Is Forex Trading Permissible?

Is Forex Trading Permissible?

29th June 2020

 

 السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: What is the ruling on Forex trading in your view using the CFD method? Do you agree with those who prohibit it or not?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, Forex trading is one of the most prevalent forms of online trading platforms with an estimated trading worth $5 trillion. It is based on a risk model where the trader stakes his money to earn profit. The outcome however is uncertain as to whether he will gain profit or suffer a loss. We have reviewed many fatawas on this topic and most are inclined towards its impermissibility due to it violating many of Islamic precepts. A thorough research into Forex trading, we have also concluded that Forex trading is not permissible for the reasons that will be discussed below.[1]

To first begin with, Forex trading – or sometimes referred to as FX – is a global market wherein traders buy and sell foreign currencies. It is not similar to for instance a person exchanging currency when travelling abroad who then uses the local currency for spending. Contrarily, Foreign exchange are traded in the hope of obtaining profit from a movement in the exchange rate. The entire market is based on speculation as the outcome of return is unknown. All traders are required to go through a broker or a dealer – the middle-man – who facilitates the trade. The currencies one intends to trade are paired e.g. GBP/USD. The currency you ‘go long’ with is the base currency you expect to make profit on. This appears first in the sequence so in this case the GBP. The second currency i.e. USD is the counter. Currency rates change almost every second so the trader observes to wait for a favourable exchange rate to derive profit. For instance, if the exchange rate between £ and $ is £1 = $1.23 and someone exchanges £300 for dollars then he will receive $369. If at a later date the value drops to £1 to $1.20 then when exchanged to pounds (from $369) the trader receives £307.50, with £7.50 profit. But if the value let’s say increases £1=1.24 then (after exchanging from $369) to pounds then the trader receives £297.58 with £2.42 loss. As everything is done through a broker, a small sum us required by the trader to make a trade, known as the margin.

Traditionally trades have been carried out using contracts for difference (CFD’s) which are derivatives contracts where the difference between the opening and closing trades is the cash amount settled. No exchange of physical goods takes place and no real ownership of the asset is established. However, some of the modern platforms allow the ‘direct trading of currencies’ but even in this case, no actual ownership of the currencies take place. The ‘profits’ made from forex trades is based on very small movements in exchange rates as such in order to increase the ‘profit’ made. The trader is required to leverage his margin (the amount he deposited to open a trade). Leverage refers to the ratio of the margin to the credit loaned by the broker i.e. it is a borrowed amount so that the trader can increase his returns. So, let’s assume that if a trader deposited £100 and leveraged that by 10 to make an investment then the amount he would actually have invested would be £1,000 which he would be fully liable for if he lost all in his trade. In addition, the traders are required to pay a commission either through the spread (the difference between the buy price and the sell price) or based on a % of the profit (which in reality is interest).[2]

There are many Sharī῾ah violations which many contemporary fatawas point out that make Forex trading impermissible in Islām.

  1. Future Sales – Amongst the stipulated conditions for a valid transaction is that the exchange of price and commodity must not take place at a future date. In other words, it is mandatory for exchange to take place on the spot as indicated in the Prophetic narration when he said, hand for hand meaning spot transaction. In the Forex trading, the purpose is not to buy the currency but to accrue profit based on the different values favourable to the person. Future sales moreover result in deferral of debts exchanged on both sides that has been forbidden in a famous Hadeeth, prohibited is the sale of deferred debts with another differed debt (kāli bil Kāli). So no transaction takes into effect immediately.[3]
  2. Absence of ownership – The paramount of all is the that Forex infringes the fundamental rule of ownership of the commodity. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, A man is not permitted to sell that which he does not own.” [4] The trader does not own anything he sells nor takes actual delivery of the currency but silently observes to speculate the movement of the currencies of one ‘going along’ and the other ‘going short’. In the background, the currencies have been transacted multiple times before settling on the final buying and selling price.
  3. Profiting from Interest – Another key aspect warranting its prohibition is the interest accrued on the leverage amount arranged through the broker. As explained above that the broker loans the trader which he must then repay with interest. The profit earned on the borrowed amount is in reality interest because the profit in of itself is not earned in exchange of any commodity and moreover, the trader has no ownership of that.
  4. Gharrar and Qimar – This means that in the Sharī῾ah all transactions must be based on certainty and that money is not staked for an uncertain outcome.[5] In Forex trading, the outcome of profit or loss in unknown and contingent on chance. The movement of values are all speculated by the broker.

So to conclude our answer, given the aforementioned Sharī῾ah violations, Forex market using CFD is not permissible.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 

 

[1] Amjad Mohammad, (Sept 2017), Is Forex Trading Permissible According to the Sharī῾ah? Markazul Ifta, UK

Mufti Faraz etal, (August 2018), Retail Forex Trading: Views from the front Lines of Islamic Finance, Shariyah Review Bureau, UK

https://www.fxcm.com/au/forex/what-is-forex/ [accessed 24th June 2020]

https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=ritical+evaluation+of+the+compliance+of+online+Islamic+FOREX+trading+with+Islamic+principles+pdf&oq=ritical+evaluation+of+the+compliance+of+online+Islamic+FOREX+trading+with+Islamic+principles+pdf&aqs=chrome..69i57.1486j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 [accessed 24th June 2020]

https://darulfiqh.com/knowledgebase/is-retail-forex-trading-shariah-compliant/ [accessed 24th June 2020]

https://daruliftaa.com/business-trade/trading-in-currencies/ [accessed 24th June 2020]

Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (2007), Is Forex Currency Trading halal? https://www.albalagh.net/qa/Forex_currency_trading.shtml [accessed 24th June 2020]

 

[2] This detail was included by Maulana Abdul Mothin who has background experience of the Forex trading market.

[3] See Fiqh buyoo vol 1, p. 383-4, 483-4

Bayhaqi,

بابُ ما جاءَ فى النَّهىِ عن بَيعِ الدَّينِ بالدَّينِ

عن ابنِ عُمَرَ، أن النَّبِيَّ -صلي الله عليه وسلم- نَهَى عن بَيعِ الكالِى بالكالِى

[4] Ibn Majah no; 2187

بَابُ النَّهْيِ عَنْ بَيْعِ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَكَ، وَعَنْ رِبْحِ مَا لَمْ يُضْمَنْ

عَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ حِزَامٍ، قَالَ: قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ الرَّجُلُ يَسْأَلُنِي الْبَيْعَ وَلَيْسَ عِنْدِي، أَفَأَبِيعُهُ؟ قَالَ: «لَا تَبِعْ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَكَ»

 

Nasai, No: 4611

بَيْعُ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَ الْبَائِعِ

عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَيْسَ عَلَى رَجُلٍ بَيْعٌ فِيمَا لَا يَمْلِكُ»

 

[5] Fiqh buyoo vol 1, p. 339-40, 344-6

Purchasing a Shop for Investment before it is Constructed

Purchasing a Shop for Investment before it is Constructed

9th February 2020

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: There is a shopping mall which is halfway through being built. The foundation of the construction is built however it’s all concrete and steel work yet. This mall is going to have around 600 individual shops inside and each “shop” is being sold separately to anyone interested. My question is, am I allowed to buy one of these shops, (as a means of investment, where I will be able to receive monthly rent from) even though the building is not complete yet?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Amongst the conditions for a sale to be valid is the existence of the commodity during the exchange of the product and money. An item that is non-existent during the transaction is known as ma’doom and to trade in a ma’doom commodity renders the transaction as invalid.[1] Jurists, however, have exempted the sale of Istisna’ which means trading in such a commodity that one has requested to be manufactured or built with specific details according to their needs. This form of transaction has been validated by the consensus of jurists due to the customary practice of people so as not to burden them.[2]

With specific reference to your case, Islamically it will only fall under the sale of Istisna’ if it is built according to your specific requirements given that it is to fulfil your needs.[3] If this is not the case nor do you have any say in how the shop should be built but instead, the company builds it according to their standards then it falls under the sale of a non-existing item which suggests that it will not be permissible for you to purchase.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

Written and Researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh, Bāb Shurootus Salāh, vol 4 p. 505

[كِتَابُ الْبُيُوعِ]

وَشَرْطُ مَكَانِهِ وَاحِدٌ، وَهُوَ اتِّحَادُ الْمَجْلِسِ. وَشَرْطُ الْمَعْقُودِ عَلَيْهِ سِتَّةٌ: كَوْنُهُ مَوْجُودًا مَالًا مُتَقَوِّمًا مَمْلُوكًا فِي نَفْسِهِ، وَكَوْنُ الْمِلْكِ لِلْبَائِعِ فِيمَا يَبِيعُهُ لِنَفْسِهِ، وَكَوْنُهُ مَقْدُورَ التَّسْلِيمِ فَلَمْ يَنْعَقِدْ بَيْعُ الْمَعْدُومِ وَمَا لَهُ خَطَرُ الْعَدَمِ كَالْحَمْلِ وَاللَّبَنِ فِي الضَّرْعِ وَالثَّمَرِ قَبْلَ ظُهُورِهِ وَهَذَا الْعَبْدُ فَإِذَا هُوَ جَارِيَةٌ،

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Buyoo, vol 6 p. 542

[فَصْلٌ فِي الشَّرْط الَّذِي يَرْجِعُ إلَى الْمَعْقُودِ عَلَيْهِ]

وَأَمَّا الَّذِي يَرْجِعُ إلَى الْمَعْقُودِ عَلَيْهِ فَأَنْوَاعٌ (مِنْهَا) : أَنْ يَكُونَ مَوْجُودًا فَلَا يَنْعَقِدُ بَيْعُ الْمَعْدُومِ، وَمَالَهُ خَطَرُ الْعَدَمِ كَبَيْعِ نِتَاجِ النِّتَاجِ بِأَنْ قَالَ: بِعْتُ وَلَدَ وَلَدِ هَذِهِ النَّاقَةِ وَكَذَا بَيْعُ الْحَمْلِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ إنْ بَاعَ الْوَلَدَ فَهُوَ بَيْعُ الْمَعْدُومِ، وَإِنْ بَاعَ الْحَمْلَ فَلَهُ خَطَرُ الْمَعْدُومِ، وَكَذَا بَيْعُ اللَّبَنِ فِي الضَّرْعِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَهُ خَطَرٌ لِاحْتِمَالِ انْتِفَاخِ الضَّرْعِ

 

[2] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Buyoo, vol 7 p. 135

[فَصْلٌ فِي الشَّرْط الَّذِي يَرْجِعُ إلَى الْمُسْلَمِ]

الْكَلَامُ فِي الِاسْتِصْنَاعِ فِي مَوَاضِعَ: فِي بَيَانِ جَوَازِهِ أَنَّهُ جَائِزٌ أَمْ لَا؟ وَفِي بَيَانِ شَرَائِطِ جَوَازِهِ، وَفِي بَيَانِ كَيْفِيَّةِ جَوَازِهِ، وَفِي بَيَانِ حُكْمِهِ. (أَمَّا) الْأَوَّلُ: فَالْقِيَاسُ يَأْبَى جَوَازَ الِاسْتِصْنَاعِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ بَيْعُ الْمَعْدُومِ كَالسَّلَمِ بَلْ هُوَ أَبْعَدُ جَوَازًا مِنْ السَّلَمِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُسْلَمَ فِيهِ تَحْتَمِلُهُ الذِّمَّةُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ دَيْنٌ حَقِيقَةً، وَالْمُسْتَصْنَعُ عَيْنٌ تُوجَدُ فِي الثَّانِي، وَالْأَعْيَانُ لَا تَحْتَمِلُهَا الذِّمَّةُ فَكَانَ جَوَازُ هَذَا الْعَقْدِ أَبْعَدَ عَنْ الْقِيَاسِ عَنْ السَّلَمِ وَفِي الِاسْتِحْسَانِ جَازَ؛ لِأَنَّ النَّاسَ تَعَامَلُوهُ فِي سَائِرِ الْأَعْصَارِ مِنْ غَيْرِ نَكِيرٍ فَكَانَ إجْمَاعًا مِنْهُمْ عَلَى الْجَوَازِ فَيُتْرَكُ الْقِيَاسُ، ثُمَّ هُوَ بَيْعٌ عِنْدَ عَامَّةِ مَشَايِخِنَا، وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ: هُوَ عِدَّةٌ وَلَيْسَ بِسَدِيدٍ؛ لِأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا ذَكَرَ الْقِيَاسَ وَالِاسْتِحْسَانَ فِي جَوَازِهِ، وَذِكْرُ الْقِيَاسِ وَالِاسْتِحْسَانِ لَا يَلِيقُ بِالْعِدَّاتِ، وَكَذَا ثَبَتَ خِيَارُ الرُّؤْيَةِ لِلْمُسْتَصْنِعِ وَإِنَّهُ مِنْ خَصَائِصِ الْبُيُوعِ، وَكَذَا مِنْ شَرْطِ جَوَازِهِ أَنْ يَكُونَ فِيمَا لِلنَّاسِ فِيهِ تَعَامُلٌ، وَالْعِدَّاتُ لَا يَتَقَيَّدُ جَوَازُهَا بِهَذِهِ الشَّرَائِطِ فَدَلَّ أَنَّ جَوَازَهُ جَوَازُ الْبِيَاعَاتِ لَا جَوَازُ الْعِدَّاتِ، وَاَللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ.

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Istisna’, vol 6 p. 85

وَأَمَّا جَوَازُهُ، فَالْقِيَاسُ: أَنْ لَا يَجُوزَ؛ لِأَنَّهُ بَيْعُ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَ الْإِنْسَانِ، لَا عَلَى وَجْهِ السَّلَمِ، وَقَدْ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – عَنْ بَيْعِ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَ الْإِنْسَانِ، وَرَخَّصَ فِي السَّلَمِ، وَيَجُوزُ اسْتِحْسَانًا؛ لِإِجْمَاعِ النَّاسِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ؛ لِأَنَّهُمْ يَعْمَلُونَ ذَلِكَ فِي سَائِرِ الْأَعْصَارِ مِنْ غَيْرِ نُكْرٍ، وَقَدْ قَالَ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ -: «لَا تَجْتَمِعُ أُمَّتِي عَلَى ضَلَالَةٍ» وَقَالَ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ -: «مَا رَآهُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ حَسَنًا؛ فَهُوَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ حَسَنٌ، وَمَا رَآهُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ قَبِيحًا؛ فَهُوَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ قَبِيحٌ» وَالْقِيَاسُ يُتْرَكُ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ،

 

[3] See Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani, Fiqhul Buyoo vol 1 p. 604-5

Renting a Hall for Wedding Functions

Renting a Hall for Wedding Functions

22nd February 2018

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I would like to know whether it is permissible to rent out a hall or not for wedding functions. Many times weddings are mixed and other unlawful activities take place such as music, dancing etc. You will be aware of the manner in which women dress at weddings. Without Hijab and tight immodest clothing. What is the standard ruling in the Hanafi Madhab of renting out a hall for such purpose?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The case in question reflects the principle of assisting upon sin. Although the scholars unanimously agree that assisting upon sin is prohibited due to the Qur’anic command, ..and do not assist one another upon sin and transgression”, they nevertheless differ in its application particularly the Hanafi jurists. Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah views that the crime of assisting upon sin is ruled only if the object; sold or leased, is evil (munkar) in itself and used for a single purpose only, committing evil e.g. alcohol. His two students; Imām Abū Yusuf rahimahullah and Imām Muhammad rahimahullah (also known as Sahibain) contrarily view that the object to be evil in itself is not conditional as in even a Halāl object sold or rented out knowing that the receiver will utilise it for evil purpose is also a crime of assisting upon a sin.

So if someone rents out a hall for a wedding function knowing that unlawful activities will take place then according to the Sahibain it is not permissible whilst Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah does not deem it as unlawful.

The Sahibain adduce the above Quranic verse to be an unqualified command that prohibits all types of mediums that constitute assisting upon sin. Renting out a place knowing that people will indulge in sin is by way of facilitating the act of sin otherwise the sin would not have been possible had he not rented it out in the first place. Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah on the other hand interprets the prohibition in reference to those acts that are innately a sin. In principle, the landlord’s intention was to charge remuneration of the usufruct (manf’ah) of the place and what they do is at their own discretion. As long as the necessary conditions of Ijarah (leasing) being fulfilled, he is entitled to rent. His connection with the perpetrator’s discretionary action for sinful purpose is severed, so he bears no burden of sin of someone else’s actions.[1] For the purpose of clarity, according to Imām Sāhib rahimahullah, the rented property is utilised for both lawful and unlawful purpose by the tenant’s own action. It thus cannot be deemed as prohibited nor assistance upon sin. They utilising it for sinful purpose is, according to Imām Sāhib rahimahullah, their own discretionary choice, which the landlord has no control over. His two students, on the other hand, take the knowledge of sin into consideration so as not to open the doors of sin.

Based on the above differences, in your particular case, you may adopt Imām Abū Haneefah’s rahimahullah opinion of permissibility but ethically, from taqwa perspective, you should adopt the position of his two students by avoiding it altogether especially if there are ways of avoiding it. Should you follow Imām Sāhib’s rahimahullah opinion then the least you must do is advise them against the sinful acts so at least you have fulfilled your moral responsibility of enjoining good and forbidding evil.[2]

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Badrudeed al-Ayni, Binayah Sharhul Hidāya Kitāb al-Karahiyyah, fasl fil bay’i, vol 12p.220-1 – Shamila

أجر بيتا ليتخذ فيه بيت نار]

(قال) ش: أي في ” الجامع الصغير “: م: (ومن أجر بيتا ليتخذ فيه بيت نار) ش: للمجوس م: (أو كنيسة) ش: للنصارى م: (أو بيعة) ش: لليهود م: (أو يباع فيه الخمر) ش: لأهل الذمة أو الفسقة من المسلمين م: (بالسواد) ش: يتعلق بالجميع تقديره: من أجر بيتا في السواد ليتخذ فيه بيت نار وكذلك البواقي، وإنما قيد بالسواد لأن أهل الذمة يمنعون عن إحداث البيع، والكنائس وبيع الخمر في الأمصار ولا يمنعون عن ذلك في السواد لأن عامة شعائر الإسلام من الجمع والجماعات والأعياد وإقامة الحدود وغير ذلك يختص بالأمصار، ففي هذه الأشياء استحقاق بالمسلمين بخلاف السواد. وقالوا أيضا في سواد الكوفة، لأن الغالب فيها أهل الذمة والروافض، أما في سوادنا فيمتنعون عن إحداث ذلك، لأن الغلبة في سوادنا لأهل الإسلام فيمنعون عن ذلك في السواد والأمصار جميعا. م: (فلا بأس به) ش: أي بما ذكر من الأشياء م: (وهذا عند أبي حنيفة – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -) ش: أي هذا الذي ذكرناه من الجواز عند أبي حنيفة. (وقالا: لا ينبغي أن يكريه لشيء من ذلك) ش: أي يؤجره، يقال: أكراني داره أو دابته، أي أجرنيها، والمعنى: أنه لا يجوز أن يكري بيته بشيء من الذي ذكرناه، وبه قالت الثلاثة – رَحِمَهُمُ اللَّهُ – م: (لأنه إعانة على المعصية) ش: والمعين على المعصية عاص. م: (وله) ش: أي ولأبي حنيفة – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -: م: (أن الإجارة ترد على منفعة البيت ولهذا تجب الأجرة بمجرد التسليم، ولا معصية فيه) ش: أي في إجارة البيت م: (وإنما المعصية بفعل المستأجر وهو مختار فيه) ش: أي المستأجر مختار في فعل المعصية يعني أن ذلك باختياره، م: (فقطع نسبته عنه) ش: أي قطع نسبة المعصية عن العقد.

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Karahiyyah, fasl fil bay’i, vol 8 p. 371

(وَإِجَارَةُ بَيْتٍ لِيُتَّخَذَ بَيْتَ نَارٍ أَوْ بِيعَةً أَوْ كَنِيسَةً أَوْ يُبَاعَ فِيهِ خَمْرٌ بِالسَّوَادِ) يَعْنِي جَازَ إجَارَةُ الْبَيْتِ لِكَافِرٍ لِيُتَّخَذُ مَعْبَدًا أَوْ بَيْتَ نَارٍ لِلْمَجُوسِ أَوْ يُبَاعَ فِيهِ خَمْرٌ فِي السَّوَادِ وَهَذَا قَوْلُ الْإِمَامِ وَقَالَا: يُكْرَهُ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ} [المائدة: 2] وَلَهُ أَنَّ الْإِجَارَةَ عَلَى مَنْفَعَةِ الْبَيْتِ وَلِهَذَا تَجِبُ الْأُجْرَةُ بِمُجَرَّدِ التَّسْلِيمِ وَلَا مَعْصِيَةَ فِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا الْمَعْصِيَةُ بِفِعْلِ الْمُسْتَأْجِرِ وَهُوَ مُخْتَارٌ فِيهِ فَقَطَعَ نِسْبَةَ ذَلِكَ إلَى الْمُؤَجِّرِ وَصَارَ كَبَيْعِ الْجَارِيَةِ لِمَنْ لَا يَسْتَبْرِئُهَا أَوْ يَأْتِيهَا فِي دُبُرِهَا أَوْ بَيْعِ الْغُلَامِ مِمَّنْ يَلُوطُ بِهِ وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَوْ أَجَّرَهُ لِلسُّكْنَى جَازَ وَلَا بُدَّ فِيهِ مِنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَإِنَّمَا قَيَّدَهُ بِالسَّوَادِ؛ لِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُمَكَّنُونَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فِي الْأَمْصَارِ وَلَا يُمَكَّنُونَ مِنْ إظْهَارِ بَيْعِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ فِي الْأَمْصَارِ لِظُهُورِ شَعَائِرِ الْإِسْلَامِ فَلَا يُعَارَضُ بِظُهُورِ شَعَائِرِ الْكُفْرِ قَالُوا فِي هَذَا سَوَادُ الْكُوفَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ غَالِبَ أَهْلِهَا أَهْلُ ذِمَّةٍ، وَأَمَّا فِي غَيْرِهَا فِيهَا شَعَائِرُ الْإِسْلَامِ ظَاهِرَةٌ فَلَا يُمَكَّنُونَ فِيهَا فِي الْأَصَحِّ

[2] Sarakhsi, al-Mabsoot, Kitāb al-Ijarah, Bāb Ij āratul Duwar wal Buyoot, vol 15 p. 151

وَلَوْ كَانَ الْمُسْتَأْجِرُ مُسْلِمًا فَظَهَرَ مِنْهُ فِسْقٌ فِي الدَّارِ أَوْ دَعَارَةٌ أَوْ كَانَ يَجْمَعُ فِيهَا عَلَى الشُّرْبِ مَنَعَهُ رَبُّ الدَّارِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ لَا لِمِلْكِهِ الدَّارَ بَلْ عَلَى سَبِيلِ النَّهْيِ عَنْ الْمُنْكَرِ فَإِنَّهُ فَرْضٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ صَاحِبُ الدَّارِ وَغَيْرُهُ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ، وَلَيْسَ لِرَبِّ الدَّارِ أَنْ يُخْرِجَهُ مِنْ الدَّارِ مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ مُسْلِمًا كَانَ أَوْ ذِمِّيًّا؛ لِأَنَّ عَقْدَ الْإِجَارَةِ لَازِمٌ لَا يُفْسَخُ إلَّا بِعُذْرٍ وَالْعُذْرُ ضَرَرٌ يَزُولُ بِفَسْخِ الْإِجَارَةِ وَهَذَا لَيْسَ مِنْ تِلْكَ الْجُمْلَةِ فَلَا تُفْسَخُ الْإِجَارَةُ لِأَجْلِهِ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ كَانَ بَاعَهُ الدَّارَ كَانَ يَفْسَخُ الْبَيْعَ؛ لِمَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهُ لَا سَبِيلَ لَهُ إلَى ذَلِكَ، فَكَذَلِكَ الْإِجَارَةُ،

 

Purchasing a Restaurant from Unlawful Money

Purchasing a Restaurant from Unlawful Money

17th July 2017

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: A Muslim individual used to deal with drugs many years ago. He has now repented and used the drugs money to open an alcohol free restaurant. My question is, is the income generated from the restaurant be lawful even if it was purchased from unlawful income?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to the above scenario, there are two issues here; the first being the ruling of selling drugs and the second, utilising the money received from selling drugs. A transaction where there is a direct connection with sin renders it an impermissible transaction.[1] Selling drug powder for intoxication purpose is not permissible and as a result, the income received will be unlawful. However, transacting in drugs is not the same as selling alcohol due to their dissimilarity in nature as in, alcohol is najis (impure) in itself whereas drugs powder is pure. The prohibition of drugs lies only in consuming it for unlawful purposes. Because of their subtle differences, the implications of both rulings are different so selling alcohol renders the transaction as Bātil (invalid) giving no ownership of the wealth whereas drugs is Makrooh Tahreemi allowing ownership of the wealth albeit through sinful means.[2] What he should have done was to give it away into charity without the intention of reward. Nevertheless, when ownership over that income is established and he decides to purchase a building to open up an alcohol-free restaurant, then the income generated from the restaurant will be considered Halāl. The former transaction (trading in drugs) has no legal effect on the subsequent transaction of serving food.[3]

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Ibn Ābideen Shāmi Kitāb al-Hadhr wal Ibāhat, 391/6 – shamila

وَقَدَّمْنَا ثَمَّةَ مَعْزِيًّا لِلنَّهْرِ أَنَّ مَا قَامَتْ الْمَعْصِيَةُ بِعَيْنِهِ يُكْرَهُ بَيْعُهُ تَحْرِيمًا وَإِلَّا فَتَنْزِيهًا. فَلْيُحْفَظْ تَوْفِيقًا.

[2] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Raiq wa Hashiyah, Kitāb al-Buyoo, p.429-30, vol 5

وَالْمَالِيَّةُ إنَّمَا ثَبَتَ بِتَمَوُّلِ النَّاسِ كَافَّةً أَوْ بِتَقَوُّمِ الْبَعْضِ وَالتَّقَوُّمُ يَثْبُتُ بِهَا وَبِإِبَاحَةِ الِانْتِفَاعِ لَهُ شَرْعًا فَمَا يَكُونُ مُبَاحَ الِانْتِفَاعِ بِدُونِ تَمَوُّلِ النَّاسِ لَا يَكُونُ مَالًا كَحَبَّةِ حِنْطَةٍ وَمَا يَكُونُ مَالًا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يَكُونُ مُبَاحَ الِانْتِفَاعِ لَا يَكُونُ مُتَقَوِّمًا كَالْخَمْرِ، وَإِذَا عُدِمَ الْأَمْرُ إنْ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ وَاحِدٌ مِنْهُمَا كَالدَّمِ. اهـ.وَصَرَّحَ فِي الْمُحِيطِ بِأَنَّ الْخَمْرَ لَيْسَ بِمَالٍ وَأَنَّ الْعَقْدَ عَلَيْهِ لَمْ يَنْعَقِدْ بِخِلَافِ مَا لَوْ بَاعَ شَيْئًا بِخَمْرٍ، فَإِنَّهُ يَنْعَقِدُ فِي ذَلِكَ الشَّيْءِ بِالْقِيمَةِ وَسَيَأْتِي بَيَانُهُ إنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ

(قَوْلُهُ لَا يَكُونُ مُتَقَوِّمًا كَالْخَمْرِ) قَالَ الرَّمْلِيُّ رُبَّمَا يُفِيدُ عَدَمَ جَوَازِ بَيْعِ الْحَشِيشَةِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مَالًا لَكِنْ لَا يُبَاحُ فِي الشَّرْعِ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهَا وَبِهِ أَفْتَى مَوْلَانَا صَاحِبُ الْبَحْرِ اهـ.غَزِّيٌّ وَأَقُولُ: لَا نُسَلِّمُ عَدَمَ جَوَازِ الِانْتِفَاعِ بِهَا لِغَيْرِ الْأَكْلِ لِكَوْنِهَا طَاهِرَةً بِخِلَافِ الْخَمْرِ لِكَوْنِهَا نَجِسَةً فَتَأَمَّلْ اهـ.

 

Kasāni, Badai Sanai, Fasl Fi Ma Yarji’u il Ma’qood Alayhi, p. 560 vol 6

وَيَجُوزُ بَيْعُ مَا سِوَى الْخَمْرِ مِنْ الْأَشْرِبَةِ الْمُحَرَّمَةِ كَالسُّكَّرِ، وَنَقِيعِ الزَّبِيبِ، وَالْمُنَصَّفِ، وَنَحْوِهَا عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ، وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ، وَمُحَمَّدٍ: لَا يَجُوزُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ إذَا حَرُمَ شُرْبُهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ مَالًا فَلَا تَكُونُ مَحَلًّا لِلْبَيْعِ كَالْخَمْرِ، وَلِأَنَّ مَا حَرُمَ شُرْبُهُ لَا يَجُوزُ بَيْعُهُ لِمَا رُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْيَهُودَ حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ الشُّحُومُ فَجَمَّلُوهَا، وَبَاعُوهَا، وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ إذَا حَرَّمَ شَيْئًا حَرَّمَ بَيْعَهُ، وَأَكْلَ ثَمَنِهِ» وَلِأَبِي حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – أَنَّ حُرْمَةَ هَذِهِ الْأَشْرِبَةِ مَا ثَبَتَتْ بِدَلِيلٍ مُتَيَقَّنٍ مَقْطُوعٍ بِهِ لِكَوْنِهَا مَحَلَّ الِاجْتِهَادِ وَالْمَالِيَّةُ قَبْلَ حُدُوثِ الشِّدَّةِ كَانَتْ ثَابِتَةً بِيَقِينٍ فَلَا تَبْطُلُ بِحُرْمَةٍ ثَابِتَةٍ بِالِاجْتِهَادِ فَبَقِيَتْ أَمْوَالًا، وَبِهِ تَبَيَّنَ أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ مِنْ الْحَدِيثِ مُحَرَّمٌ، ثَبَتَتْ حُرْمَتُهُ بِدَلِيلٍ مَقْطُوعٍ بِهِ، وَلَمْ يُوجَدْ هَهُنَا بِخِلَافِ الْخَمْرِ؛ لِأَنَّ حُرْمَتَهَا ثَبَتَتْ بِدَلِيلٍ مَقْطُوعٍ بِهِ فَبَطَلَتْ مَالِيَّتُهَا، وَاَللَّهُ – سُبْحَانَهُ، وَتَعَالَى – أَعْلَمُ

Ibn Ābideen Shāmi Kitāb al-Hadhr wal Ibāhat 454/6 – Shamila

(وَصَحَّ بَيْعُ غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ) مِمَّا مَرَّ، وَمُفَادُهُ صِحَّةُ بَيْعِ الْحَشِيشَةِ وَالْأَفْيُونِ.قُلْت: وَقَدْ سُئِلَ ابْنُ نُجَيْمٍ عَنْ بَيْعِ الْحَشِيشَةِ هَلْ يَجُوزُ؟ فَكَتَبَ لَا يَجُوزُ، فَيُحْمَلُ عَلَى أَنَّ مُرَادَهُ بِعَدَمِ الْجَوَازِ عَدَمُ الْحِلِّ. قَالَ الْمُصَنِّفُ

(قَوْلُهُ وَصَحَّ بَيْعُ غَيْرِ الْخَمْرِ) أَيْ عِنْدَهُ خِلَافًا لَهُمَا فِي الْبَيْعِ وَالضَّمَانِ، لَكِنَّ الْفَتْوَى عَلَى قَوْلِهِ فِي الْبَيْعِ، وَعَلَى قَوْلِهِمَا فِي الضَّمَانِ إنْ قَصَدَ الْمُتْلِفُ الْحِسْبَةَ وَذَلِكَ يُعْرَفُ بِالْقَرَائِنِ، وَإِلَّا فَعَلَى قَوْلِهِ كَمَا فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة وَغَيْرِهَا.ثُمَّ إنَّ الْبَيْعَ وَإِنْ صَحَّ لَكِنَّهُ يُكْرَهُ كَمَا فِي الْغَايَةِ وَكَانَ يَنْبَغِي لِلْمُصَنِّفِ ذِكْرُ ذَلِكَ قُبَيْلَ الْأَشْرِبَةِ الْمُبَاحَةِ، فَيَقُولُ بَعْدَ قَوْلِهِ وَلَا يَكْفُرُ مُسْتَحِلُّهَا: وَصَحَّ بَيْعُهَا إلَخْ كَمَا فَعَلَهُ فِي الْهِدَايَةِ وَغَيْرِهَا، لِأَنَّ الْخِلَافَ فِيهَا لَا فِي الْمُبَاحَةِ أَيْضًا إلَّا عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ فِيمَا يَظْهَرُ مِمَّا يَأْتِي مِنْ قَوْلِهِ بِحُرْمَةِ كُلِّ الْأَشْرِبَةِ وَنَجَاسَتِهَا تَأَمَّلْ.

 

Ibn Ābideen Shāmi Kitāb al-Buyoo. Bāb Bai al-Fāsid, p.233 vol 7

(قَوْلُهُ الْمُرَادُ بِالْفَاسِدِ الْمَمْنُوعُ إلَخْ) قَدْ عَلِمْت أَنَّ الْفَاسِدَ مُبَايِنٌ لِلْبَاطِلِ؛؛ لِأَنَّ مَا كَانَ مَشْرُوعًا بِأَصْلِهِ فَقَطْ يُبَايِنُ مَا لَيْسَ بِمَشْرُوعٍ أَصْلًا. وَأَيْضًا حُكْمُ الْفَاسِدِ أَنَّهُ يُفِيدُ الْمِلْكَ بِالْقَبْضِ وَالْبَاطِلُ لَا يُفِيدُهُ أَصْلًا

 

[3] Ibn Ābideen Shāmi Kitāb al-Buyoo. Bāb Bai al-Fāsid, p.298 vol 7

(فَيَأْخُذُ) الْمُشْتَرِي (دَرَاهِمَ الثَّمَنِ بِعَيْنِهَا لَوْ قَائِمَةً، وَمِثْلَهَا لَوْ هَالِكَةً) بِنَاءً عَلَى تَعَيُّنِ الدَّرَاهِمِ فِي الْبَيْعِ الْفَاسِدِ وَهُوَ الْأَصَحُّ (وَ) إنَّمَا (طَابَ لِلْبَائِعِ مَا رَبِحَ) فِي الثَّمَنِ لَا عَلَى الرِّوَايَةِ الصَّحِيحَةِ الْمُقَابِلَةِ لِلْأَصَحِّ، بَلْ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ أَيْضًا لِأَنَّ الثَّمَنَ فِي الْعَقْدِ الثَّانِي غَيْرُ مُتَعَيِّنٌ، وَلَا يَضُرُّ تَعْيِينُهُ فِي الْأَوَّلِ كَمَا أَفَادَهُ سَعْدِيٌّ (لَا) يَطِيبُ (لِلْمُشْتَرِي) مَا رَبِحَ فِي بَيْعٍ يَتَعَيَّنُ بِالتَّعْيِينِ بِأَنْ بَاعَهُ بِأَزْيَدَ لِتَعَلُّقِ الْعَقْدِ بِعَيْنِهِ فَتَمَكَّنَ الْخُبْثُ فِي الرِّبْحِ فَيَتَصَدَّقُ بِهِ

(قَوْلُ الْمُصَنِّفِ وَطَابَ لِلْبَائِعِ مَا رَبِحَ لَا لِلْمُشْتَرِي) صُورَةُ الْمَسْأَلَةِ مَا ذَكَرَهُ مُحَمَّدٌ فِي الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ: اشْتَرَى مِنْ رَجُلٍ جَارِيَةً بَيْعًا فَاسِدًا بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ وَتَقَابَضَا وَرَبِحَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا فِيمَا قَبَضَ يَتَصَدَّقُ الَّذِي قَبَضَ الْجَارِيَةَ بِالرِّبْحِ وَيَطِيبُ الرِّبْحُ لِلَّذِي قَبَضَ الدَّرَاهِمَ اهـ. وَقَوْلُ الشَّارِحِ وَإِنَّمَا طَابَ إلَخْ أَوْرَدَهُ فِي صُورَةِ جَوَابٍ عَمَّا اسْتَشْكَلَهُ صَدْرُ الشَّرِيعَةِ وَصَاحِبُ الْعِنَايَةِ وَالْفَتْحِ وَالدُّرَرِ وَالْبَحْرِ وَالْمِنَحِ وَغَيْرُهُمْ، مِنْ أَنَّ الْمَذْكُورَ فِي الْمُتُونِ مِنْ أَنَّ الرِّبْحَ يَطِيبُ لِلْبَائِعِ فِي الثَّمَنِ النَّقْدِ هُوَ الْمُوَافِقُ لِلرِّوَايَةِ الْمَنْصُوصَةِ فِي الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ، وَهُوَ صَرِيحٌ فِي أَنَّ الدَّرَاهِمَ لَا تَتَعَيَّنُ فِي الْبَيْعِ الْفَاسِدِ فَيُنَاقِضُ قَوْلَهُمْ إنَّ تَعَيُّنَهَا فِيهِ هُوَ الْأَصَحُّ فَإِنَّهُ يَقْتَضِي أَنَّ الْأَصَحَّ أَنَّهُ لَا يَطِيبُ الرِّبْحُ لِلْبَائِعِ فِيمَا قَبَضَ.

وَقَدْ أَجَابَ الْعَلَّامَةُ سَعْدِي جَلَبِي فِي حَاشِيَةِ الْعِنَايَةِ بِمَا أَشَارَ إلَيْهِ الشَّارِحُ وَهُوَ أَنَّهُ يَطِيبُ عَلَى كُلٍّ مِنْ الْقَوْلَيْنِ؛ لِأَنَّ عَدَمَ التَّعْيِينِ إنَّمَا هُوَ فِي الْعَقْدِ الثَّانِي الصَّحِيحِ لَا فِي الْعَقْدِ الْأَوَّلِ الْفَاسِدِ اهـ. وَبَيَانُهُ أَنَّهُ إذَا بَاعَ فَاسِدًا وَقَبَضَ دَرَاهِمَ الثَّمَنِ ثُمَّ فَسَخَ الْعَقْدَ يَجِبُ رَدُّ تِلْكَ الدَّرَاهِمِ بِعَيْنِهَا عَلَى الْمُشْتَرِي؛ لِأَنَّ الْأَصَحَّ تَعَيُّنُهَا فِي الْبَيْعِ الْفَاسِدِ؛ فَلَوْ اشْتَرَى بِهَا عَبْدًا مَثَلًا شِرَاءً صَحِيحًا طَابَ لَهُ مَا رَبِحَ؛ لِأَنَّهَا لَا تَتَعَيَّنُ فِي هَذَا الْعَقْدِ الثَّانِي لِكَوْنِهِ عَقْدًا صَحِيحًا، حَتَّى لَوْ أَشَارَ إلَيْهَا وَقْتَ الْعَقْدِ لَهُ دَفْعُ غَيْرِهَا فَعَدَمُ تَعَيُّنِهَا فِي هَذَا الْعَقْدِ الصَّحِيحِ لَا يُنَافِي كَوْنَ الْأَصَحِّ تَعَيُّنَهَا فِي الْعَقْدِ الْفَاسِدِ. وَقَدْ أَجَابَ الْعَلَّامَةُ الْخَيْرُ الرَّمْلِيُّ بِمِثْلِ مَا أَجَابَ الْعَلَّامَةُ سَعْدِي قَبْلَ اطِّلَاعِهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَالَ إنِّي فِي عَجَبٍ عَجِيبٍ مِنْ فَهْمِ هَؤُلَاءِ الْأَجِلَّاءِ التَّنَاقُضَ مِنْ مِثْلِ هَذَا مَعَ ظُهُورِهِ.

 

Purchasing Stocks from Armaco Company

Purchasing Stocks from Armaco Company

28th April 2017

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Will it be permissible for me to buy stocks/shares of the company Armaco?

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Amarco is a Saudi state-owned oil company based in Dhahran. It deals with crude oil, petroleum and natural gas with an estimated value of one trillion dollars of investment. Based on the information provided, they deal mainly with natural and energy resources.[1] From the Shari’ee point of view, natural and energy resources are permissible for trade and regarded as intrinsic value (mutaqawwam) for buying and selling.

Contemporary scholars such as Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani view the permissibility of buying and selling shares in a company. He argues that the status of a company falls somewhat similar to Musharakat (partnership)[2] in the sense that he purchases a certain percentage of ownership in the assets of the company. Buying and selling shares is permissible with the following conditions,

  1. The trade must be in the form of fixed assets rather than currency. In other words, the exchange of items must be cash and assets. An exchange between the same currencies is permissible with the same quantity on both sides. Either side being more than the other becomes interest (riba) which will not be permissible.
  2. Being a shareholder does not imply merely owing certain rights in a company but assets of the company. Trading in bundles of rights would not be permissible because of the absence of assets.
  3. The company should not deal with interest. Should they do so then he must voice his disapproval of it.[3]
  4. If the shareholder receives interest unintentionally then he must dispose of it by giving it away to the poor and needy or community service project without the intention of reward.[4]

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] http://www.saudiaramco.com/en/home.html

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Aramco

[2] It must be noted that its similarity is subtle otherwise there are some distinctions between Musharakat and company such as individual ownership in partnership whereas the company is regulated by the state, a partner can choose to exit the business and take his stock whereas a shareholder in a company can only sell his share in order to exit.

[3] It must be remembered that the company directors represent (wakeel) all the shareholders from a Shar’ee perspective,

[4] Mufti Taqi Usmani – Islām aur Jadeed Ma’eeshat wa Tijarat

  • Buying and selling Shares, Fiqhi Maqalāt vol1, p.141

Maulāna Khalid Saifullah Rahmani – buying and selling Shares, Jadeed Fiqhi Mabahith, p. 249, vol 4

PCP Car Finance and its Islamic Ruling

PCP Car Finance and its Islamic Ruling

6th March 2017

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: What is the status of a PCP car finance plan in Islāmically?  Can we purchase a car using such financial avenues?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

The Personal Contract Purchase (PCP) agreement in principle is similar to Hire purchase plan (HP), a financial scheme of purchasing a car by paying off the depreciated value in monthly instalments after the initial deposit. The deposit can vary between 10%-20% of the total price of the car, depending on which dealer the contract is signed with. This deposit is paid either by cash in person or from the extra value from the previous car finance. So for instance, if the value of the previous car at the end of the deal is more than the monthly payment then the additional money can be used as a deposit for the next car.

After the initial deposit, the dealer predicts the value of the car by taking into consideration mainly the overall mileage the customer will cover towards the end of the contract and also the agreed term. The dealer then fixes an amount accordingly, payable to the finance company by the purchaser. This is known as the Balloon payment or Guaranteed Minimum Future Value [GMFV] – prediction of the minimum future value of the car towards the end of the agreement based on the overall mileage covered throughout the duration of the contract. The higher the mileage, the lower the value. For instance, a car with 5000 mileage on the clock values more than the one with 10,000 mileage on the clock. The payment term averages between 2-4 years.

Once the value is predicted, a large sum is set aside towards the end of the term whilst the remainder is split over the specific term in monthly instalments. The logical intent behind this is to allow the customer to make a monthly payment at an affordable rate. To illustrate this with an example, let’s say the original price of a car is £12,000. The customer pays an initial deposit of £2000 and the company calculates the predicted minimum value to be £8000 by the end of a three years contract. This amount is divided over 36 months (with added interest). A large amount namely £2000 is set aside towards the end of the term. Towards the end of the contract, the customer has one of three options namely, walk away and hand back the keys, hence no need to pay the remainder, to buy out the car by paying the remainder £2000 or part-exchanging it with another car if the car was returned less than the predicted mileage. [1]

Based on the information obtained from various sources and speaking to financial dealers, in most cases there is an additional charge of APR interest with the monthly payment. The charge is variable from 4%-12% depending on each dealers’ charge. In other words, the customer is paying not only for the minimum value of the car but also the interest. It, therefore, constitutes similar to a loan with added interest which is not permitted in Islām and furthermore, a unilateral benefit for the dealers, through the additional charge of interest rendering the transaction as void.[2]

Therefore, the PCP agreement is a form of la oan which the customer agrees to pay over a certain period. Interest is added to this monthly payment, rendering it impermissible from an Islamic perspective. The same ruling applies to any car finance that include interest charges during monthly instalments.

[Allãh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/car-finance/personal-contract-purchase#what

http://thehalalfoundation.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Halal_Car_Finance.pdf

http://www.mysvo.co.uk/

[2] Fatāwa Hindiyyah p. 143 vol 3

الْبَابُ الْعَاشِرُ فِي الشُّرُوطِ الَّتِي تُفْسِدُ الْبَيْعَ وَاَلَّتِي لَا تُفْسِدُ

وَإِنْ كَانَ الشَّرْطُ شَرْطًا لَمْ يُعْرَفْ وُرُودُ الشَّرْعِ بِجَوَازِهِ فِي صُورَتِهِ وَهُوَ لَيْسَ بِمُتَعَارَفٍ إنْ كَانَ لِأَحَدِ الْمُتَعَاقِدَيْنِ فِيهِ مَنْفَعَةٌ أَوْ كَانَ لِلْمَعْقُودِ عَلَيْهِ مَنْفَعَةٌ وَالْمَعْقُودُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ أَنْ يَسْتَحِقَّ حَقًّا عَلَى الْغَيْرِ فَالْعَقْدُ فَاسِدٌ كَذَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ.

Leasing out a Property to a Non-Muslim Couple to open an Alcohol Served Restaurant

Leasing out a Property to a Non-Muslim Couple to open an Alcohol Served Restaurant

21ST January 2017

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it permissible to let my place to a Romanian Non-Muslim couple for them to open a Restaurant? They have informed me they will be selling Alcohol and I also assume there will be meat on the menu which will not be halal. Every customer will be served with food but not every customer will have a drink. Please clarify.

 الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your case scenario, Imām Abū Hanīfah rahimahullah permitted a Muslim living in a predominant Non-Muslim region (which still remains under Muslim sovereignty) to lease out a property to a non-Muslim who intends to sell unlawful items such as alcohol. His line of argument is that trading in alcohol is the act of the leaseholder which is permitted in their religion, thus severing the Muslim landlord’s connection from the Non-Muslim’s act. As he bears no liability of the lease holder’s actions, the Muslim owner’s monthly rental from such property is Halal as he is charging for the usufruct (manfa’ah) of the property. Contrarily, his prominent students, Imām Abū Yusuf rahimahullah and Imām Muhammad rahimahullah disallow it all together even to a non-Muslim because it is tantamount to assisting upon sin, which has been clearly prohibited in the Shari’ah.[1]

It must be remembered that Imām Abū Hanīfah’s rahimahullah ruling was issued in an Islamic state where there was no fear of widespread of fitna among Muslims if non-Muslims transacted it among themselves. Due to the widespread consumption of alcohol nowadays, it is not unjustified for scholars adopting the opinion of Imām Sāhib’s two students for discouraging Muslims leasing out a property in which alcohol is being sold,[2] yet, on the other hand, the Shari’ah does not intend to burden its people also and takes circumstances into consideration. As there is no clear consensus on this matter, in your case in particular, if they do intend to sell alcohol in their restaurant along with other unlawful meat then there is no harm in following Imām Abū Hanifah’s rahimahullah opinion of permissibility and the rent you receive will be lawful, regardless if majority of the income comes from the alcohol selling or not. Consider it that the monthly revenue is in exchange for leasing out a property and what they do is their individual business. This is the fatwa position otherwise the Taqwa position is to avoid it altogether in due consideration of his two student’s position.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Bahr Raiq, Kitāb al-Karahiyyah, p. 372 vol 8

قَالَ: – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – (وَإِجَارَةُ بَيْتٍ لِيُتَّخَذَ بَيْتَ نَارٍ أَوْ بِيعَةً أَوْ كَنِيسَةً أَوْ يُبَاعَ فِيهِ خَمْرٌ بِالسَّوَادِ) يَعْنِي جَازَ إجَارَةُ الْبَيْتِ لِكَافِرٍ لِيُتَّخَذُ مَعْبَدًا أَوْ بَيْتَ نَارٍ لِلْمَجُوسِ أَوْ يُبَاعَ فِيهِ خَمْرٌ فِي السَّوَادِ وَهَذَا قَوْلُ الْإِمَامِ وَقَالَا: يُكْرَهُ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ} [المائدة: 2] وَلَهُ أَنَّ الْإِجَارَةَ عَلَى مَنْفَعَةِ الْبَيْتِ وَلِهَذَا تَجِبُ الْأُجْرَةُ بِمُجَرَّدِ التَّسْلِيمِ وَلَا مَعْصِيَةَ فِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا الْمَعْصِيَةُ بِفِعْلِ الْمُسْتَأْجِرِ وَهُوَ مُخْتَارٌ فِيهِ فَقَطَعَ نِسْبَةَ ذَلِكَ إلَى الْمُؤَجِّرِ وَصَارَ كَبَيْعِ الْجَارِيَةِ لِمَنْ لَا يَسْتَبْرِئُهَا أَوْ يَأْتِيهَا فِي دُبُرِهَا أَوْ بَيْعِ الْغُلَامِ مِمَّنْ يَلُوطُ بِهِ وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَوْ أَجَّرَهُ لِلسُّكْنَى جَازَ وَلَا بُدَّ فِيهِ مِنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَإِنَّمَا قَيَّدَهُ بِالسَّوَادِ؛ لِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُمَكَّنُونَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فِي الْأَمْصَارِ وَلَا يُمَكَّنُونَ مِنْ إظْهَارِ بَيْعِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ فِي الْأَمْصَارِ لِظُهُورِ شَعَائِرِ الْإِسْلَامِ فَلَا يُعَارَضُ بِظُهُورِ شَعَائِرِ الْكُفْرِ قَالُوا فِي هَذَا سَوَادُ الْكُوفَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ غَالِبَ أَهْلِهَا أَهْلُ ذِمَّةٍ، وَأَمَّا فِي غَيْرِهَا فِيهَا شَعَائِرُ الْإِسْلَامِ ظَاهِرَةٌ فَلَا يُمَكَّنُونَ فِيهَا فِي الْأَصَحِّ

Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Hazr wal Ibāhat, p. 562-3 vol 9

(وَ) جَازَ (إجَارَةُ بَيْتٍ بِسَوَادِ الْكُوفَةِ) أَيْ قُرَاهَا (لَا بِغَيْرِهَا عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ) وَأَمَّا الْأَمْصَارُ وَقُرَى غَيْرِ الْكُوفَةِ فَلَا يُمَكَّنُونَ لِظُهُورِ شِعَارِ الْإِسْلَامِ فِيهَا وَخُصَّ سَوَادُ الْكُوفَةِ، لِأَنَّ غَالِبَ أَهْلِهَا أَهْلُ الذِّمَّةِ (لِيُتَّخَذَ بَيْتَ نَارٍ أَوْ كَنِيسَةً أَوْ بِيعَةً أَوْ يُبَاعَ فِيهِ الْخَمْرُ) وَقَالَا لَا يَنْبَغِي ذَلِكَ لِأَنَّهُ إعَانَةٌ عَلَى الْمَعْصِيَةِ وَبِهِ قَالَتْ الثَّلَاثَةُ زَيْلَعِيٌّ

Fatawa Hindiyyah Kitabul Ijārah p. 509 vol 4

[الْبَابُ السَّادِس عَشَرَ فِي مَسَائِلِ الشُّيُوعِ فِي الْإِجَارَةِ]

إذَا اسْتَأْجَرَ الذِّمِّيُّ مِنْ الْمُسْلِمِ بَيْتًا لِيَبِيعَ فِيهِ الْخَمْرَ جَازَ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – خِلَافًا لَهُمَا. كَذَا فِي الْمُضْمَرَاتِ

[2] Maulāna Khalid Saifullah Rahmani, Kitāb al-Fatāwa p. 402, vol 5

Selling a Watch Acquired Through Gambling

Selling a Watch Acquired Through Gambling

20th December 2016

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If a person won a watch through gambling and now regrets it, what should he do now? Can he sell it and if so, can a Muslim purchase it?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In reference to your query, the watch received through gambling is considered unlawful possession. In principle, what you must do is return it or to dispose of it by giving it away to the neediest people without the intention of reward.[1] He cannot sell it, but because the watch is a merchandise that is permissible to use and fulfils the criteria of a shar’ee māl, if he does sell it on then the purchaser’s ownership is established.[2] The seller must give the money away into charity (without the intention of reward).[3]

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] Ibn Ābideen Shāmi Durrul Mukhtar wa hashiyah Ibn Abideen, Book of Zakāt, Bāb Zakāt al-Ghanam, p 218 vol 3

(قَوْلُهُ: كَمَا لَوْ كَانَ الْكُلُّ خَبِيثًا) فِي الْقُنْيَةِ لَوْ كَانَ الْخَبِيثُ نِصَابًا لَا يَلْزَمُهُ الزَّكَاةُ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكُلَّ وَاجِبُ التَّصَدُّقِ عَلَيْهِ فَلَا يُفِيدُ إيجَابَ التَّصَدُّقِ بِبَعْضِهِ

[2] Tabyeenul Haqaiq, Sharh Kanzu Daqaiq, Kitāb al-Buyoo, Bāb Bai Fāsid p 44 vol 4- shamila

وَفَاسِدٌ وَهُوَ مَشْرُوعٌ بِأَصْلِهِ دُونَ وَصْفِهِ وَهُوَ يُفِيدُ الْحُكْمَ إذَا اتَّصَلَ بِهِ الْقَبْضُ

Ibn Ābideen Shāmi Durrul Mukhtar wa hashiyah Ibn Abideen, Kitāb al-Buyoo, Bāb Bai Fāsid p 49 vol 5- shamila

(قَوْلُهُ الْمُرَادُ بِالْفَاسِدِ الْمَمْنُوعُ إلَخْ) قَدْ عَلِمْت أَنَّ الْفَاسِدَ مُبَايِنٌ لِلْبَاطِلِ؛؛ لِأَنَّ مَا كَانَ مَشْرُوعًا بِأَصْلِهِ فَقَطْ يُبَايِنُ مَا لَيْسَ بِمَشْرُوعٍ أَصْلًا. وَأَيْضًا حُكْمُ الْفَاسِدِ أَنَّهُ يُفِيدُ الْمِلْكَ بِالْقَبْضِ وَالْبَاطِلُ لَا يُفِيدُهُ أَصْلًا، وَتَبَايُنُ الْحُكْمَيْنِ دَلِيلُ تَبَايُنِهِمَا،

Tabyeenul Haqaiq, Sharh Kanzu Daqaiq, Kitāb al-Buyoo, Bāb Bai Fāsid p 61 vol 4- shamila

(فَصْلٌ) (قَبَضَ الْمُشْتَرِي الْمَبِيعَ فِي الْبَيْعِ الْفَاسِدِ بِأَمْرِ الْبَائِعِ وَكُلٌّ مِنْ عِوَضَيْهِ مَالٌ مَلَكَ الْمَبِيعَ بِقِيمَتِهِ) مَعْنَاهُ أَنَّهُ إذَا قَبَضَهُ مَلَكَهُ وَلَزِمَهُ قِيمَتُهُ إذَا كَانَ الْقَبْضُ بِأَمْرِ الْبَائِعِ وَفِي الْعَقْدِ عِوَضَانِ وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مَالٌ……… وَشَرَطَ أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي الْعَقْدِ عِوَضَانِ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مَالٌ لِيَتَحَقَّقَ رُكْنُ الْبَيْعِ وَهُوَ مُبَادَلَةُ الْمَالِ بِالْمَالِ لِيَخْرُجَ عَنْهُ الْبَيْعُ بِالْمَيِّتَةِ وَنَحْوِهِ

[3] Ibn Ābideen Shāmi Kitāb al-Buyoo. Bāb Bai al-Fāsid, p.298 vol 7

(فَيَأْخُذُ) الْمُشْتَرِي (دَرَاهِمَ الثَّمَنِ بِعَيْنِهَا لَوْ قَائِمَةً، وَمِثْلَهَا لَوْ هَالِكَةً) بِنَاءً عَلَى تَعَيُّنِ الدَّرَاهِمِ فِي الْبَيْعِ الْفَاسِدِ وَهُوَ الْأَصَحُّ (وَ) إنَّمَا (طَابَ لِلْبَائِعِ مَا رَبِحَ) فِي الثَّمَنِ لَا عَلَى الرِّوَايَةِ الصَّحِيحَةِ الْمُقَابِلَةِ لِلْأَصَحِّ، بَلْ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ أَيْضًا لِأَنَّ الثَّمَنَ فِي الْعَقْدِ الثَّانِي غَيْرُ مُتَعَيِّنٌ، وَلَا يَضُرُّ تَعْيِينُهُ فِي الْأَوَّلِ كَمَا أَفَادَهُ سَعْدِيٌّ (لَا) يَطِيبُ (لِلْمُشْتَرِي) مَا رَبِحَ فِي بَيْعٍ يَتَعَيَّنُ بِالتَّعْيِينِ بِأَنْ بَاعَهُ بِأَزْيَدَ لِتَعَلُّقِ الْعَقْدِ بِعَيْنِهِ فَتَمَكَّنَ الْخُبْثُ فِي الرِّبْحِ فَيَتَصَدَّقُ بِهِ

(قَوْلُ الْمُصَنِّفِ وَطَابَ لِلْبَائِعِ مَا رَبِحَ لَا لِلْمُشْتَرِي) صُورَةُ الْمَسْأَلَةِ مَا ذَكَرَهُ مُحَمَّدٌ فِي الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ: اشْتَرَى مِنْ رَجُلٍ جَارِيَةً بَيْعًا فَاسِدًا بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ وَتَقَابَضَا وَرَبِحَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا فِيمَا قَبَضَ يَتَصَدَّقُ الَّذِي قَبَضَ الْجَارِيَةَ بِالرِّبْحِ وَيَطِيبُ الرِّبْحُ لِلَّذِي قَبَضَ الدَّرَاهِمَ

Financing Islamic Projects with Lottery Funds

Financing Islamic Projects with Lottery Funds

27th August 2016

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Can Big Lottery funding be used to support community-based activities like parent/toddler groups, parenting programmer in a Masjid or Madrasah setting or for an Islamic welfare project?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

From the Islamic legal perspective, lottery funds fall within the scheme of gambling which Allāh Almighty explicitly prohibits in the Holy Qur’ān.[1] The Holy Qur’ān describes the earning of gambling as rijs (impure). The mainstream scholars of Islām prohibit utilising impure wealth for general Islamic welfare projects because Allāh Almighty only accepts that which is pure. Ibn Ābideen Shāmi rahimahullah, a renowned Hanafi jurist, explains the ruling of all unlawful income that they must be either returned to the source from where they were obtained otherwise disposed of by giving it away to the most destitute people (without the intention of the reward).[2] This was mentioned to differentiate between giving charity and disposing of wealth. Charity brings reward in return which is only possible through lawful income whereas disposing of the unlawful wealth (to the neediest) is not rewardable at all. Some scholars have permitted utilising unlawful income like lottery funds to finance general non-Islamic welfare projects.[3] But for Islamic welfare projects, it won’t be permissible.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Sūrah Maidah 5:90

[2] Al-Shāmi Durrul Mukhtar wa hashiyah Ibn Abideen, Book of Zakāt, Bāb Zakāt al-Ghanam, p 218 vol 3

(قَوْلُهُ: كَمَا لَوْ كَانَ الْكُلُّ خَبِيثًا) فِي الْقُنْيَةِ لَوْ كَانَ الْخَبِيثُ نِصَابًا لَا يَلْزَمُهُ الزَّكَاةُ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكُلَّ وَاجِبُ التَّصَدُّقِ عَلَيْهِ فَلَا يُفِيدُ إيجَابَ التَّصَدُّقِ بِبَعْضِهِ

Al-Shāmi Durrul Mukhtar wa hashiyah Ib Abideen, Book of Hadhr wal Ibāhat, Fsl fil Bai, p 553 vol 9

لَوْ مَاتَ رَجُلٌ وَكَسْبُهُ مِنْ ثَمَنِ الْبَاذَقِ وَالظُّلْمِ أَوْ أَخْذِ الرِّشْوَةِ تَعُودُ الْوَرَثَةُ وَلَا يَأْخُذُونَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ الْأَوْلَى لَهُمْ وَيَرُدُّونَهُ عَلَى أَرْبَابِهِ إنْ عَرَفُوهُمْ، وَإِلَّا يَتَصَدَّقُوا بِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ سَبِيلَ الْكَسْبِ الْخَبِيثِ التَّصَدُّقُ إذَا تَعَذَّرَ الرَّدُّ

[3] Shaykh Khalid Saifullah Rahmāni, Kitābul Fatāwa, p. 308, Vol 5

 

Working in a supermarket and scanning alcohol

Working in a supermarket and scanning alcohol

19th June 2015

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I wanted to know if it is considered Harām to scan alcohol and other Harām products such as pork etc, whilst working at a supermarket as a checkout assistant/ cashier. Are the earnings considered Harām too? It is really hard finding any sort of job nowadays, would I have to leave it?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In reference to your query, your income will not be considered Harām (unlawful) in its entirety. Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah permitted the earning of a man who is employed to carry alcohol for a dhimmi[1] as opposed to his two prominent students, Imām Abū Yusuf rahimahullah and Imām Muhammad rahimahullah who consider it makrooh (disliked). Some scholars have preferred the second view on the grounds of Istihsān (legal preference), suggesting that it must be avoided altogether. The disparity of views is based on the prophetic Hadeeth which states, “Allāh has cursed the carrier of alcohol.” Both Imāms have adopted the apparent implication of the Hadeeth whilst Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah applies the prohibition to a Muslim carrying it with the intention of committing sin.[2] In other words, the carrier is cursed for intending to partake in the consumption of alcohol as was the general custom. It is apparent in your case that you only intend to check out the product by scanning, hence falls under the similar ruling of carrying without the intention of partaking in the sin.

If for argument sake scanning alcohol was forbidden on the grounds of the apparent wordings of the Hadeeth then it still does not render the entire earning unlawful because Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah views that unlawful earning mixed with lawful earning whereby separating both of them is difficult does not render the entire income unlawful provided that the unlawful income does not constitute majority part of the income.[3] Nevertheless, this is not the case and as indicated that your income is not affected.

This was to clarify the legal position on this matter but ethically speaking, such job does not befit the character of a true believer so whilst you are working there, seeking for an alternative employment that does not entail handling unlawful product should be your long-term aim.

 [Allãh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] A dhimmi is a non-Muslim living in an Islamic state who pays tax to the state. In return the state gives him security and the freedom to practice his religion.

[2] Durrul Mukhtar wa Raddul Muhtar Kitab al-Hadhr wal Ibahat, Bab Istibra wa Ghairihi, p. 562 vol 9

(وَ) جَازَ تَعْمِيرُ كَنِيسَةٍ وَ (حَمْلُ خَمْرِ ذِمِّيٍّ) بِنَفْسِهِ أَوْ دَابَّتِهِ (بِأَجْرٍ) لَا عَصْرُهَا لِقِيَامِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ بِعَيْنِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ وَحَمْلُ خَمْرِ ذِمِّيٍّ)  قَالَ الزَّيْلَعِيُّ: وَهَذَا عِنْدَهُ وَقَالَا هُوَ مَكْرُوهٌ ” لِأَنَّهُ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «لَعَنَ فِي الْخَمْرِ عَشَرَةً وَعَدَّ مِنْهَا حَامِلَهَا» وَلَهُ أَنَّ الْإِجَارَةَ عَلَى الْحَمْلِ وَهُوَ لَيْسَ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ، وَلَا سَبَبَ لَهَا وَإِنَّمَا تَحْصُلُ الْمَعْصِيَةُ بِفِعْلِ فَاعِلٍ مُخْتَارٍ، وَلَيْسَ الشُّرْبُ مِنْ ضَرُورَاتِ الْحَمْلِ، لِأَنَّ حَمْلَهَا قَدْ يَكُونُ لِلْإِرَاقَةِ أَوْ لِلتَّخْلِيلِ، فَصَارَ كَمَا إذَا اسْتَأْجَرَهُ لِعَصْرِ الْعِنَبِ أَوْ قَطْعِهِ وَالْحَدِيثُ مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى الْحَمْلِ الْمَقْرُونِ بِقَصْدِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ اهـ زَادَ فِي النِّهَايَةِ وَهَذَا قِيَاسٌ وَقَوْلُهُمَا اسْتِحْسَانٌ، ثُمَّ قَالَ الزَّيْلَعِيُّ: وَعَلَى هَذَا الْخِلَافِ لَوْ آجَرَهُ دَابَّةً لِيَنْقُلَ عَلَيْهَا الْخَمْرَ أَوْ آجَرَهُ نَفْسَهُ لِيَرْعَى لَهُ الْخَنَازِيرَ يَطِيبُ لَهُ الْأَجْرُ عِنْدَهُ وَعِنْدَهُمَا يُكْرَهُ.

Also see Bahr Raiq Kitabūl Karahiyyat, p. 372 vol 8

[3] Durrul Mukhtar wa Raddul Muhtar Kitāb az-Zakāt, bāb Zakāt al-Ghanam, p. 217 vol 3

(وَلَوْ خَلَطَ السُّلْطَانُ الْمَالَ الْمَغْصُوبَ بِمَالِهِ مَلَكَهُ فَتَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِيهِ وَيُورَثُ عَنْهُ) ؛ لِأَنَّ الْخَلْطَ اسْتِهْلَاكٌ إذَا لَمْ يُمْكِنْ تَمْيِيزٌ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ، وَقَوْلُهُ أَرْفَقُ إذْ قَلَّمَا يَخْلُو مَالٌ عَنْ غَصْبٍ،

Fatawa Hindiyyah Kitāb al-Karahiyyat, bāb al-Bai alItiyām, p. 444 vol 5

وَالثَّانِي إنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ الْمَالَ الْحَرَامَ بِعَيْنِهِ قَائِمٌ إلَّا أَنَّهُ اخْتَلَطَ بِالْغَيْرِ بِحَيْثُ لَا يُمْكِنُ التَّمْيِيزُ عَنْهُ فَإِنَّ عَلَى أَصْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – بِالْخَلْطِ يَدْخُلُ فِي مِلْكِهِ إلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ مِنْهُ حَتَّى يَرْضَى الْخَصْمُ بِدَفْعِ الْعِوَضِ فَإِنْ اشْتَرَاهُ يَدْخُلُ فِي مِلْكِهِ مَعَ الْكَرَاهَةِ