Is Keeping a Dog Allowed in Islām?

19th May 2021


Question: I am aware we can keep dogs only as guard dogs only, but can you explain for me as to why we (as Muslims) cannot keep them as pets inside the house, and if it’s haram? If you can provide me with an informative explanation which contains authentic evidence from Quran and/or Hadith on the permissibility of keeping dogs as pets inside the home?


الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful



In reference to your query, there are numerous Ahādeeth forbidding a Muslim from keeping dog without an excuse. Keeping a dog results in a person being removed from Allāh’s mercy, the angels of mercy not entering such houses with a dog and deduction in one’s good deeds. Valid excuses that permit a Muslim keeping a dog as you have indicated include a dog to protect one’s house (only if there is a likelihood chance of robbery through past experience), guarding cattle or farm, shepherd dog (for a shepherd that is) or hunting. In this day and age, a guide dog for a blind person would also fall under this exemption.

The Ahadeeth are as follows;

  1. Sayyidunā Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Whoever keeps a dog then one qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily, unless the dog is used for guarding farm or cattle.” Abu Huraira (in another narration) said: the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “….unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting.” Abu Huraira also added: The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting.”[1]
  2. Sayyidunā Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “Whoever keeps a dog that is not a dog for hunting, herding livestock or farming, two qirats will be deducted from his reward each day.”[2]
  3. Sayyidunā ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “The angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or an (animated) image.”[3]

The exact quantity of qirat rests with Almighty Allāh although some scholars have attempted in quantifying it.[4] What is concerning here that keeping a dog without any of the aforementioned valid excuses reduces one’s good deeds every day despite all of their hard efforts exerted in performing them. One notices the variant versions in the amount of deduction; one says one qirat and other says two qirat. Hadeeth commentators such is Imām Nawwawi rahimahullah explained a number of possible reasons for this;

  1. Its severity is perhaps relative to the location itself e.g. a dog owner residing in Madinah cause two qirats worth of deeds being deducted compared to other locations or, one living in the inner city then his deeds are deducted more compared to a villager.
  2. It could relate to time itself, which means that initially it was one qirat and then its severity increased later on (hence nothing to do with location).
  3. It is possible that this refers to one qirat deducting during the day and one during the night or one qirat of fardh deeds and one qirat of optional deeds.[5]

Imām Nawwawi rahimahullah further on explains the possible reasons why a believer’s deeds are deducted for instance, due to preventing angles from entering the house, the dog causing harm to a passer-by by frightening them or even chasing them, taking that which Allāh Almighty has forbidden him to do or could be the owner being negligent of not washing its saliva.[6]

The prohibition lies in keeping a dog without a valid reason otherwise a Muslim keeping a dog due to any of the above reasons does not fall under this prohibition and neither would his deeds be deducted hopefully. The Hadeeth however does not specify keeping a dog to protect one’s home (from thief for instance) which begs the question whether or not this also fall under such exemption? Imām Nawwawi rahimahullah states that there are two opinion; one is that it is prohibited and the second opinion which is the soundest opinion that it is permissible due to necessity by applying the similar underlying reason of the other exemptions.[7] Ibn Abideen Shāmi rahimahullah, a Hanafi jurist also maintains the permissibility of keeping a dog to guards one’s home from a thief similar to guarding one’s cattle, land, farm etc. He however adds that the dog should not be kept inside the house unless it is necessary (and the only last option).[8]



[Allãh Knows Best]



Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department




[1] Bukhari, No. 2322

بَابُ اقْتِنَاءِ الكَلْبِ لِلْحَرْثِ

حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ فَضَالَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ أَمْسَكَ كَلْبًا، فَإِنَّهُ يَنْقُصُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ قِيرَاطٌ، إِلَّا كَلْبَ حَرْثٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ»، قَالَ ابْنُ سِيرِينَ، وَأَبُو صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِلَّا كَلْبَ غَنَمٍ أَوْ حَرْثٍ أَوْ صَيْدٍ»، وَقَالَ أَبُو حَازِمٍ: عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «كَلْبَ صَيْدٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ»


[2] Muslim, No. 1575

بَابُ الْأَمْرِ بِقَتْلِ الْكِلَابِ، وَبَيَانِ نَسْخِهِ، وَبَيَانِ تَحْرِيمِ اقْتِنَائِهَا إِلَّا لِصَيْدٍ، أَوْ زَرْعٍ، أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ

وحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الطَّاهِرِ، وَحَرْمَلَةُ، قَالَا: أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيِّبِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنِ اقْتَنَى كَلْبًا، لَيْسَ بِكَلْبِ صَيْدٍ، وَلَا مَاشِيَةٍ، وَلَا أَرْضٍ، فَإِنَّهُ يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ قِيرَاطَانِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ»، وَلَيْسَ فِي حَدِيثِ أَبِي الطَّاهِرِ: وَلَا أَرْضٍ


حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ يَعْنِي ابْنَ زِيَادٍ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سُمَيْعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو رَزِينٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، يَقُولُ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنِ اتَّخَذَ كَلْبًا، لَيْسَ بِكَلْبِ صَيْدٍ، وَلَا غَنَمٍ، نَقَصَ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قِيرَاطٌ»


Abu Dawood, No. 2844

بَابٌ فِي اتِّخَاذِ الْكَلْبِ لِلصَّيْدِ وَغَيْرِهِ

حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنِ اتَّخَذَ كَلْبًا إِلَّا كَلْبَ مَاشِيَةٍ أَوْ صَيْدٍ أَوْ زَرْعٍ انْتَقَصَ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قِيرَاطٌ»



[3] Ibn Majah, No. 3649

بَابُ الصُّوَرِ فِي الْبَيْتِ

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «لَا تَدْخُلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ بَيْتًا فِيهِ كَلْبٌ، وَلَا صُورَةٌ»


[4] Mirqat mafateeh, Sharh Mishkat vol 7, p. 2660

بَابُ اقْتِنَاءِ الْكَلْبِ لِلْحَرْثِ

فَذَكَرَ الْقِيرَاطَ أَوَّلًا ثُمَّ زَادَ لِلتَّغْلِيظِ، فَذِكْرُ الْقِيرَاطَيْنِ وَالْقِيرَاطِ هُنَا مِقْدَارٌ مَعْلُومٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، وَالْمُرَادُ نَقْصُ جُزْءٍ مِنْ أَجْزَاءِ عَمَلِهِ اهـ. وَهُوَ فِي الْأَصْلِ نِصْفُ دَانِقٍ وَهُوَ سُدُسُ الدِّرْهَمِ، وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.


[5] Sharhu Nawawwi vol 10, pp. 239

وَأَمَّا اخْتِلَافُ الرِّوَايَةِ فِي قِيرَاطٍ وَقِيرَاطَيْنِ فَقِيلَ يُحْتَمَلُ أَنَّهُ فِي نَوْعَيْنِ مِنَ الْكِلَابِ أَحَدُهُمَا أَشَدُّ أَذًى مِنَ الْآخَرِ وَلِمَعْنًى فِيهِمَا أَوْ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ مُخْتَلِفًا بِاخْتِلَافِ الْمَوَاضِعِ فَيَكُونُ الْقِيرَاطَانِ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ خَاصَّةً لِزِيَادَةِ فَضْلِهَا وَالْقِيرَاطُ فِي غَيْرِهَا أَوِ الْقِيرَاطَانِ فِي الْمَدَائِنِ وَنَحْوِهَا مِنَ الْقُرَى وَالْقِيرَاطُ فِي الْبَوَادِي أَوْ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فِي زَمَنَيْنِ فَذَكَرَ الْقِيرَاطَ أَوَّلًا ثُمَّ زَادَ التَّغْلِيظَ فَذَكَرَ الْقِيرَاطَيْنِ قَالَ الرُّويَانِيُّ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا فِي كِتَابِهِ الْبَحْرِ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْمُرَادِ بِمَا يَنْقُصُ مِنْهُ فَقِيلَ يَنْقُصُ مِمَّا مَضَى مِنْ عَمَلِهِ وَقِيلَ مِنْ مُسْتَقْبَلِهِ قَالَ وَاخْتَلَفُوا فِي مَحَلِّ نَقْصِ الْقِيرَاطَيْنِ فَقِيلَ يَنْقُصُ قِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ النَّهَارِ وَقِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ اللَّيْلِ أَوْ قِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الْفَرْضِ وَقِيرَاطٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ النَّفْلِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ


[6] Sharhu Nawawwi vol 10, pp. 239

وَاخْتَلَفَ الْعُلَمَاءُ فِي سَبَبِ نُقْصَانِ الْأَجْرِ بِاقْتِنَاءِ الْكَلْبِ فَقِيلَ لِامْتِنَاعِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ مِنْ دُخُولِ بَيْتِهِ بِسَبَبِهِ وَقِيلَ لِمَا يَلْحَقُ الْمَارِّينَ مِنَ الْأَذَى مِنْ تَرْوِيعِ الْكَلْبِ لَهُمْ وَقَصْدِهِ إِيَّاهُمْ وَقِيلَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عُقُوبَةٌ لَهُ لِاتِّخَاذِهِ مَا نُهِيَ عَنِ اتِّخَاذِهِ وَعِصْيَانِهِ فِي ذَلِكَ وَقِيلَ لِمَا يُبْتَلَى بِهِ مِنْ وُلُوغِهِ فِي غَفْلَةِ صَاحِبِهِ وَلَا يَغْسِلُهُ



[7] Sharhu Nawawwi vol 10, pp. 236

وَأَمَّا اقْتِنَاءُ الْكِلَابِ فَمَذْهَبُنَا أَنَّهُ يَحْرُمُ اقْتِنَاءُ الْكَلْبِ بِغَيْرِ حَاجَةٍ وَيَجُوزُ اقْتِنَاؤُهُ لِلصَّيْدِ وَلِلزَّرْعِ وَلِلْمَاشِيَةِ وَهَلْ يَجُوزُ لِحِفْظِ الدُّورِ وَالدُّرُوبِ وَنَحْوِهَا فِيهِ وَجْهَانِ أَحَدُهُمَا لَا يَجُوزُ لِظَوَاهِرِ الْأَحَادِيثِ فَإِنَّهَا مُصَرِّحَةٌ بِالنَّهْيِ إِلَّا لِزَرْعٍ أَوْ صَيْدٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ وَأَصَحُّهَا يَجُوزُ قِيَاسًا عَلَى الثَّلَاثَةِ عَمَلًا بِالْعِلَّةِ الْمَفْهُومَةِ مِنَ الْأَحَادِيثِ وَهِيَ الْحَاجَةُ


[8] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 5 p. 227

بَابُ الْمُتَفَرِّقَاتِ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا

مَطْلَبٌ فِي التَّدَاوِي بِالْمُحَرَّمِ

[فَرْعٌ] لَا يَنْبَغِي اتِّخَاذُ كَلْبٍ إلَّا لِخَوْفِ لِصٍّ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَمِثْلُهُ سَائِرُ السِّبَاعِ عَيْنِيٌّ وَجَازَ اقْتِنَاؤُهُ لِصَيْدٍ وَحِرَاسَةِ مَاشِيَةٍ وَزَرْعٍ إجْمَاعًا

(قَوْلُهُ لَا يَنْبَغِي اتِّخَاذُ كَلْبٍ إلَخْ) الْأَحْسَنُ عِبَارَةُ الْفَتْحِ، وَأَمَّا اقْتِنَاؤُهُ لِلصَّيْدِ وَحِرَاسَةِ الْمَاشِيَةِ وَالْبُيُوتِ وَالزَّرْعِ، فَيَجُوزُ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ لَكِنْ لَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَتَّخِذَهُ فِي دَارِهِ إلَّا إنْ خَافَ لُصُوصًا أَوْ أَعْدَاءً لِلْحَدِيثِ الصَّحِيحِ «مَنْ اقْتَنَى كَلْبًا إلَّا كَلْبَ صَيْدٍ أَوْ مَاشِيَةٍ نَقَصَ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قِيرَاطَانِ» ”