدَاوِي وَحُجَّةُ الْعُلَمَاءِ هَذَا الْحَدِيثُ وَمَا فِي مَعْنَاهُ وَفِي صَحِيحِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «لِكُلِّ دَاءٍ دَوَاءٌ فَإِذَا أُصِيبَ دَوَاءُ الدَّاءِ أَبْرَأَهُ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ» .وَرَوَى التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ شَرِيكٍ قَالَ «قَالَتْ الْأَعْرَابُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَلَا نَتَدَاوَى؟ قَالَ نَعَمْ يَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ تَدَاوَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَضَعْ دَاءً إلَّا وَضَعَ لَهُ شِفَاءً إلَّا دَاءً وَاحِدًا وَهُوَ الْهَرَمُ» قَالُوا وَيَجِبُ أَنْ يَعْتَقِدَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى هُوَ الْفَاعِلُ، وَأَنَّ التَّدَاوِيَ أَيْضًا مِنْ قَدَرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، وَهَذَا كَالْأَمْرِ بِالدُّعَاءِ

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah  Kitāb Karahiyyah, Mu’alajah p 434 vol  5

مَرِضَ أَوْ رَمِدَ فَلَمْ يُعَالِجْ حَتَّى مَاتَ لَا يَأْثَمُ كَذَا فِي الْمُلْتَقَطِ. وَالرَّجُلُ إذَا اسْتَطْلَقَ بَطْنَهُ أَوْ رَمِدَتْ عَيْنَاهُ فَلَمْ يُعَالِجْ حَتَّى أَضْعَفَهُ ذَلِكَ وَأَضْنَاهُ وَمَاتَ مِنْهُ لَا إثْمَ عَلَيْهِ فَرْقٌ بَيْنَ هَذَا وَبَيْنَمَا إذَا جَاعَ وَلَمْ يَأْكُلْ مَعَ الْقُدْرَةِ حَتَّى مَاتَ حَيْثُ يَأْثَمُ وَالْفَرْقُ أَنَّ الْأَكْلَ مِقْدَارُ قُوتِهِ مُشْبِعٌ بِيَقِينٍ فَكَانَ تَرْكُهُ إهْلَاكًا وَلَا كَذَلِكَ الْمُعَالَجَةُ وَالتَّدَاوِي كَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ.

Giving Hair Transplant

8th December 2016

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to give a hair transplant like in the case of giving organ?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In reference to your query, the laws of hair and organ donation are not the same. Organ transplantation has been permitted in circumstances where the safety of one’s life or health is at stake. The human body survives and remains healthy when the organs function properly. A dysfunctional organ when not treated increases harm to the body affecting its day to day functioning. Safeguarding one’s life and averting harm from oneself is among the high priorities of the Shari’ah. Hair transplant on the other and is purely for cosmetic reasons which has no connection to the day to day function of the body nor placing one’s life or health at stake. People generally implant hair to enhance their physical appearance thus, it is not analogous to organ transplant. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam cursed those who attach hair with their own hair. The classical jurists explain that this prohibition is in reference to joining human hair only because it violates the human dignity.[1] It thus follows that if attaching human hair with another human hair is prohibited then donating one’s hair for transplant is also not permissible.

 [Allãh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa addillatuhu  p. 578 vol 3

البَابُ السّابع: الحَظر والإباحة أحكام الشَّعر

ويحرم كما تقدم وصل الشعر بشعر آدمي آخر على الرجال والنساء الأيامى والمتزوجين، للتجمل وغيره، بلا خلاف، سواء كان شعر رجل أو امرأة، وسواء شعر المَحْرم والزوج وغيرهما بلا خلاف، لعموم الأدلة، ولأنه يحرم الانتفاع بشعر الآدمي وسائر أجزائه لكرامته، بل يدفن شعره وظفره وسائر أجزائه.

Kasāni, Badai Sanai p. 502-3 vol 6

كِتَابُ الِاسْتِحْسَانِ

وَيُكْرَهُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَصِلَ شَعْرَ غَيْرِهَا مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ بِشَعْرِهَا لِقَوْلِهِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْوَاصِلَةَ وَالْمُسْتَوْصِلَةَ» وَلِأَنَّ الْآدَمِيَّ بِجَمِيعِ أَجْزَائِهِ مُكَرَّمٌ وَالِانْتِفَاعُ بِالْجُزْءِ الْمُنْفَصِلِ مِنْهُ إهَانَةٌ لَهُ وَلِهَذَا كُرِهَ بَيْعُهُ وَلَا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ مِنْ شَعْرِ الْبَهِيمَةِ وَصُوفِهَا لِأَنَّهُ انْتِفَاعٌ بِطَرِيقِ التَّزَيُّنِ بِمَا يَحْتَمِلُ ذَلِكَ وَلِهَذَا احْتَمَلَ الِاسْتِعْمَالُ فِي سَائِرِ وُجُوهِ الِانْتِفَاعِ فَكَذَا فِي التَّزَيُّنِ

Sperm Donation without Marriage

5th December 2016

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: A particular sister intend to become pregnant from a donor. My questions are as follows;

  • Is it necessary upon her to have a Nikāh done with this donor? I am just thinking wouldn’t such an action without a Nikāh have implications on things like inheritance and who is a mahram, and who is not?
  • Is it permissible to have a Nikāh just for something like this? Would it be valid?
  • Will she have the Islamic right for a divorce because that’s what she intends to, she has no intention to live her life with a man, but merely wants a child.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

As a point of principle, the only person a woman is allowed to receive a sperm from is her husband. Bearing children is a joint responsibility of the husband and wife requiring careful and skilful nurturing to safeguard the child’s welfare. A single mother would struggle to maintain this balance of nurturing without the life-long support from her husband. Marrying only for children and then to divorce upon the fulfilment of one’s needs is morally wrong. Marriage is a permanent union and should not be treated lightly. Once this is understood, the answers to your queries are as follows;

1) Yes, an Islamic Nikāh is fardh (obligatory) if she wants to have children. Randomly selecting a semen will not have implications on inheritance, mahram etc because the lineage will not be established to the donor outside of wedlock.[1] For the above factors to apply, Nikāh is necessary. But as pointed out, such method is not permissible.

2&3) She cannot simply have a Nikāh done for having children and thereafter request for a divorce. This conflicts with the general spirit of Nikāh in Islām because Nikāh is a lifelong commitment even after having children.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Fatawa Hndiyyah Kitāb Talāq – Fasl fi Thuboot Nasab, vol 1 p.  564

وَلَوْ زَنَى بِامْرَأَةٍ فَحَمَلَتْ، ثُمَّ تَزَوَّجَهَا فَوَلَدَتْ إنْ جَاءَتْ بِهِ لِسِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَصَاعِدًا ثَبَتَ نَسَبُهُ، وَإِنْ جَاءَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ نَسَبُهُ إلَّا أَنْ يَدَّعِيَهُ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ: إنَّهُ مِنْ الزِّنَا أَمَّا إنْ قَالَ: إنَّهُ مِنِّي مِنْ الزِّنَا فَلَا يَثْبُتُ نَسَبُهُ وَلَا يَرِثُ مِنْهُ كَذَا فِي الْيَنَابِيعِ.