Can A Divorcee Suffering from Depression Come out During Iddah?

17th February 2024

 

Question: A woman is observing her Iddah of divorce and has a toddler. She is alone and suffers from mental health concerns (anxiety and episodes of depression and sometimes cannot get out of bed in the mornings and is becoming very withdrawn). Is its permissible for such a lady to,  

  1. Go out for walks (accompanied) to get fresh air for her mental health?
  2. Take her toddler out for walks for fresh air and to toddler classes?
  3. To attend family gatherings?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Concerning your case in question, as a general rule, a divorced woman is required by the Shariah to observe a waiting period (of three menses – Iddah) in the same accommodation she lived with her husband. She is not permitted to leave her home nor relocate elsewhere to observe her Iddah without a genuine excuse. The Quran and as well as the Hadith are explicit on this matter. Allāh Almighty states, Do not drive them (wives) from their homes and neither should they (wives) should exit the home…”[1] It is reported that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam once divorced Sayyidah Hafsah radhiyallahu anha, after which she went to her family (to observe her iddah). Allāh Almighty revealed the above verse (instructing the women to observe their waiting period in the husband’s accommodation). The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam was instructed however to retract from the divorce and take her back as his wife due to her piety.[2] In light of the above evidences, the Hanafi jurists have deduced that under normal circumstances it is obligatory for a female divorcee to observe her Iddah in the current home she is living in. The laws of Iddah are the rights of Allāh Almighty so leaving the home or relocating elsewhere without necessity is a violation of Allāh’s rights.[3] The Shariah does however consider exceptional circumstances where due to genuine reasons she is permitted to emerge or relocate elsewhere to complete her Iddah. Genuine excuses include; the fear of house collapsing, fear over her wealth perishing, living in a rented accommodation and does not have the means to pay the rent, is forcibly driven out of the home by her husband or has no financial support and hence must emerge to earn for herself. Jurists have also included other reasons such as being fearful at night of living by herself alone in the house.[4]

With reference to the case of depression then the classical jurists have not made any explicit mentioning of this. It will therefore depend on the degree of depression she is suffering. Below are some recommendations.

  1. Minor distress does not justify leaving the home.
  2. Family members should visit her often to give her company to reduce her anxiety level. In that way there is no need for her to leave her accommodation to visit them. They should offer to take her toddler out for walks or to classes during her Iddah period.
  3. She should seek counselling therapy from a professional in which case it would be permissible for her to leave the home to visit a therapist.
  4. If the anxiety level is so extreme that staying home for a longer period will trigger her anxieties and prove harmful to her mental well-being and to the child and there is no one to support her then she may emerge from her home out of necessity. She should primarily stay in the garden for fresh air but if this is not sufficient, then she can walk for a certain distance only to the need that is required. This is justified under the principle of necessity as in when one’s physical or mental well-being is at severe risk and no available alternative exists then prohibited matters become permissible and constraint situations beget flexibility but only to the extent that is necessary.[5]

In summary, the general default position is that a divorcee cannot leave her home during her Iddah except due to necessity. In the aforesaid case, family members should often visit her to support her and her child. If her depressive state is so extreme that staying home will prove harmful to her mental well-being and to her child and there is no one to support her then she can come out due to necessity for fresh-air. She must then immediately return home and not to stay out longer than necessary.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Surah Talaq [65:1]

[2] Ibn Katheer vol 8, p. 142

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ ثَوَابِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ الْهُبَارِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا أَسْبَاطُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ: طَلَّقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَفْصَةَ، فَأَتَتْ أَهْلَهَا، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ، عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: {يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ} فَقِيلَ لَهُ: رَاجِعْهَا فَإِنَّهَا صَوَّامَةٌ قَوَّامَةٌ، وَهِيَ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكَ وَنِسَائِكَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ.

 

[3] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 3 p. 205 – shamila

فَصْلٌ فِي أَحْكَامُ الْعِدَّةِ

فَإِنْ كَانَتْ مُعْتَدَّةً مِنْ نِكَاحٍ صَحِيحٍ وَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ مُطَلَّقَةٌ بَالِغَةٌ عَاقِلَةٌ مُسْلِمَةٌ وَالْحَالُ حَالُ الِاخْتِيَارِ فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَخْرُجُ لَيْلًا وَلَا نَهَارًا سَوَاءٌ كَانَ الطَّلَاقُ ثَلَاثًا أَوْ بَائِنًا أَوْ رَجْعِيًّا أَمَّا فِي الطَّلَاقِ الرَّجْعِيِّ فَلِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {لا تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِنْ بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلا يَخْرُجْنَ إِلا أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ} [الطلاق: 1] قِيلَ فِي تَأْوِيلِ قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {إِلا أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ} [الطلاق: 1] إلَّا أَنْ تَزْنِيَ فَتَخْرُجَ لِإِقَامَةِ الْحَدِّ عَلَيْهَا، وَقِيلَ: الْفَاحِشَةُ هِيَ الْخُرُوجُ نَفْسُهُ أَيْ إلَّا أَنْ يَخْرُجْنَ فَيَكُونَ خُرُوجُهُنَّ فَاحِشَةً، نَهَى اللَّهُ تَعَالَى الْأَزْوَاجَ عَنْ الْإِخْرَاجِ وَالْمُعْتَدَّاتِ عَنْ الْخُرُوجِ وقَوْله تَعَالَى {أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنْتُمْ} [الطلاق: 6] وَالْأَمْرُ بِالْإِسْكَانِ نَهْيٌ عَنْ الْإِخْرَاجِ وَالْخُرُوجِ وَلِأَنَّهَا زَوْجَتُهُ بَعْدَ الطَّلَاقِ الرَّجْعِيِّ لِقِيَامِ مِلْكِ النِّكَاحِ مِنْ كُلِّ وَجْهٍ فَلَا يُبَاحُ لَهَا الْخُرُوجُ كَمَا قَبْلَ الطَّلَاقِ إلَّا أَنَّ بَعْدَ الطَّلَاقِ لَا يُبَاحُ لَهَا الْخُرُوجُ وَإِنْ أُذِنَ لَهَا بِالْخُرُوجِ بِخِلَافِ مَا قَبْلَ الطَّلَاقِ.

لِأَنَّ حُرْمَةَ الْخُرُوجِ بَعْدَ الطَّلَاقِ لِمَكَانِ الْعِدَّةِ وَفِي الْعِدَّةِ حَقُّ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فَلَا يَمْلِكُ إبْطَالَهُ بِخِلَافِ مَا قَبْلَ الطَّلَاقِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْحُرْمَةَ ثَمَّةَ لِحَقِّ الزَّوْجِ خَاصَّةً فَيَمْلِكُ إبْطَالَ حَقِّ نَفْسِهِ بِالْإِذْنِ بِالْخُرُوجِ، وَلِأَنَّ الزَّوْجَ يَحْتَاجُ إلَى تَحْصِينِ مَائِهِ وَالْمَنْعُ مِنْ الْخُرُوجِ طَرِيقُ التَّحْصِينِ لِلْمَاءِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْخُرُوجَ يُرِيبُ الزَّوْجَ أَنَّهُ وَطِئَهَا غَيْرُهُ فَيَشْتَبِهُ النَّسَبُ إذَا حَبِلَتْ.

وَأَمَّا فِي الطَّلَاقِ الثَّلَاثِ أَوْ الْبَائِنِ فَلِعُمُومِ النَّهْيِ وَمِسَاسِ الْحَاجَةِ إلَى تَحْصِينِ الْمَاءِ عَلَى مَا بَيَّنَّا.

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 3 p. 535- 6 shamila

(وَلَا تَخْرُجُ مُعْتَدَّةُ رَجْعِيٍّ وَبَائِنٌ) بِأَيِّ فُرْقَةٍ كَانَتْ عَلَى مَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ وَلَوْ مُخْتَلِعَةً عَلَى نَفَقَةِ عِدَّتِهَا فِي الْأَصَحِّ اخْتِيَارٌ، أَوْ عَلَى السُّكْنَى فَيَلْزَمُهَا أَنْ تَكْتَرِيَ بَيْتَ الزَّوْجِ مِعْرَاجٌ (لَوْ حُرَّةً) أَوْ أَمَةً مُبَوَّأَةً وَلَوْ مِنْ فَاسِدٍ (مُكَلَّفَةً مِنْ بَيْتِهَا أَصْلًا) لَا لَيْلًا وَلَا نَهَارًا وَلَا إلَى صَحْنِ دَارٍ فِيهَا مَنَازِلُ لِغَيْرِهِ وَلَوْ بِإِذْنِهِ لِأَنَّهُ حَقُّ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى.

(قَوْلُهُ: بِأَيِّ فُرْقَةٍ كَانَتْ إلَخْ) أَيْ وَلَوْ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ كَتَقْبِيلِهَا ابْنَ زَوْجِهَا بَحْرٌ عَنْ الْبَدَائِعِ. قَالَ فِي النَّهْرِ: قَيَّدَ بِمُعْتَدَّةِ الطَّلَاقِ، لِأَنَّ مُعْتَدَّةَ الْوَطْءِ لَا تُمْنَعُ مِنْ الْخُرُوجِ كَالْمُعْتَدَّةِ عَنْ عِتْقٍ وَنِكَاحٍ فَاسِدٍ وَوَطْءٍ بِشُبْهَةٍ إلَّا إذَا مَنَعَهَا لِتَحْصِينِ مَائِهِ كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ.

(قَوْلُهُ: أَصْلًا) تَعْمِيمٌ لِقَوْلِهِ لَا تَخْرُجُ، وَبَيَّنَهُ بِقَوْلِهِ لَا لَيْلًا وَلَا نَهَارًا. (قَوْلُهُ: فِيهَا مَنَازِلُ لِغَيْرِهِ) أَيْ غَيْرِ الزَّوْجِ، بِخِلَافِ مَا إذَا كَانَتْ لَهُ فَإِنَّ لَهَا أَنْ تَخْرُجَ إلَيْهَا وَتَبِيتَ فِي أَيِّ مَنْزِلٍ شَاءَتْ لِأَنَّهَا تُضَافُ إلَيْهَا بِالسُّكْنَى زَيْلَعِيٌّ. (قَوْلُهُ: وَلَوْ بِإِذْنِهِ) تَعْمِيمٌ أَيْضًا لِقَوْلِهِ وَلَا تَخْرُجُ، حَتَّى إنَّ الْمُطَلَّقَةَ رَجْعِيًّا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مَنْكُوحَةً حُكْمًا لَا تَخْرُجُ مِنْ بَيْتِ الْعِدَّةِ.

 

[4] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 4 p. 451

وَأَمَّا فِي حَالَةِ الضَّرُورَةِ فَإِنْ اُضْطُرَّتْ إلَى الْخُرُوجِ مِنْ بَيْتِهَا بِأَنْ خَافَتْ سُقُوطَ مَنْزِلِهَا أَوْ خَافَتْ عَلَى مَتَاعِهَا أَوْ كَانَ الْمَنْزِلُ بِأُجْرَةٍ وَلَا تَجِدُ مَا تُؤَدِّيهِ فِي أُجْرَتِهِ فِي عِدَّةِ الْوَفَاةِ فَلَا بَأْسَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ أَنْ تَنْتَقِلَ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ تَقْدِرُ عَلَى الْأُجْرَةِ لَا تَنْتَقِلُ، وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمَنْزِلُ لِزَوْجِهَا وَقَدْ مَاتَ عَنْهَا فَلَهَا أَنْ تَسْكُنَ فِي نَصِيبِهَا إنْ كَانَ نَصِيبُهَا مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا تَكْتَفِي بِهِ فِي السُّكْنَى وَتَسْتَتِرُ عَنْ سَائِرِ الْوَرَثَةِ مِمَّنْ لَيْسَ بِمَحْرَمٍ لَهَا، وَإِنْ كَانَ نَصِيبُهَا لَا يَكْفِيهَا أَوْ خَافَتْ عَلَى مَتَاعِهَا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا بَأْسَ أَنْ تَنْتَقِلَ،

وَإِذَا انْتَقَلَتْ لِعُذْرٍ يَكُونُ سُكْنَاهَا فِي الْبَيْتِ الَّذِي انْتَقَلَتْ إلَيْهِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ كَوْنِهَا فِي الْمَنْزِلِ الَّذِي انْتَقَلَتْ مِنْهُ فِي حُرْمَةِ الْخُرُوجِ عَنْهُ؛ لِأَنَّ الِانْتِقَالَ مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ إلَيْهِ كَانَ لِعُذْرٍ فَصَارَ الْمَنْزِلُ الَّذِي انْتَقَلَتْ إلَيْهِ كَأَنَّهُ مَنْزِلُهَا مِنْ الْأَصْلِ فَلَزِمَهَا الْمُقَامُ فِيهِ حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ الْعِدَّةُ،

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 10 p. 365-367

(وَتَعْتَدَّانِ) أَيْ مُعْتَدَّةُ طَلَاقٍ وَمَوْتٍ (فِي بَيْتٍ وَجَبَتْ فِيهِ) وَلَا يَخْرُجَانِ مِنْهُ (إلَّا أَنْ تُخْرَجَ أَوْ يَتَهَدَّمَ الْمَنْزِلُ، أَوْ تَخَافُ) انْهِدَامَهُ، أَوْ (تَلَفَ مَالِهَا، أَوْ لَا تَجِدَ كِرَاءَ الْبَيْتِ) وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ الضَّرُورَاتِ فَتَخْرُجُ لِأَقْرَبِ مَوْضِعٍ إلَيْهِ، وَفِي الطَّلَاقِ إلَى حَيْثُ شَاءَ الزَّوْجُ

قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ: وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ مَدَارَ حِلِّ خُرُوجِهَا بِسَبَبِ قِيَامِ شُغْلِ الْمَعِيشَةِ فَيَتَقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهِ، فَمَتَى انْقَضَتْ حَاجَتُهَا لَا يَحِلُّ لَهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ صَرْفُ الزَّمَانِ خَارِجَ بَيْتِهَا. اهـ. وَبِهَذَا انْدَفَعَ قَوْلُ الْبَحْرِ إنَّ الظَّاهِرَ مِنْ كَلَامِهِمْ جَوَازُ خُرُوجِ الْمُعْتَدَّةِ عَنْ وَفَاةٍ نَهَارًا وَلَوْ كَانَ عِنْدَهَا نَفَقَةٌ، وَإِلَّا لَقَالُوا: لَا تَخْرُجُ الْمُعْتَدَّةُ عَنْ طَلَاقٍ، أَوْ مَوْتٍ إلَّا لِضَرُورَةٍ فَإِنَّ الْمُطَلَّقَةَ تَخْرُجُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ لَيْلًا، أَوْ نَهَارًا اهـ.

وَوَجْهُ الدَّفْعِ أَنَّ مُعْتَدَّةَ الْمَوْتِ لَمَّا كَانَتْ فِي الْعَادَةِ مُحْتَاجَةً إلَى الْخُرُوجِ لِأَجْلِ أَنْ تَكْتَسِبَ لِلنَّفَقَةِ قَالُوا: إنَّهَا تَخْرُجُ فِي النَّهَارِ وَبَعْضِ اللَّيْلِ، بِخِلَافِ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ. وَأَمَّا الْخُرُوجُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ فَلَا فَرْقَ فِيهِ بَيْنَهُمَا كَمَا نَصُّوا عَلَيْهِ فِيمَا يَأْتِي، فَالْمُرَادُ بِهِ هُنَا غَيْرُ الضَّرُورَةِ، وَلِهَذَا بَعْدَمَا أَطْلَقَ فِي كَافِي الْحَاكِمِ مَنْعَ خُرُوجِ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ

( لُهُ: وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ)

مِنْهُ مَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ: لَوْ خَافَتْ بِاللَّيْلِ مِنْ أَمْرِ الْمَيِّتِ وَالْمَوْتِ وَلَا أَحَدَ مَعَهَا لَهَا التَّحَوُّلُ – وَالْخَوْفُ شَدِيدٌ – وَإِلَّا فَلَا

 

[5] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 10 p. 365

وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ الضَّرُورَاتِ فَتَخْرُجُ لِأَقْرَبِ مَوْضِعٍ إلَيْهِ، وَفِي الطَّلَاقِ إلَى حَيْثُ شَاءَ الزَّوْجُ

وَأَمَّا الْخُرُوجُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ فَلَا فَرْقَ فِيهِ بَيْنَهُمَا كَمَا نَصُّوا عَلَيْهِ فِيمَا يَأْتِي، فَالْمُرَادُ بِهِ هُنَا غَيْرُ الضَّرُورَةِ، وَلِهَذَا بَعْدَمَا أَطْلَقَ فِي كَافِي الْحَاكِمِ مَنْعَ خُرُوجِ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ

 

It is permitted for a Mufti to take into consideration specific cases in order to grant leniency in extreme circumstances like Ibn Abideen Shami allowing a divorcee to emerge to earn for herself when necessary.

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 10 p. 362

مُطْلَبٌ: الْحَقُّ أَنَّ عَلَى الْمُفْتِي أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي خُصُوصِ الْوَقَائِعِ.

قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ: وَالْحَقُّ أَنَّ عَلَى الْمُفْتِي أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي خُصُوصِ الْوَقَائِعِ، فَإِنْ عَلِمَ فِي وَاقِعَةٍ عَجْزَ هَذِهِ الْمُخْتَلِعَةِ عَنْ الْمَعِيشَةِ إنْ لَمْ تَخْرُجْ أَفْتَاهَا بِالْحِلِّ، وَإِنْ عَلِمَ قُدْرَتَهَا أَفْتَاهَا بِالْحُرْمَةِ اهـ وَأَقَرَّهُ فِي النَّهْرِ والشُّرُنبُلالِيَّة.

Ibn Nujaym, al-Ashbah wa Nazair, p. 72-73

أَنَّ الْأَمْرَ إذَا ضَاقَ اتَّسَعَ، وَإِذَا اتَّسَعَ ضَاقَ

مَا أُبِيحَ لِلضَّرُورَةِ يُقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهَا

 

 

Ruling on Reiterating the Divorce Words

10th October 2023

 Question: Me and my wife were arguing and in a fit of rage, I pronounced You are Talaq’. I then added ‘here you go, you are divorced and it’s not over’ and repeated it again. The intention was to give one divorce only and the second and third time was to merely to reiterate that she is divorced, referring to the first divorce and not to pronounce multiple divorces as I am aware that issuing three divorces is not permissible. Kindly confirm whether only one divorce has occurred or three.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Concerning your case in question, if what you have said is true to its very nature and you only intended one divorce and the subsequent mentioning were meant to inform and reiterate the initial divorce then diyanatan (ethically; a personal matter between you and Allāh) your statement will be valid and only one divorce will count but qadha’an (judicially) it will count as multiple divorces.[1] In the case where it is classed as one divorce then you have the option to reconcile the marriage or to leave her to complete here waiting period. It begs the question whether your wife agrees to this or not. In such circumstances, the husband’s intention generally matters but if the wife heard three divorces and believes that three divorces have occurred then she must separate from you.[2] If she is unsure herself then the husband’s intention will count.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 9 p. 296-297

مَطْلَبٌ الطَّلَاقُ يَقَعُ بِعَدَدٍ قُرِنَ بِهِ لَا بِهِ

كَرَّرَ لَفْظَ الطَّلَاقِ وَقَعَ الْكُلُّ، وَإِنْ نَوَى التَّأْكِيدَ دِينَ

(قَوْلُهُ كَرَّرَ لَفْظَ الطَّلَاقِ) بِأَنْ قَالَ لِلْمَدْخُولَةِ: أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ أَوْ قَدْ طَلَّقْتُكِ قَدْ طَلَّقْتُكِ أَوْ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ قَدْ طَلَّقْتُك أَوْ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ وَأَنْتِ طَالِقٌ، وَإِذَا قَالَ: أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ ثُمَّ قِيلَ لَهُ مَا قُلْتُ؟ فَقَالَ: قَدْ طَلَّقْتُهَا أَوْ قُلْتُ هِيَ طَالِقٌ فَهِيَ طَالِقٌ وَاحِدَةً لِأَنَّهُ جَوَابٌ، كَذَا فِي كَافِي الْحَاكِمِ (قَوْلُهُ وَإِنْ نَوَى التَّأْكِيدَ دِينَ) أَيْ وَوَقَعَ الْكُلُّ قَضَاءً، وَكَذَا إذَا طَلَّقَ أَشْبَاهَ: أَيْ بِأَنْ لَمْ يَنْوِ اسْتِئْنَافًا وَلَا تَأْكِيدًا لِأَنَّ الْأَصْلَ عَدَمُ التَّأْكِيدِ (قَوْلُهُ وَإِلَّا لَا) أَيْ بِأَنْ قَصَدَ النِّدَاءَ أَوْ أَطْلَقَ فَلَا يَقَعُ عَلَى الْمُعْتَمَدِ

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb Kitāb Talāq, vol 1, p. 390

الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي الطَّلَاقِ الصَّرِيحِ

رَجُلٌ قَالَ لِامْرَأَتِهِ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ فَقَالَ عَنَيْت بِالْأُولَى الطَّلَاقَ وَبِالثَّانِيَةِ وَالثَّالِثَةِ إفْهَامَهَا صُدِّقَ دِيَانَةً وَفِي الْقَضَاءِ طَلُقَتْ ثَلَاثًا كَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ

مَتَى كَرَّرَ لَفْظَ الطَّلَاقِ بِحَرْفِ الْوَاوِ أَوْ بِغَيْرِ حَرْفِ الْوَاوِ يَتَعَدَّدُ الطَّلَاقُ وَإِنْ عَنَى بِالثَّانِي الْأَوَّلَ لَمْ يُصَدَّقْ فِي الْقَضَاءِ كَقَوْلِهِ يَا مُطَلَّقَةٌ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ أَوْ طَلَّقْتُك أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ وَلَوْ ذَكَرَ الثَّانِيَ بِحَرْفِ التَّفْسِيرِ وَهُوَ حَرْفُ الْفَاءِ لَا تَقَعُ أُخْرَى إلَّا بِالنِّيَّةِ كَقَوْلِهِ طَلَّقْتُك فَأَنْتِ طَالِقٌ كَذَا فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ.

Fatawa Mahmodiyyah, Ch. Talaq Sareeh, vol 12, pp. 280 and 342

 

[2] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb Talāq, vol 3, p. 277

بَابُ أَلْفَاظُ الطَّلَاقِ

وَالْمَرْأَةُ كَالْقَاضِي إذَا سَمِعَتْهُ أَوْ أَخْبَرَهَا عَدْلٌ لَا يَحِلُّ لَهَا تَمْكِينُهُ هَكَذَا اقْتَصَرَ الشَّارِحُونَ وَذَكَرَ فِي الْبَزَّازِيَّةِ وَذَكَرَ الْأُوزْجَنْدِيُّ أَنَّهَا تَرْفَعُ الْأَمْرَ إلَى الْقَاضِي فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا بَيِّنَةٌ يُحَلِّفُهُ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ فَالْإِثْمُ عَلَيْهِ

Sarakhsi, al-Mabsoot, Kitāb Talāq, vol 6, p. 82

بَابُ مَا تَقَعُ بِهِ الْفُرْقَةُ مِمَّا يُشْبِهُ الطَّلَاقَ

وَكُلُّ مَا لَا يُدَيِّنُهُ الْقَاضِي فِيهِ فَكَذَلِكَ الْمَرْأَةُ إذَا سَمِعَتْ مِنْهُ أَوْ شَهِدَ بِهِ شَاهِدَا عَدْلٍ لَا يَسَعُهَا أَنْ تُدَيِّنَ الزَّوْجَ فِيهِ لِأَنَّهَا لَا تَعْرِفُ مِنْهُ إلَّا الظَّاهِرَ كَالْقَاضِي.

 

A Divorcee’s Menstrual Periods Stop So What to Do?

21st February 2023

 

Question: A woman who is in her mid-30s received a talaq from her husband after numerous attempts of reconciliation and family mediation. He divorced her through a text message and both have no intention of reconciling. The issue is that this sister’s menstruation stopped a year ago because of birth control. We’ve tried to get medication to speed up her mensuration but nothing seems to help. Doctors said there is no guarantee of when her periods will return, perhaps 3 years and above. What is the Islamic ruling in regards to her waiting period? Can she observe 3 months or must she wait until her periods return after 3 years or so, which there is no guarantee?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Concerning the case in question, if the sister’s periods stopped the previous year and a complete year has passed and now her husband divorced her with the less likelihood in her menses returning after consulting reliable doctors, then she can now observe a waiting period of three months after the divorce. To further explain, as a point of principle, a menstruating woman will resort to waiting period of three months under the following two conditions;

  1. She reached the age of menopause which is 55 according to the standard Hanafi position
  2. 6 months have passed since her last period, irrespective if it was after the menopause age or before that. Meaning that if before the age of 55, 6 complete months have passed with no menses then she is similar to a menopause woman.[1]

You mentioned that her menses stopped a year ago, implying that a complete year has elapsed of no signs of periods at all before her husband divorced her. Due to the fact that 6 months duration has elapsed, she can now observe a waiting period of three months immediately after receiving a divorce from her husband provided that there is no hope in her menstrual periods returning.[2] If her periods do return (with regular habit) in the future then her waiting period will now resume to three menses.[3]

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 5 p. 195-196

(وَ) الْإِيَاسُ (سَنَةٌ) لِلرُّومِيَّةِ وَغَيْرِهَا (خَمْسٌ وَخَمْسُونَ) عِنْدَ الْجُمْهُورِ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى. وَقِيلَ الْفَتْوَى عَلَى خَمْسِينَ نَهْرٌ. وَفِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ الْجَامِعِ: صَغِيرَةٌ بَلَغَتْ ثَلَاثِينَ سَنَةً وَلَمْ تَحِضْ حُكِمَ بِإِيَاسِهَا.

وَيُؤَيِّدُهُ مَا فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة عَنْ الْيَنَابِيعِ: امْرَأَةٌ مَا رَأَتْ الدَّمَ وَهِيَ بِنْتُ ثَلَاثِينَ سَنَةً مَثَلًا رَأَتْ يَوْمًا دَمًا لَا غَيْرُ ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا زَوْجُهَا قَالَ: لَيْسَتْ هِيَ بِآيِسَةٍ. وَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ: تَعْتَدُّ بِالشُّهُورِ لِأَنَّهَا مِنْ اللَّاتِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ وَبِهِ نَأْخُذُ. اهـ.

ذَكَرَ فِي الْحَقَائِقِ شَرْحِ الْمَنْظُومَةِ النَّسَفِيَّةِ فِي بَابِ الْإِمَامِ مَالِكٍ مَا نَصُّهُ: وَعِنْدَنَا مَا لَمْ تَبْلُغْ حَدَّ الْإِيَاسِ لَا تَعْتَدُّ بِالْأَشْهُرِ، وَحَدُّهُ خَمْسٌ وَخَمْسُونَ سَنَةً هُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ، لَكِنَّهُ يُشْتَرَطُ لِلْحُكْمِ بِالْإِيَاسِ فِي هَذِهِ الْمُدَّةِ أَنْ يَنْقَطِعَ الدَّمُ عَنْهَا مُدَّةً طَوِيلَةً وَهِيَ سِتَّةُ أَشْهُرٍ فِي الْأَصَحِّ، ثُمَّ هَلْ يُشْتَرَطُ أَنْ يَكُونَ انْقِطَاعُ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ بَعْدَ مُدَّةِ الْإِيَاسِ؟ الْأَصَحُّ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِشَرْطٍ، حَتَّى لَوْ كَانَ مُنْقَطِعًا قَبْلَ مُدَّةِ الْإِيَاسِ ثُمَّ تَمَّتْ مُدَّةُ الْإِيَاسِ وَطَلَّقَهَا زَوْجُهَا يُحْكَمُ بِإِيَاسِهَا وَتَعْتَدُّ بِثَلَاثَةِ أَشْهُرٍ،

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 5 p. 185-186

(وَ) الْعِدَّةُ (فِي) حَقِّ (مَنْ لَمْ تَحِضْ) حُرَّةً أَمْ أُمَّ وَلَدٍ (لِصِغَرٍ) بِأَنْ لَمْ تَبْلُغْ تِسْعًا (أَوْ كِبَرٍ) . بِأَنْ بَلَغَتْ سِنَّ الْإِيَاسِ (أَوْ بَلَغَتْ بِالسِّنِّ) وَخَرَجَ بِقَوْلِهِ (وَلَمْ تَحِضْ) الشَّابَّةُ الْمُمْتَدَّةُ بِالطُّهْرِ بِأَنْ حَاضَتْ ثُمَّ امْتَدَّ طُهْرُهَا، فَتَعْتَدُّ بِالْحَيْضِ إلَى أَنْ تَبْلُغَ سِنَّ الْإِيَاسِ جَوْهَرَةٌ وَغَيْرُهَا، وَمَا فِي شَرْحِ الْوَهْبَانِيَّةِ مِنْ انْقِضَائِهَا بِتِسْعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ غَرِيبٌ مُخَالِفٌ لِجَمِيعِ الرِّوَايَاتِ فَلَا يُفْتَى بِهِ.

(قَوْلُهُ: أَوْ بَلَغَتْ بِالسِّنِّ) أَيْ خَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً ط عَنْ الْعِنَايَةِ، وَمِثْلُهَا لَوْ بَلَغَتْ بِالْإِنْزَالِ قَبْلَ هَذِهِ الْمُدَّةِ، وَقَوْلُهُ: وَلَمْ تَحِضْ شَامِلٌ لِمَا إذَا لَمْ تَرَ دَمًا أَصْلًا، أَوْ رَأَتْ وَانْقَطَعَ قَبْلَ التَّمَامِ. قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة بَلَغَتْ فَرَأَتْ يَوْمًا دَمًا ثُمَّ انْقَطَعَ حَتَّى مَضَتْ سَنَةٌ ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا فَعِدَّتُهَا بِالْأَشْهُرِ. اهـ. وَسَيَذْكُرُ الشَّارِحُ عَنْ الْبَحْرِ أَنَّهَا إذَا بَلَغَتْ ثَلَاثِينَ سَنَةً وَلَمْ تَحِضْ حُكِمَ بِإِيَاسِهَا وَيَأْتِي بَيَانُهُ بَيَانُهُ (قَوْلُهُ: بِأَنْ حَاضَتْ) أَيْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ مَثَلًا (قَوْلُهُ: ثُمَّ امْتَدَّ طُهْرُهَا) أَيْ سَنَةً، أَوْ أَكْثَرَ بَحْرٌ (قَوْلُهُ: مِنْ انْقِضَائِهَا بِتِسْعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ) سَنَةٌ مِنْهَا مُدَّةُ الْإِيَاسِ وَثَلَاثَةٌ مِنْهَا لِلْعِدَّةِ. وَرَأَيْت بِخَطِّ شَيْخِ مَشَايِخِنَا السَّائِحَانِيِّ أَنَّ الْمُعْتَمَدَ عِنْدَ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ لِوَفَاءِ الْعِدَّةِ مِنْ سَنَةٍ كَامِلَةٍ تِسْعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ لِمُدَّةِ الْإِيَاسِ وَثَلَاثَةِ أَشْهُرٍ لِانْقِضَاءِ الْعِدَّةِ. قُلْت: وَلِذَا عَبَّرَ فِي الْمَجْمَعِ بِالْحَوْلِ.

(قَوْلُهُ: نَعَمْ لَوْ قَضَى مَالِكِيٌّ بِذَلِكَ نَفَذَ) لِأَنَّهُ مُجْتَهِدٌ فِيهِ، وَهَذَا كُلُّهُ رَدٌّ عَلَى مَا فِي الْبَزَّازِيَّةِ. قَالَ الْعَلَّامَةُ: وَالْفَتْوَى فِي زَمَانِنَا عَلَى قَوْلِ مَالِكٍ وَعَلَى مَا فِي جَامِعِ الْفُصُولَيْنِ: لَوْ قَضَى قَاضٍ بِانْقِضَاءِ عِدَّتِهَا بَعْدَ مُضِيِّ تِسْعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ نَفَذَ اهـ لِأَنَّ الْمُعْتَمَدَ أَنَّ الْقَاضِيَ لَا يَصِحُّ قَضَاؤُهُ بِغَيْرِ مَذْهَبِهِ خُصُوصًا قُضَاةُ زَمَانِنَا

قُلْت: لَكِنَّ هَذَا ظَاهِرٌ إذَا أَمْكَنَ قَضَاءُ مَالِكِيٍّ بِهِ، أَوْ تَحْكِيمُهُ، أَمَّا فِي بِلَادٍ لَا يُوجَدُ فِيهَا مَالِكِيٌّ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ فَالضَّرُورَةُ مُتَحَقِّقَةٌ، وَكَأَنَّ هَذَا وَجْهُ مَا مَرَّ عَنْ الْبَزَّازِيَّةِ وَالْفُصُولَيْنِ، فَلَا يَرِدُ قَوْلُهُ: فِي النَّهْرِ إنَّهُ لَا دَاعِيَ إلَى الْإِفْتَاءِ بِقَوْلٍ نَعْتَقِدُ أَنَّهُ خَطَأٌ يَحْتَمِلُ الصَّوَابَ مَعَ إمْكَانِ التَّرَافُعِ إلَى مَالِكِيٍّ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ اهـ تَأَمَّلْ، وَلِهَذَا قَالَ الزَّاهِدِيُّ: وَقَدْ كَانَ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا يُفْتُونَ بِقَوْلِ مَالِكٍ فِي هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةِ لِلضَّرُورَةِ. اهـ.

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb Kitāb Talāq, vol 4 p. 142

وَفِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة امْرَأَةٌ رَأَتْ الدَّمَ وَهِيَ بِنْتُ ثَلَاثِينَ سَنَةً مَثَلًا رَأَتْ يَوْمًا دَمًا لَا غَيْرَ ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا زَوْجُهَا قَالَ لَيْسَتْ هِيَ آيِسَةً وَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ تَعْتَدُّ بِالشُّهُورِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مِنْ اللَّائِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ وَبِهِ نَأْخُذُ اهـ.

وَفِي الصُّغْرَى وَاعْتِبَارُ الشُّهُورِ فِي الْعِدَّةِ بِالْأَيَّامِ دُونَ الْأَهِلَّةِ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ إنَّمَا الْخِلَافُ بَيْنَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَصَاحِبَيْهِ فِي الْإِجَارَةِ اهـ.

وَفِي الْمُجْتَبَى جَعَلَهُ عَلَى الْخِلَافِ كَالْإِجَارَةِ وَالدَّيْنِ وَإِنَّمَا تُعْتَبَرُ بِالْأَيَّامِ إجْمَاعًا مُدَّةُ الْعِنِّينِ، وَفِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة امْرَأَةٌ بَلَغَتْ فَرَأَتْ يَوْمًا دَمًا ثُمَّ انْقَطَعَ عَنْهَا الدَّمُ حَتَّى مَضَتْ سَنَةٌ ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا زَوْجُهَا فَعِدَّتُهَا بِالْأَشْهُرِ اهـ.

وَخَرَجَ بِقَوْلِهِ إنْ لَمْ تَحِضْ الشَّابَّةُ الْمُمْتَدُّ طُهْرُهَا فَلَا تَعْتَدُّ بِالْأَشْهُرِ وَصُورَتُهَا إذَا رَأَتْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ وَانْقَطَعَ وَمَضَى سَنَةٌ أَوْ أَكْثَرُ ثُمَّ طَلُقَتْ فَعِدَّتُهَا بِالْحَيْضِ إلَى أَنْ تَبْلُغَ إلَى حَدِّ الْإِيَاسِ وَهُوَ خَمْسٌ وَخَمْسُونَ سَنَةً فِي الْمُخْتَارِ كَذَا فِي الْبَزَّازِيَّةِ وَمِنْ الْغَرِيبِ مَا فِي الْبَزَّازِيَّةِ قَالَ الْعَلَّامَةُ وَالْفَتْوَى فِي زَمَانِنَا عَلَى قَوْلِ مَالِكٍ فِي عِدَّةِ الْآيِسَةِ اهـ.

 

Also see Ahsanul Fatawa, vol 5, Ch. Iddah p 444 – 446

 

According to the Maliki school, a divorced woman whose period has ceased can wait up to 9 months after divorce and thereafter observe a waiting period of 3 months for her post-divorce waiting period to complete.  See Sharhul Kabeer wa Hashiyah Dasooqi vol 2, p. 470

[عدة الْحُرَّة]

(وَإِنْ) (لَمْ تُمَيِّزْ) الْمُسْتَحَاضَةُ الْمُطَلَّقَةُ بَيْنَ الدَّمَيْنِ (أَوْ) (تَأَخَّرَ) حَيْضُ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ (بِلَا سَبَبٍ) أَصْلًا (أَوْ) بِسَبَبِ أَنَّهَا (مَرِضَتْ) قَبْلَ الطَّلَاقِ أَوْ بَعْدَهُ فَانْقَطَعَ حَيْضُهَا (تَرَبَّصَتْ) فِي هَذِهِ الْمَسَائِلِ الثَّلَاثَةِ (تِسْعَةً) مِنْ الْأَشْهُرِ اسْتِبْرَاءً لِزَوَالِ الرِّيبَةِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مُدَّةُ الْحَمْلِ غَالِبًا (ثُمَّ اعْتَدَّتْ بِثَلَاثَةٍ) وَحَلَّتْ بَعْدَ السَّنَةِ حُرَّةً أَوْ أَمَةً وَشُبِّهَ فِي الثَّلَاثَةِ قَوْلُهُ: (كَعِدَّةِ مَنْ لَمْ تَرَ الْحَيْضَ) لِصِغَرٍ، وَهِيَ مُطِيقَةٌ أَوْ لِكَوْنِهَا لَمْ تَرَهُ أَصْلًا.

 

[3] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb Kitāb Talāq, vol 4 p. 150

(قَوْلُهُ وَمَنْ عَادَ دَمُهَا بَعْدَ الْأَشْهُرِ الْحَيْضُ) أَيْ: وَعِدَّةُ مَنْ اعْتَدَّتْ بِالْأَشْهُرِ لِإِيَاسِهَا ثُمَّ رَأَتْ دَمًا الْحَيْضُ فَيُنْتَقَضُ مَا مَضَى مِنْ عِدَّتِهَا وَعَلَيْهَا أَنْ تَسْتَأْنِفَ الْعِدَّةَ بِالْحَيْضِ وَمَعْنَاهُ إذَا رَأَتْ الدَّمَ عَلَى الْعَادَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ عَوْدَهُ يُبْطِلُ إيَاسَهَا وَهُوَ الصَّحِيحُ فَظَهَرَ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ خَلْفًا، وَهَذَا؛ لِأَنَّ شَرْطَ الْخَلْفِيَّةِ تَحَقُّقُ الْيَأْسِ وَذَلِكَ بِاسْتِدَامَةِ الْعَجْزِ إلَى الْمَمَاتِ كَالْفِدْيَةِ فِي حَقِّ الشَّيْخِ الْفَانِي كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb Kitāb Talāq, vol 1, p. 529

إنْ كَانَتْ آيِسَةً فَاعْتَدَّتْ بِالشُّهُورِ، ثُمَّ رَأَتْ الدَّمَ انْتَقَضَ مَا مَضَى مِنْ عِدَّتِهَا، وَعَلَيْهَا أَنْ تَسْتَأْنِفَ الْعِدَّةَ بِالْحَيْضِ وَمَعْنَاهُ إذَا رَأَتْ الدَّمَ عَلَى الْعَادَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ عَوْدَهَا يُبْطِلُ الْإِيَاسَ هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ.

 

Dissolving a Marriage Due to Erectile Dysfunction

23rd November 2022

 

Question: Almost 10 years we have not had a martial relationship due to my husband erectile dysfunction which has been medically proven and was provided with an artificial rubber penis. I have been married 24 years we have never had a relationship where we connected from the heart for me it was due to lack of support and family pressure and not knowing my Islamic rights. We don’t have any children.  I have spoken to my husband on several occasions discussing that we dissolve this marriage so I can move forward in life without doing any sin. But he is in denial and will not admit he has a medical problem and nor does he want to divorce me.  My question to you is what is the fatwa for a married women in Islām and what is my right in this situation as I have needs which are not being fulfilled?  I do not want to commit zina but my needs are not being met by him.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

Concerning your case scenario, your Islamic right to demand a divorce depends on a number of factors such as, whether this particular illness falls under the Islamic category of ineen or not, his condition existed before the marriage or occurred after the marriage. If before the marriage then whether you knew about it beforehand and consented to it or not and moreover, whether the marriage was consummated even once with full penetration or not. If the illness occurred after the marriage, then how long after the marriage did he suffer from such condition and to what extent has this mentally impacted you and whether the medical treatment has made any difference to him or not. These are the broad question that the board members of Sharī῾ah Council ask before deciding to dissolve the marriage if the husband is no willing to divorce his wife.[1] Since you are enquiring about the legitimacy of demanding divorce, our detailed answer is as follows.

 

Erectile dysfunction is a sexual deficiency that is not uncommon amongst men especially above the age of 40 (but some cases less than that) that can be caused by stress, anxiety, diabetes, high blood pressure or any other medical condition affecting the genital area. It occurs when there is not enough blood flow into the penis to trap the blood for erection during intimacy.[2] Though the doctors have provided your husband with an artificial rubber penis as a safe alternative, it has no legal implication nor can it be deemed similar to an actual penis fulfilling his wife’s sexual right, like an impotent man inserting his finger to satisfy his wife. His condition resembles to what the classical jurists refer to as an inneen – a person who is unable to have intimate relationship nor can he penetrate his wife’s vaginal area. The causes of this sexual deficiency may include old age, black magic, illness, sterilised and so forth. In all instances, he is unable to have an erection for penetration.[3]

 

When the husband becomes an impotent then his wife has the legitimate right to ask for a divorce. If there is a likelihood fear that she will fall into zina then ethically he should divorce her so to allow her to move on with her life. If he still refuses then she must present her case to a reputable Sharī῾ah Council who upon investigation will dissolve the marriage under the following conditions;

 

  1. She was unaware of his condition before the marriage.
  2. She did not consent to his condition nor expressed clear consent upon discovering it. If she did consent then her right to divorce is revoked.
  3. The marriage was not consummated at all. If it was consummated and thereafter became impotent then she has no right to dissolution.[4]

The Sharī῾ah Council will then give him one year respite for his treatment and if thereafter, he is not cured then they will dissolve the marriage. The wife’s respite does not count due to not presenting the case in front of the Sharī῾ah Council who are responsible for dissolving the marriage.[5] Thus, despite the medical documentation she provides, the Sharī῾ah Council would in principle still give one year of respite.

 

Having said the above, there are a few concerns that need to be addressed. The first being the sexual rights of the couple. The jurists such as Ibn Abideen Shami rahimahullah explain that the rights to sexual relationship belong to both the husband and wife. Just as his sexual needs ought to be fulfilled then so should her needs must be met and failing to do so is tantamount to neglecting her fundamental rights to which Islamically she has every right to object. Judicially (qadha’an), he must consummate the marriage at least once otherwise the judge can coerce him to do so, but ethically (diyanatan) compulsory more than once (or as frequent as possible). Some jurists maintain that the judge can even coerce him to be intimate with her more than once if he refuses, thus implying that consummation even more than once is judicially necessary, not just ethically.[6] Hence, the Sharī῾ah Councils can overrule the third condition above by taking her concerns into consideration and dissolve the marriage if he can no longer fulfil her sexual needs even if the marriage was consummated once.

 

A final point on this is that deprivation of sexual needs despite being married for a long-time can most likely result in tension and discord between the couple which can negatively impact the Islamic spirit of marriage which is built on peace and tranquillity. In other words, peace in marriage comes from heathy sexual relationship and when this is absent then so is the peaceful relationship in marriage. Strict application of the above conditions; consummation at least once and her initial consent, and her husband’s unwillingness to divorce falls contrary to the Islamic spirit of Nikah. Thus, in due consideration of this as Shaykh Khalid Sayfullah Rahmani also maintains is that despite if she initially consented to his condition and consummated, if her sexual needs are being neglected due to the husband’s impotency such as in the above case, her marriage can be dissolved so to safeguard her from further harm.[7]

 

In summary, it is permissible for you to ask for a divorce and if he refuses then you can present your case to a reputable Sharī῾ah Council who may dissolve your marriage upon examining your condition.

 

 

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

 

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] For more details, see Mufti Mahmood Hasan Gangohi Fatawa Mahmoodiyyah, Ch. Faskh and Tafreeq, vol 13, p. 273-274

 

[2] NHS, (2020) Erectile Dysfunction (impotence), at: Erectile dysfunction (impotence) – NHS (www.nhs.uk) [accessed 4th November 2022]

 

[3] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Talāq, vol 3 p. 494

بَابُ الْعِنِّينِ

وَغَيْرِهِ (هُوَ) لُغَةً مَنْ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى الْجِمَاعِ فِعِّيلٌ بِمَعْنَى مَفْعُولٍ جَمْعُهُ عُنُنٌ. وَشَرْعًا (مَنْ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى جِمَاعِ فَرْجِ زَوْجَتِهِ) يَعْنِي لِمَانِعٍ مِنْهُ كَكِبْرِ سِنٍّ، أَوْ سِحْرٍ

شُرُوعٌ فِي بَيَانِ مَنْ بِهِ مَرَضٌ لَهُ تَعَلُّقٌ بِالنِّكَاحِ (قَوْلُهُ: وَغَيْرِهِ) الْأَوْلَى وَنَحْوِهِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَنْ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى جِمَاعِ زَوْجَتِهِ: كَالْمَجْبُوبِ، وَالْخَصِيِّ، وَالْمَسْحُورِ، وَالشَّيْخِ الْكَبِيرِ، وَالشَّكَّازِ – كَشَدَّادٍ بِشِينٍ مُعْجَمَةٍ وَزَايٍ –: مَنْ إذَا حَدَّثَ الْمَرْأَةَ أَنْزَلَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُخَالِطَهَا قَامُوسٌ (قَوْلُهُ: عَلَى الْجِمَاعِ) أَيْ جِمَاعِ زَوْجَتِهِ، أَوْ غَيْرِهَا، فَهُوَ أَعَمُّ مِنْ الْمَعْنَى الشَّرْعِيِّ الْآتِي

(قَوْلُهُ: عَلَى جِمَاعِ فَرْجِ زَوْجَتِهِ) – أَيْ مَعَ وُجُودِ الْآلَةِ سَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ تَقُومُ أَوْ لَا – أَخْرَجَ الدُّبُرَ فَلَا يَخْرُجُ عَنْ الْعُنَّةِ بِالْإِدْخَالِ فِيهِ خِلَافًا لِابْنِ عَقِيلٍ مِنْ الْحَنَابِلَةِ مِعْرَاجٌ لِأَنَّ الْإِدْخَالَ فِيهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ أَشَدَّ، لَكِنَّهُ قَدْ يَكُونُ مَمْنُوعًا عَنْ الْإِدْخَالِ فِي الْفَرْجِ لِسِحْرٍ

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Talāq, vol 3 p. 494

(وَلَوْ وَجَدَتْهُ عِنِّينًا) هُوَ مَنْ لَا يَصِلُ إلَى النِّسَاءِ لِمَرَضٍ أَوْ كِبَرٍ، أَوْ سِحْرٍ وَيُسَمَّى الْمَعْقُودَ وَهْبَانِيَّةٌ (أَوْ خَصِيًّا) لَا يَنْتَشِرُ ذَكَرُهُ، فَإِنْ انْتَشَرَ لَمْ تُخَيَّرْ بَحْرٌ

(قَوْلُهُ: وَلَوْ وَجَدَتْهُ) أَيْ لَوْ وَجَدَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ الْحُرَّةُ غَيْرُ الرَّتْقَاءِ – كَمَا مَرَّ فِي زَوْجَةِ الْمَجْبُوبِ – زَوْجَهَا، وَلَوْ مَعْتُوهًا فَيُؤَجَّلُ بِحَضْرَةِ خَصْمٍ عَنْهُ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ، وَيُشْتَرَطُ لِتَأْجِيلِهِ فِي الْحَالِ كَوْنُهُ بَالِغًا، أَوْ مُرَاهِقًا، وَكَوْنُهُ صَحِيحًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَلَبِّسٍ بِإِحْرَامٍ كَمَا سَيَأْتِي؛ وَشَمِلَ مَا لَوْ وَصَلَ إلَيْهَا ثُمَّ أَبَانَهَا ثُمَّ تَزَوَّجَهَا وَلَمْ يَصِلْ إلَيْهَا فِي النِّكَاحِ الثَّانِي لِتَجَدُّدِ حَقِّ الْمُطَالَبَةِ بِكُلِّ عَقْدٍ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ (قَوْلُهُ: عِنِّينًا) وَمِثْلُهُ الشَّكَّازُ كَمَا مَرَّ (قَوْلُهُ: هُوَ مَنْ لَا يَصِلُ إلَى النِّسَاءِ إلَخْ) هَذَا مَعْنَاهُ لُغَةً، وَأَمَّا مَعْنَاهُ الشَّرْعِيُّ الْمُرَادُ هُنَا: فَهُوَ مَنْ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى جِمَاعِ فَرْجِ زَوْجَتِهِ مَعَ قِيَامِ الْآلَةِ لِمَرَضٍ بِهِ كَمَا مَرَّ،

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb Talāq, vol 4 p. 133

بَابُ الْعِنِّينِ

وَأَمَّا عِنْدَ الْفُقَهَاءِ فَهُوَ مَنْ لَا يَصِلُ إلَى النِّسَاءِ مَعَ قِيَامِ الْآلَةِ لِمَرَضٍ بِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَصِلُ إلَى الثَّيِّبِ دُونَ الْبِكْرِ أَوْ إلَى بَعْضِ النِّسَاءِ دُونَ بَعْضٍ سَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ آلَتُهُ تَقُومُ أَوْ لَا كَمَا فِي الْعِنَايَةِ……

وَلِذَا قَالَ فِي شَرْحِ الْمَنْظُومَةِ الشَّكَّازُ بِفَتْحِ الْمُعْجَمَةِ وَكَافٍ مُشَدَّدَةٍ وَبَعْدَ الْأَلْفِ زَايٌ هُوَ الَّذِي إذَا جَذَبَ الْمَرْأَةَ أَنْزَلَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُخَالِطَهَا ثُمَّ لَا تَنْتَشِرُ آلَتُهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ لِجِمَاعِهَا وَهُوَ مِنْ قَبِيلِ الْعِنِّينِ لَهَا الْمُطَالَبَةُ بِالتَّفْرِيقِ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَصِلُ إلَى الثَّيِّبِ دُونَ الْبِكْرِ أَوْ إلَى بَعْضِ النِّسَاءِ دُونَ بَعْضٍ لِضَعْفِ طَبِيعَتِهِ أَوْ لِكِبَرِ سِنِّهِ أَوْ سِحْرٍ فَهُوَ عِنِّينٌ فِي حَقِّ مَنْ لَا يَصِلُ إلَيْهَا لِفَوَاتِ الْمَقْصُودِ فِي حَقِّهَا

 

 

[4] Maulana Abdus Samad Rahmani, faskh wa Tafreeq, p. 107

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Talāq, vol 3 p. 501

(تَزَوَّجَ) الْأُولَى، أَوْ امْرَأَةً (أُخْرَى عَالِمَةً بِحَالِهِ لَا خِيَارَ لَهَا عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ) الْمُفْتَى بِهِ بَحْرٌ عَنْ الْمُحِيطِ خِلَافًا لِتَصْحِيحِ الْخَانِيَّةِ.

قُلْت: وَوَجْهُ الْمُفْتَى بِهِ أَنَّهُ بَعْدَ عِلْمِهَا بِتَحَقُّقِ عَجْزِهِ وَعَدَمِ عِلْمِهَا بِأَنَّ عَجْزَهُ مُخْتَصٌّ بِالْأُولَى تَكُونُ رَاضِيَةً بِهِ، وَطَمَعُهَا فِي وُصُولِهِ إلَيْهَا يُؤَكِّدُ رِضَاهَا بِهِ

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb Talāq, vol 4 p. 135

وَأَشَارَ إلَى أَنَّهُ لَوْ وَطِئَهَا مَرَّةً لَا حَقَّ لَهَا فِي الْمُطَالَبَةِ لِسُقُوطِ حَقِّهَا بِالْمَرَّةِ قَضَاءً وَمَا زَادَ عَلَيْهَا فَهُوَ مُسْتَحَقٌّ دِيَانَةً لَا قَضَاءً كَمَا فِي جَامِعِ قَاضِي خَانْ، وَفِي فَتَاوَاهُ لَوْ كَانَ يَأْتِيهَا فِيمَا دُونَ الْفَرْجِ حَتَّى يُنْزِلَ وَتُنْزِلَ وَلَا يَصِلُ إلَيْهَا فِي فَرْجِهَا وَقَامَتْ مَعَهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ زَمَانًا وَهِيَ بِكْرٌ أَوْ ثَيِّبٌ ثُمَّ خَاصَمَتْهُ إلَى الْقَاضِي أَجَّلَهُ الْقَاضِي سَنَةً، وَلَوْ وَطِئَهَا بَعْدَ التَّأْجِيل سَقَطَ حَقُّهَا وَلَوْ حَائِضًا أَوْ نُفَسَاءَ أَوْ صَائِمَةً أَوْ مُحْرِمَةً كَذَا فِي الْمِعْرَاجِ وَإِلَى أَنَّ الزَّوْجَ لَوْ طَلَبَ أَنْ يُؤَجِّلَ بَعْدَ السَّنَةِ، وَلَوْ يَوْمًا لَا يُجِيبُهُ الْقَاضِي إلَّا بِرِضَاهَا وَلَهَا الرُّجُوعُ وَاخْتِيَارُ الْفُرْقَةِ كَذَا فِي الِاخْتِيَارِ وَقَدَّمْنَا أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ بِالزَّوْجَةِ الْحُرَّةُ

 

 

[5] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Talāq, vol 3 p. 497

(أُجِّلَ سَنَةً) لِاشْتِمَالِهَا عَلَى الْفُصُولِ الْأَرْبَعَةِ، وَلَا عِبْرَةَ بِتَأْجِيلِ غَيْرِ قَاضِي الْبَلْدَةِ (قَمَرِيَّةً) بِالْأَهِلَّةِ عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ وَهِيَ ثَلَثُمِائَةٍ وَأَرْبَعَةٌ وَخَمْسُونَ يَوْمًا وَبَعْضُ يَوْمٍ، وَقِيلَ: شَمْسِيَّةً بِالْأَيَّامِ وَهِيَ أَزْيَدُ بِأَحَدَ عَشَرَ يَوْمًا، قِيلَ وَبِهِ يُفْتَى،

فَالْحَقُّ أَنَّ التَّفْرِيقَ إمَّا بِغَلَبَةِ ظَنِّ عَدَمِ زَوَالِهِ لِزَمَانَتِهِ أَوْ لِلْآفَةِ الْأَصْلِيَّةِ، وَمُضِيُّ السَّنَةِ مُوجِبٌ لِذَلِكَ، أَوْ هُوَ عَدَمُ إيفَاءِ حَقِّهَا، وَالسَّنَةُ جُعِلَتْ غَايَةً فِي الصَّبْرِ وَإِبْلَاءِ الْعُذْرِ شَرْعًا، وَتَمَامُهُ فِي الْفَتْحِ (قَوْلُهُ: وَلَا عِبْرَةَ بِتَأْجِيلِ غَيْرِ قَاضِي الْبَلْدَةِ) لِأَنَّ هَذَا مُقَدِّمَةُ أَمْرٍ لَا يَكُونُ إلَّا عِنْدَ الْقَاضِي وَهُوَ الْفُرْقَةُ فَكَذَا مُقَدِّمَتُهُ وَلْوَالِجِيَّةٌ، فَلَا يُعْتَبَرُ تَأْجِيلُ الْمَرْأَةِ وَلَا تَأْجِيلُ غَيْرِهَا بَحْرٌ عَنْ الْخَانِيَّةِ، وَلَا يُعْتَبَرُ تَأْجِيلُ غَيْرِ الْحَاكِمِ كَائِنًا مَنْ كَانَ فَتْحٌ، وَظَاهِرُهُ وَلَوْ مُحَكَّمًا تَأَمَّلْ. وَفِي الْبَحْرِ: وَلَوْ عُزِلَ الْقَاضِي بَعْدَمَا أَجَّلَهُ بَنَى الْمَوْلَى عَلَى التَّأْجِيلِ الْأَوَّلِ (قَوْلُهُ: بِالْأَهِلَّةِ عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ) وَجْهُهُ أَنَّ الثَّابِتَ عَنْ الصَّحَابَةِ كَعُمَرَ وَغَيْرِهِ اسْمُ السَّنَةِ، وَأَهْلُ الشَّرْعِ إنَّمَا يَتَعَارَفُونَ الْأَشْهُرَ وَالسِّنِينَ بِالْأَهِلَّةِ، فَإِذَا أَطْلَقُوا السَّنَةَ انْصَرَفُوا إلَى ذَلِكَ مَا لَمْ يُصَرِّحُوا بِخِلَافِهِ فَتْحٌ

(قَوْلُهُ: وَقِيلَ شَمْسِيَّةٌ) اخْتَارَهُ شَمْسُ الْأَئِمَّةِ السَّرَخْسِيُّ وَقَاضِي خَانْ وَظَهِيرُ الدِّينِ، وَهِيَ رِوَايَةُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ فَتْحٌ. وَعَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ أَنَّ الِاعْتِبَارَ لِلْعَدَدِيَّةِ وَهِيَ ثَلَثُمِائَةٍ وَسِتُّونَ يَوْمًا قُهُسْتَانِيٌّ (قَوْلُهُ: وَهِيَ أَزْيَدُ بِأَحَدَ عَشَرَ يَوْمًا) أَيْ وَخَمْسِ سَاعَاتٍ وَخَمْسٍ وَخَمْسِينَ دَقِيقَةً، أَوْ تِسْعٍ وَأَرْبَعِينَ دَقِيقَةً، وَتَمَامُهُ فِي الْقُهُسْتَانِيِّ

 

 

[6] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Nikāh, vol 3 p. 202-3

بَابُ الْقَسْمِ

(قَوْلُهُ وَيَسْقُطُ حَقُّهَا بِمَرَّةٍ) قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ: وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ تَرْكَ جِمَاعِهَا مُطْلَقًا لَا يَحِلُّ لَهُ، صَرَّحَ أَصْحَابُنَا بِأَنَّ جِمَاعَهَا أَحْيَانًا وَاجِبٌ دِيَانَةً، لَكِنْ لَا يَدْخُلُ تَحْتَ الْقَضَاءِ وَالْإِلْزَامِ إلَّا الْوَطْأَةُ الْأُولَى وَلَمْ يُقَدِّرُوا فِيهِ مُدَّةً.

وَيَجِبُ أَنْ لَا يَبْلُغَ بِهِ مُدَّةَ الْإِيلَاءِ إلَّا بِرِضَاهَا وَطِيبِ نَفْسِهَا بِهِ. اهـ. قَالَ فِي النَّهْرِ: فِي هَذَا الْكَلَامِ تَصْرِيحٌ بِأَنَّ الْجِمَاعَ بَعْدَ الْمَرَّةِ حَقُّهُ لَا حَقُّهَا اهـ. قُلْت: فِيهِ نَظَرٌ بَلْ هُوَ حَقُّهُ وَحَقُّهَا أَيْضًا، لِمَا عَلِمْت مِنْ أَنَّهُ وَاجِبٌ دِيَانَةً. قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ: وَحَيْثُ عُلِمَ أَنَّ الْوَطْءَ لَا يَدْخُلُ تَحْتَ الْقَسْمِ فَهَلْ هُوَ وَاجِبٌ لِلزَّوْجَةِ وَفِي الْبَدَائِعِ: لَهَا أَنْ تُطَالِبَهُ بِالْوَطْءِ لِأَنَّ حِلَّهُ لَهَا حَقُّهَا، كَمَا أَنَّ حِلَّهَا لَهُ حَقُّهُ، وَإِذَا طَالَبَتْهُ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ وَيُجْبَرُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ مَرَّةً وَالزِّيَادَةُ تَجِبُ دِيَانَةً لَا فِي الْحُكْمِ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ. وَبِهِ عُلِمَ أَنَّهُ كَانَ عَلَى الشَّارِحِ أَنْ يَقُولَ وَيَسْقُطُ حَقُّهَا بِمَرَّةٍ فِي الْقَضَاءِ أَيْ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا مَرَّةً يُؤَجِّلُهُ الْقَاضِي سَنَةً ثُمَّ يَفْسَخُ الْعَقْدَ. أَمَّا لَوْ أَصَابَهَا مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً لَمْ يَتَعَرَّضْ لَهُ لِأَنَّهُ عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ غَيْرُ عِنِّينٍ وَقْتَ الْعَقْدِ، بَلْ يَأْمُرُهُ بِالزِّيَادَةِ أَحْيَانًا لِوُجُوبِهَا عَلَيْهِ إلَّا لِعُذْرٍ وَمَرَضٍ أَوْ عُنَّةٍ عَارِضَةٍ أَوْ نَحْوِ ذَلِكَ وَسَيَأْتِي فِي بَابِ الظِّهَارِ أَنَّ عَلَى الْقَاضِي إلْزَامَ الْمُظَاهِرِ بِالتَّكْفِيرِ دَفْعًا لِلضَّرَرِ عَنْهَا بِحَبْسٍ أَوْ ضَرْبٍ إلَى أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ أَوْ يُطَلِّقَ وَهَذَا رُبَّمَا يُؤَيِّدُ الْقَوْلَ الْمَارَّ بِأَنَّهُ تَجِبُ الزِّيَادَةُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ فَتَأَمَّلْ

 

Also see Maulana Abdus Samad Rahmani, faskh wa Tafreeq, p. 108

 

[7] Khalid Sayfullah Rahmani, Jadeed Fiqhi Masail, Marriage Dissolution due to impotency vol 3, p. 163-172

Apostatised Wife and Iddah

4th August 2022

Question: I am enquiring about a friend who was a revert. She got married but after she got married her faith got weak and left Islām. She returned back to Islām a few weeks later and became a Muslim again. She is now wanting to return to her husband in the next month but after returning back to Islām, she started to talk to other men in sexual ways within the three months period which she now regrets. My questions are;

  1. What is the status of her marriage? Must her Nikāh be renewed or not?
  2. Can she still marry her previous husband even though she was talking to other men after returning back to Islām?
  3. Is waiting period necessary upon her and if so, can he marry her within the three-month period or after her waiting period?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In regards to your query, the adopted stance and the general position in the Hanafi tradition is that apostasy instantly dissolves the marriage, which means that no form of conjugal relationship between them is permissible simply because in this case Islām and disbelief cannot co-exist in the same marriage. Apostasy is an act of rebellion that nullifies all deeds and action including marriage except that the jurists have mentioned that she is still entitled to the full mahr if the wife’s apostasy occurred after the marriage was consummated but not before that. As a result of the wife’s apostasy, her marriage to someone else will not be permitted either due to the severity of the crime and therefore must be convinced to return back to Islām and reunite with her former husband. [1] You mentioned that she repented and returned back to Islām, then her Nikāh must be renewed with her former husband with a new mahr regardless of how many times she apostates.[2] Despite that she conversed with other men inappropriately after returning back to Islām, this does not prevent her from returning back to her husband. She must however sincerely repent from her sin and adopt all necessary precautions to safeguard her faith ensuring that this does not happen again.

Despite her apostasy, waiting period is still mandated on her as this affects the legal ruling of providing maintenance and accommodation. Usually where post-divorce grace period is not mandated then expenses and accommodation do not apply (for instance husband divorcing his wife without consummation or valid seclusion). In the case of her apostasy, waiting period would apply if the marriage was consummated that is because she is still entitled to accommodation until her Iddah expires. She will not eligible to financial maintenance however due to her disobedience.[3] If she returned back to Islām during her three menses waiting period, she can renew her Nikāh with her former husband during her waiting period.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 4 p. 253

[مَطْلَبٌ الْمَعْصِيَةُ تَبْقَى بَعْدَ الرِّدَّةِ]

(قَوْلُهُ وَلَيْسَ لِلْمُرْتَدَّةِ التَّزَوُّجُ بِغَيْرِ زَوْجِهَا) فِي كَافِي الْحَاكِمِ: وَإِنْ لَحِقَتْ بِدَارِ الْحَرْبِ كَانَ لِزَوْجِهَا أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ أُخْتَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا، فَإِنْ سُبِيَتْ أَوْ عَادَتْ مُسْلِمَةً لَمْ يَضُرَّ ذَلِكَ نِكَاحَ الْأُخْتِ وَكَانَتْ فَيْئًا إنْ سُبِيَتْ وَتُجْبَرُ عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ، وَإِنْ عَادَتْ مُسْلِمَةً كَانَ لَهَا أَنْ تَتَزَوَّجَ مِنْ سَاعَتِهَا. وَظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّ لَهَا التَّزَوُّجَ بِمَنْ شَاءَتْ،

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Nikāh, vol 1, p. 339

[الْبَابُ الْعَاشِرُ فِي نِكَاحِ الْكُفَّارِ]

ارْتَدَّ أَحَدُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ عَنْ الْإِسْلَامِ وَقَعَتْ الْفُرْقَةُ بِغَيْرِ طَلَاقٍ فِي الْحَالِ قَبْلَ الدُّخُولِ وَبَعْدَهُ ثُمَّ إنْ كَانَ الزَّوْجُ هُوَ الْمُرْتَدُّ فَلَهَا كُلُّ الْمَهْرِ إنْ دَخَلَ بِهَا وَنِصْفُهُ إنْ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ بِهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ هِيَ الْمُرْتَدَّةُ فَلَهَا كُلُّ الْمَهْرِ إنْ دَخَلَ بِهَا وَإِنْ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ بِهَا فَلَا مَهْرَ لَهَا

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Nikāh, vol 2 p. 337

[فَصْلٌ بَيَانُ مَا يَرْفَعُ حُكْمَ النِّكَاحِ]

وَمِنْهَا رِدَّةُ أَحَدِ الزَّوْجَيْنِ؛ لِأَنَّ الرِّدَّةَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْمَوْتِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا سَبَبٌ مُفْضٍ إلَيْهِ، وَالْمَيِّتُ لَا يَكُونُ مَحَلًّا لِلنِّكَاحِ، وَلِهَذَا لَمْ يَجُزْ نِكَاحُ الْمُرْتَدِّ لِأَحَدٍ فِي الِابْتِدَاءِ، فَكَذَا فِي حَالِ الْبَقَاءِ؛ وَلِأَنَّهُ لَا عِصْمَةَ مَعَ الرِّدَّةِ، وَمِلْكُ النِّكَاحِ لَا يَبْقَى مَعَ زَوَالِ الْعِصْمَةِ غَيْرَ أَنَّ رِدَّةَ الْمَرْأَةِ تَكُونُ فُرْقَةً بِغَيْرِ طَلَاقٍ بِلَا خِلَافٍ.

 

It must be noted that soe Hanafi scholars maintain that Her Nikah does not break and remains with her husband. She must however be convinced to return back to Islām. See Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhyanwi Ahsanul Fatawa, vol 6, p. 361-4, Fatawa Tatarkhaniyyah, vol 4, p.  268.

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 3 p. 194

[بَابُ نِكَاحِ الْكَافِرِ]

(وَارْتِدَادُ أَحَدِهِمَا) أَيْ الزَّوْجَيْنِ (فَسْخٌ) فَلَا يُنْقِصُ عَدَدًا (عَاجِلٌ)

(قَوْلُهُ فَلَا يُنْقِصُ عَدَدًا) فَلَوْ ارْتَدَّ مِرَارًا وَجَدَّدَ الْإِسْلَامَ فِي كُلِّ مَرَّةٍ وَجَدَّدَ النِّكَاحَ عَلَى قَوْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ تَحِلُّ امْرَأَتُهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ إصَابَةِ زَوْجٍ ثَانٍ بَحْرٌ عَنْ الْخَانِيَّةِ

 

Ibn Humām, Fathul Qadeer, Kitāb al-Nikāh, vol 3 p. 428

[بَابُ نِكَاحِ أَهْلِ الشِّرْكِ]

(قَوْلُهُ وَإِذَا ارْتَدَّ أَحَدُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ عَنْ الْإِسْلَامِ وَقَعَتْ الْفُرْقَةُ) فِي الْحَالِ (بِغَيْرِ طَلَاقٍ) قَبْلَ الدُّخُولِ أَوْ بَعْدَهُ، وَبِهِ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَأَحْمَدُ فِي رِوَايَةٍ، وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ فِي أُخْرَى قَبْلَ الدُّخُولِ هُوَ كَذَلِكَ، وَأَمَّا بَعْدَهُ فَيُتَوَقَّفُ إلَى انْقِضَاءِ الْعِدَّةِ فَإِنْ جَمَعَهُمَا الْإِسْلَامُ قَبْلَ انْقِضَائِهَا يَسْتَمِرُّ النِّكَاحُ وَإِلَّا تَبَيَّنَ الْفِرَاقُ مِنْ وَقْتِ الرِّدَّةِ. قُلْنَا: هَذِهِ الْفُرْقَةُ لِلتَّنَافِي فَإِنَّ الرِّدَّةَ مُنَافِيَةٌ لِلْعِصْمَةِ مُوجِبَةٌ لِلْعُقُوبَةِ، وَالْمُنَافِي لَا يَحْتَمِلُ التَّرَاخِي، بِخِلَافِ الْإِسْلَامِ فَإِنَّهُ غَيْرُ مُنَافٍ لِلْعِصْمَةِ، هَذَا جَوَابُ ظَاهِرِ الْمَذْهَبِ. وَبَعْضُ مَشَايِخِ بَلْخٍ وَسَمَرْقَنْدَ أَفْتَوْا فِي رِدَّتِهَا بِعَدَمِ الْفُرْقَةِ حَسْمًا لِاحْتِيَالِهَا عَلَى الْخَلَاصِ بِأَكْبَرِ الْكَبَائِرِ، وَعَامَّةُ مَشَايِخِ بُخَارَى أَفْتَوْا بِالْفُرْقَةِ وَجَبْرِهَا عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ وَعَلَى النِّكَاحِ مَعَ زَوْجِهَا الْأَوَّلِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْحَسْمَ بِذَلِكَ يَحْصُلُ، وَلِكُلِّ قَاضٍ أَنْ يُجَدِّدَ النِّكَاحَ بَيْنَهُمَا بِمَهْرٍ يَسِيرٍ وَلَوْ بِدِينَارٍ رَضِيَتْ أَمْ لَا، وَتُعَزَّرُ خَمْسَةً وَسَبْعِينَ، وَلَا تُسْتَرَقُّ الْمُعْتَدَّةُ مَا دَامَتْ فِي دَارِ الْإِسْلَامِ فِي ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ، وَفِي رِوَايَةِ النَّوَادِرِ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ تُسْتَرَقُّ، وَهَذَا الْكَلَامُ فِي الْفُرْقَةِ.

 

[3] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 3 p. 194

(قَوْلُهُ لَوْ ارْتَدَّ) قَيْدٌ فِي قَوْلِهِ وَلِغَيْرِهَا النِّصْفُ إلَخْ (قَوْلُهُ وَعَلَيْهِ نَفَقَةُ الْعِدَّةِ) أَيْ لَوْ مَدْخُولًا بِهَا إذْ غَيْرُهَا لَا عِدَّةَ عَلَيْهَا. وَأَفَادَ وُجُوبَ الْعِدَّةِ سَوَاءٌ ارْتَدَّ أَوْ ارْتَدَّتْ بِالْحَيْضِ أَوْ بِالْأَشْهُرِ لَوْ صَغِيرَةً أَوْ آيِسَةً أَوْ بِوَضْعِ الْحَمْلِ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ

 

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, vol 3 p. 231

[بَابُ نِكَاحِ الْكَافِرِ]

وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ الْمُؤَلِّفُ وُجُوبَ الْعِدَّةِ عَلَيْهَا وَلَا شَكَّ فِي وُجُوبِهَا قَالَ فِي جَامِعِ الْفُصُولَيْنِ وَتَعْتَدُّ بِثَلَاثِ حِيَضٍ لَوْ حُرَّةً مِمَّنْ تَحِيضُ وَبِثَلَاثَةِ أَشْهُرٍ لَوْ آيِسَةً أَوْ صَغِيرَةً وَبِوَضْعِ الْحَمْلِ لَوْ حَامِلًا لَوْ دَخَلَ سَوَاءٌ ارْتَدَّ أَوْ ارْتَدَّتْ وَلَا نَفَقَةَ لَهَا فِي الْعِدَّةِ وَلَوْ ارْتَدَّ هُوَ لَا تُجْبَرُ الْمَرْأَةُ عَلَى التَّزَوُّجِ اهـ. وَفِي الْخُلَاصَةِ: إذَا ارْتَدَّتْ لَا نَفَقَةَ لَهَا فِي الْعِدَّةِ وَلَهَا السُّكْنَى وَبِهِ يُفْتَى ذَكَرَهُ فِي أَلْفَاظِ التَّكْفِيرِ،

 

Divorce in Menses

Divorce in Menses

16th May 2022

                                                                                                                  

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I query regarding talak whilst my wife was on her menses. From what I have read that the divorce doesn’t count as she has to be in a state of purity for the talak to count. What is the view of the Hanafi school of thought regarding this matter?

 

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer: Thank for your query. In reference to your query, a divorce issued whilst the wife is in her menses is valid and effective.[1] However, this is not the correct method of divorcing one’s wife and also a sin.[2] The jurists advise that if the husband issued a revocable divorce (1 r 2 divorces) then to take her back into marriage until her period finishes and then issue a new divorce if he wishes to divorce her again. This was the same advice that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam gave to Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar radhiyallahu anhu who divorced his wife once in her menses and instructed her to retract from the divorce and then issue another divorce in her purity if he so wishes.[3]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Raddul Muhtar, kitabul talaaq, vol 3, p233/234

قوله وتجب رجعتها) أي الموطوءة المطلقة في الحيض (قوله على الأصح) مقابله قول القدوري إنها مستحبة لأن المعصية وقعت فتعذر ارتفاعها، ووجه الأصح قوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – لعمر في حديث ابن عمر في الصحيحين «مر ابنك فليراجعها» حين طلقها في حالة الحيض، فإنه يشتمل على وجوبين: صريح وهو الوجوب على عمر أن يأمر وضمني وهو ما يتعلق بابنه عند توجيه الصيغة إليه فإن عمر نائب فيه عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فهو كالمبلغ، وتعذر ارتفاع المعصية لا يصلح صارفا للصيغة عن الوجوب لجواز إيجاب رفع أثرها وهو العدة وتطويلها إذ بقاء الشيء بقاء ما هو أثره من وجه فلا تترك الحقيقة، وتمامه في الفتح (قوله رفعا للمعصية) بالراء، وهي أولى من نسخة الدال ط أي لأن الدفع بالدال لما لم يقع والرفع بالراء للواقع والمعصية هنا

وقعت، والمراد رفع أثرها وهو العدة وتطويلها كما علمت لأن رفع الطلاق بعد وقوعه غير ممكن.
(قوله فإذا طهرت طلقها إن شاء) ظاهر عبارته أنه يطلقها في الطهر الذي طلقها في حيضه، وهو موافق لما ذكره الطحاوي، وهو رواية عن الإمام لأن أثر الطلاق انعدم بالمراجعة فكأنه لم يطلقها في هذه الحيضة فيسن تطليقها في طهرها لكن المذكور في الأصل وهو ظاهر الرواية كما في الكافي وظاهر المذهب، وقول الكل كما في فتح القدير إنه إذا راجعها في الحيض أمسك عن طلاقها حتى تطهر ثم تحيض ثم تطهر فيطلقها ثانية. ولا يطلقها في الطهر الذي يطلقها في حيضه لأنه بدعي، كذا في البحر والمنح، وعبارة المصنف تحتمله. اهـ. ح. ويدل لظاهر الرواية حديث الصحيحين «مر ابنك فليراجعها ثم ليمسكها حتى تطهر ثم تحيض فتطهر، فإن بدا له أن يطلقها فليطلقها قبل أن يمسها فتلك العدة كما أمر الله عز وجل» بحر. قال في الفتح: ويظهر من لفظ الحديث تقييد الرجعة بذلك الحيض الذي أوقع فيه، وهو المفهوم من كلام الأصحاب إذا تؤمل.
فلو لم يفعل حتى طهرت تقررت المعصية. اهـ. وقد يقال: هذا ظاهر على رواية الطحاوي، أما على المذهب فينبغي أن لا تقرر المعصية حتى يأتي الطهر الثاني بحر قلت: وفيه نظر، فإنه حيث كان ذلك هو المفهوم من حديث وكلام الأصحاب يحمل المذهب عليه، فتأمل (قوله قيد بالطلاق) أي في قوله أو في حيض موطوءة، والمراد أيضا بالطلاق الرجعي احتراز عن البائن فإنه بدعي في ظاهر الرواية وإن كان في الطهر كما مر

[2]  Kitab ut Talaq, Fatawa Hindiyyah, vol 1, p349

والبدعي) من حيث الوقت أن يطلق المدخول بها وهي من ذوات الأقراء في حالة الحيض أو في طهر جامعها فيه وكان الطلاق واقعا ويستحب له أن يراجعها والأصح أن الرجعة واجبة هكذا في الكافي

 

[3] Bukhari, No. 5252

بَابُ إِذَا طُلِّقَتِ الحَائِضُ تَعْتَدُّ بِذَلِكَ الطَّلاَقِ

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: طَلَّقَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ امْرَأَتَهُ وَهِيَ حَائِضٌ، فَذَكَرَ عُمَرُ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ: «لِيُرَاجِعْهَا» قُلْتُ: تُحْتَسَبُ؟ قَالَ: فَمَهْ؟ وَعَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: «مُرْهُ فَلْيُرَاجِعْهَا» قُلْتُ: تُحْتَسَبُ؟ قَالَ: أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ عَجَزَ وَاسْتَحْمَقَ،

Wife Asking for a Divorce if Her Husband Refuses Intimacy

21st February 2021

 

Question: My husband does not sexually satisfy me. He fell asleep on me on our wedding night (the very first time I was intimate with someone). I have spoken to him and claims he tries harder and also exercises. He refuses to come near me and claims I shouldn’t be complaining and I should be grateful. He has no regrets for sleeping on me when I have the urge. I have to go to him for intimacy at least once every 3 to 4 months otherwise he isn’t bothered at all. Can I apply for divorce on this basis? Isn’t intimacy my right also and how often should a couple be intimate?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your case in question, as a point of principle intimacy in marriage is a shared right between the husband and wife. Just as the husband has natural urges then so does his wife. The Hanafi jurists mention that responding to intimacy when desired is wajib, which suggests that neither can the wife refuse intimacy when her husband demands it except during her menses, post-natal bleeding, during Ramadhān fasts and Ihram, and neither can he refuse when she demands it. The husband otherwise becomes sinful for refusing and will be accountable before Allāh Almighty.[1] Intimacy in marriage, as Imam Nawwawi rahimahullah explains, becomes a form of worship and rewarding when done to fulfil his wife’s needs which falls under kind social treatment towards her just as Allāh Almighty commands it. It is also rewarding with the intention of having pious children and protecting oneself from an unlawful relationship and unlawful gaze.[2] Refusing intimacy with her would inevitably lead to her suffering harm for neglecting her fundamental right.[3]

Thus, in your case if what you have stated is true then he becomes sinful for refusing intimacy with you if approaching once in 3 or 4 months is not sufficient. There is no prescribed period as to how often every couple must engage in intimacy as this varies between the natural urges of every couple. What is important is not to refuse without a valid reason and to engage in intimacy enough to protect themselves from unlawful relationship. Imam Ghazali rahimahullah however recommends every couple to be intimate at least once every four nights but this is not obligatory.[4] What I would initially recommend is consider marriage counselling or request a reliable family member to mediate between you both. Despite that, if he still remains reluctant towards you and expresses no interest in being intimate with you except once every three to four months which is not sufficient for your needs being fulfilled then as a last resort you may ask him to divorce you. If he still refuses then you can approach a reliable Shariah Council to dissolve your marriage.[5]

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Nikah, vol 2 p. 331

فَصْلٌ بَيَانُ حُكْمِ النِّكَاحِ

وَهَذَا الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ حِلُّ الِاسْتِمْتَاعِ مُشْتَرَكٌ بَيْنَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ، فَإِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ كَمَا تَحِلُّ لِزَوْجِهَا، فَزَوْجُهَا يَحِلُّ لَهَا قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: {لا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَلا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ} [الممتحنة: 10] ، وَلِلزَّوْجِ أَنْ يُطَالِبَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ مَتَى شَاءَ إلَّا عِنْدَ اعْتِرَاضِ أَسْبَابٍ مَانِعَةٍ مِنْ الْوَطْءِ كَالْحَيْضِ وَالنِّفَاسِ وَالظِّهَارِ وَالْإِحْرَامِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ، وَلِلزَّوْجَةِ أَنْ تُطَالِبَ زَوْجَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ؛ لِأَنَّ حِلَّهُ لَهَا حَقُّهَا كَمَا أَنَّ حِلَّهَا لَهُ حَقُّهُ، وَإِذَا طَالَبَتْهُ يَجِبُ عَلَى الزَّوْجِ، وَيُجْبَرُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَالزِّيَادَةُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ تَجِبُ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُ، وَبَيْنَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى مِنْ بَابِ حُسْنِ الْمُعَاشَرَةِ وَاسْتِدَامَةِ النِّكَاحِ، فَلَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا، وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ.

Mowsu’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah, vol 44, p. 13

وَلِلزَّوْجِ أَنْ يُطَالِبَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ مَتَى شَاءَ إِلاَّ عِنْدَ اعْتِرَاضِ أَسْبَابٍ مَانِعَةٍ مِنَ الْوَطْءِ كَالْحَيْضِ وَالنِّفَاسِ وَالظِّهَارِ وَالإِحْرَامِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ. وَلِلزَّوْجَةِ أَنْ تُطَالِبَ زَوْجَهَا بِالْوَطْءِ، لأَنَّ حِلَّهُ لَهَا حَقُّهَا، كَمَا أَنَّ حِلَّهَا لَهُ حَقُّهُ

 

Mowsu’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah, vol 44, p. 36

لِلْحَنَفِيَّةِ وَقَوْلٌ لِبَعْضِ الشَّافِعِيَّةِ، وَهُوَ أَنَّ لِلزَّوْجَةِ مُطَالَبَةَ زَوْجِهَا بِالْوَطْءِ، لأَِنَّ حِلَّهُ لَهَا حَقُّهَا، كَمَا أَنَّ حِلَّهَا لَهُ حَقُّهُ. وَإِذَا طَالَبَتْهُ بِهِ فَإِنَّهُ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ وَيُجْبَرُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً، وَالزِّيَادَةُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ دِيَانَةً فِيمَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى مِنْ بَابِ حُسْنِ الْمُعَاشَرَةِ وَاسْتِدَامَةِ النِّكَاحِ، وَلاَ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ، وَقَالُوا: يَأْثَمُ الزَّوْجُ إِذَا تَرَكَ مَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ دِيَانَةً مُتَعَنِّتًا مَعَ الْقُدْرَةِ عَلَى الْوَطْءِ.

 

[2] Nawwawi, Sharhul Muslim, vol 7, p. 92

باب بَيَانِ أَنَّ اسْمَ الصَّدَقَةِ يَقَعُ عَلَى كُلِّ نَوْعٍ مِنْ الْمَعْرُوفِ

 وَفِي هَذَا دَلِيلٌ عَلَى إِنَّ الْمُبَاحَاتِ تَصِيرُ طَاعَاتٍ بِالنِّيَّاتِ الصَّادِقَاتِ، فَالْجِمَاعُ يَكُونُ عِبَادَةً إِذَا نَوَى بِهِ قَضَاءَ حَقِّ الزَّوْجَةِ وَمُعَاشَرَتَهَا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ الَّذِي أَمَرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِهِ، أَوْ طَلَبَ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ، أَوْ إِعْفَافَ نَفْسِهِ أَوْ إِعْفَافَ الزَّوْجَةِ، وَمَنْعَهُمَا جَمِيعًا مِنَ النَّظَرِ إِلَى حَرَامٍ أَوِ الْفِكْرِ فِيهِ أَوِ الْهَمِّ بِهِ أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْمَقَاصِدِ الصَّالِحَةِ

 

[3] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Nikah, vol 2 p. 334

فَصْلٌ وِلَايَةُ التَّأْدِيبِ لِلزَّوْجِ إذَا لَمْ تُطِعْهُ

قِيلَ يُخَوِّفُهَا بِالْهَجْرِ أَوَّلًا وَالِاعْتِزَالِ عَنْهَا، وَتَرْكِ الْجِمَاعِ وَالْمُضَاجَعَةِ، فَإِنْ تَرَكَتْ وَإِلَّا هَجَرَهَا لَعَلَّ نَفْسَهَا لَا تَحْتَمِلُ الْهَجْرَ، ثُمَّ اُخْتُلِفَ فِي كَيْفِيَّةِ الْهَجْرِ قِيلَ يَهْجُرُهَا بِأَنْ لَا يُجَامِعَهَا، وَلَا يُضَاجِعَهَا عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ، وَقِيلَ يَهْجُرُهَا بِأَنْ لَا يُكَلِّمَهَا فِي حَالِ مُضَاجَعَتِهِ إيَّاهَا لَا أَنْ يَتْرُكَ جِمَاعَهَا وَمُضَاجَعَتَهَا؛ لِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ حَقٌّ مُشْتَرَكٌ بَيْنَهُمَا، فَيَكُونُ فِي ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ الضَّرَرِ مَا عَلَيْهَا، فَلَا يُؤَدِّبَهَا بِمَا يَضُرُّ بِنَفْسِهِ، وَيُبْطِلُ حَقَّهُ،

 

[4] Al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Deen, Kitab Adab Nikah, vol 2, p. 50

وَيَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَأْتِيَهَا فِي كُل أَرْبَعِ لَيَالٍ مَرَّةً، فَهُوَ أَعْدَلُهُ، إِذْ عَدَدُ النِّسَاءِ أَرْبَعَةٌ، فَجَازَ التَّأْخِيرُ إِلَى هَذَا الْحَدِّ. نَعَمْ، يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَزِيدَ أَوْ يَنْقُصَ بِحَسَبِ حَاجَتِهَا فِي التَّحْصِينِ، فَإِنَّ تَحْصِينَهَا وَاجِبٌ عَلَيْهِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ لاَ يَثْبُتُ الْمُطَالَبَةُ بِالْوَطْءِ، وَذَلِكَ لِعُسْرِ الْمُطَالَبَةِ وَالْوَفَاءِ.

 

[5] Majmu’atul Qawaneen Islami, Muslim Personal Law, Husband neglecting his Marital Obligations, Article 327,  p. 242,

 

This is also the view of Shaykhul Islām ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah, Mowsu’atul Fiqhiyyah Kuwaitiyyah, vol 44, p. 38

ثُمَّ قَال ابْنُ تَيْمِيَّةَ: وَحُصُول الضَّرَرِ لِلزَّوْجَةِ بِتَرْكِ الْوَطْءِ مُقْتَضٍ لِلْفَسْخِ بِكُل حَالٍ، سَوَاءٌ كَانَ بِقَصْدٍ مِنَ الزَّوْجِ أَوْ بِغَيْرِ قَصْدٍ، وَلَوْ مَعَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَعَجْزِهِ، كَالنَّفَقَةِ وَأَوْلَى لِلْفَسْخِ بِتَعَذُّرِهِ فِي الإِيلاَءِ إِجْمَاعًا

 

Does a Presumably Deceased Husband’s Nikah Still Remain Intact After Discovering He was Alive?

Does a Presumably Deceased Husband’s Nikah Still Remain Intact After Discovering He was Alive?

                       6th January 2022

  

Question: I need your guidance regarding an urgent matter. The problem is that few years back my brother’s family lived in Canada. My brother had a plane crash and the authorities reported him dead. So, his family returned back to Pakistan. My parents married me to my sister-in-law (after completing her iddah). She had 1 son and 1 daughter from her previous marriage. Now after 1 year the embassy reported that my brother is alive and survived the crash but was in comma since then. Now my question is, what is the legal status of my marriage? Also, she is pregnant with my baby girl so who will be the legal father?

 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

In reference to your case in question, if what you have said is true to its very nature then due to the complex nature of your query, there are a number of factors that must be addressed namely the announcement of her husband’s death, his right to reclaiming his wife after he is discovered to be alive and the legal father of the new baby girl.

As for the first issue about the announcement of her husband’s death, then the general ruling is that post-death injunctions only apply once a person’s death has been confirmed after thorough investigation of a person’s living status. Such confirmed report must be based on sound evidence that establishes near certainty of their death and not founded on mere assumptions. Near certainty can be established either by reliable witnesses or from the reports of such existential calamities that leave little scope of survival. If the authority’s report of her former husband’s death due to a plane crash was convincing enough to accept then it was reasonable to consider him dead as usually the chances of surviving a plane crash is extremely rare.[1] As of which all post death injunctions such as inheritance distribution, grace period of four months and ten days etc will apply.

The second issue is now that after a year the embassy notified the family that her former husband was alive all this time but was in a coma, most probably in a vegetative state and receiving treatment, if this is confirmed and the report can be trusted after investigation then the scholars of the four madhabs have differed as to which husband does she belong to (see footnote).[2] The standard position in the Hanafi school is that her first Nikah remains intact. Which means that she must return back to her former husband and her second Nikah to his younger brother becomes automatically annulled.[3] This ruling is based on Sayyiduna Umar’s radhiyallahu anhu judgment during his reign of Khilafat where a man was abducted by a group of Jinns and became unknown whether he was alive or not. Sayyiduna Umar radhiyallahu anhu issued an injunction for his wife to wait for four years during which if he returned then they can reunite and live as married couple otherwise he will be presumed dead. Her husband did not return during that time and so presuming him to be dead, she observed the post-death grace period of four months and ten days and thereafter remarried to someone else. After remarrying, her former husband suddenly  returned and upon seeing his wife with another man, he went to Khalif Umar radhiyallahu anhu and related the entire incident to him. In one narration Sayyiduna Umar radhiyallahu anhu gave him the choice between returning to his wife or reclaim his mahr back (so she can continue living with her second husband).[4] However, in another version Sayyiduna Umar radhiyallahu anhu retracted from this view in favour of Sayyiduna Ali radhiyallahu anhu who maintained that her former husband has rights over her so she must return back to him and separate from her second husband. She will be entitled to the mahr of her second husband due to the permissibility of intimacy and also observe a separate waiting period from her second husband before reuniting with her former husband. The underlying rational of this view is that the Quran prohibits men from marrying women in the wedlock of someone else. As her former Nikah was not broken, she is still in her previous marriage.[5]

The underpinning ruling of the above is similar to your situation as in, when her former husband was discovered to be alive then he has more rights over her because their nikah was still intact. As a result, your marriage with her shall be automatically annulled. Remember that to end the marriage, her husband must either divorce her or agree to a Khula – wife returning her mahr in exchange of releasing herself from his marriage – in order to remarry elsewhere otherwise she sill remains in his wedlock.

The third issue is that she must now observe a waiting period before returning back to her former husband as indicated in the fatwa of Sayyiduna Ali radhiyallahu anhu. This is because by her consummating lawfully with another man, the waiting period is so to cleanse her womb which is three menses. But if she is pregnant like in your case, then she must not consummate with him until child birth so not to mix his seminal fluid with the child she is already conceiving.[6] This leads on to the final point as to who is considered to be this new baby’s legitimate father that she is now conceiving. The soundest opinion is that her second husband, which is you, will be considered the child’s legal father Islamically which means that the child’s lineage will be attributed to you.[7]

Having said the above, a final note on this is that such sensitive matters must be treated with wisdom. As she rightfully belongs to her first husband, no one can take that right away from him. She can no longer continue with any conjugal relationship with her second husband. Her second husband however, becomes responsible for financially maintaining his new born child.

 

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Mafqood, vol 6 p. 462-463

قُلْت: وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّ هَذَا غَيْرُ خَارِجٍ عَنْ ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ أَيْضًا، بَلْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ إلَيْهِ مِنْ الْقَوْلِ بِالتَّقْدِيرِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ فَسَّرَهُ فِي شَرْحِ الْوَهْبَانِيَّةِ بِأَنْ يَنْظُرَ وَيَجْتَهِدَ وَيَفْعَلَ مَا يَغْلِبُ عَلَى ظَنِّهِ فَلَا يَقُولُ بِالتَّقْدِيرِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَرِدْ بِهِ الشَّرْعُ بَلْ يَنْظُرُ فِي الْأَقْرَانِ وَفِي الزَّمَانِ وَالْمَكَانِ وَيَجْتَهِدُ، ثُمَّ نَقَلَ عَنْ مُغْنِي الْحَنَابِلَةِ حِكَايَتَهُ عَنْ الشَّافِعِيِّ وَمُحَمَّدٍ، وَأَنَّهُ الْمَشْهُورُ عَنْ مَالِكٍ وَأَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَأَبِي يُوسُفَ. وَقَالَ الزَّيْلَعِيُّ: لِأَنَّهُ يَخْتَلِفُ بِاخْتِلَافِ الْبِلَادِ وَكَذَا غَلَبَةُ الظَّنِّ تَخْتَلِفُ بِاخْتِلَافِ الْأَشْخَاصِ فَإِنَّ الْمِلْكَ الْعَظِيمَ إذَا انْقَطَعَ خَبَرُهُ يَغْلِبُ عَلَى الظَّنِّ فِي أَدْنَى مُدَّةٍ أَنَّهُ قَدْ مَاتَ اهـ وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَنَّهُ يَجْتَهِدُ وَيُحَكِّمُ الْقَرَائِنَ الظَّاهِرَةَ الدَّالَّةَ عَلَى مَوْتِهِ وَعَلَى هَذَا يُبْتَنَى عَلَى مَا فِي جَامِعِ الْفَتَاوَى حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَإِذَا فُقِدَ فِي الْمُهْلِكَةِ فَمَوْتُهُ غَالِبٌ فَيُحْكَمُ بِهِ، كَمَا إذَا فُقِدَ فِي وَقْتِ الْمُلَاقَاةِ مَعَ الْعَدُوِّ أَوْ مَعَ قُطَّاعِ الطَّرِيقِ، أَوْ سَافَرَ عَلَى الْمَرَضِ الْغَالِبُ هَلَاكُهُ، أَوْ كَانَ سَفَرُهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ وَمَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ حُكِمَ بِمَوْتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ الْغَالِبُ فِي هَذِهِ الْحَالَاتِ وَإِنْ كَانَ بَيْنَ احْتِمَالَيْنِ، وَاحْتِمَالُ مَوْتِهِ نَاشِئٌ عَنْ دَلِيلٍ لَا احْتِمَالَ حَيَاتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ هَذَا الِاحْتِمَالَ كَاحْتِمَالِ مَا إذَا بَلَغَ الْمَفْقُودُ مِقْدَارَ مَا لَا يَعِيشُ عَلَى حَسَبِ مَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْمِقْدَارِ نَقْلٌ مِنْ الْغُنْيَةِ اهـ مَا فِي جَامِعِ الْفَتَاوَى.

 

[2] According to the famous view of the Maliki school, her first husband cannot claim any rights over her as she now belongs to her second husband. According to the Shafi’ee school, like the Hanafi school, her second Nikah will be automatically annulled and must return back to her former husband after completing a cleansing waiting period from her second husband. According to the soundest opinion of the Hanbali school, her first husband can claim rights over her if her second marriage was not consummated. If she consummated her second marriage then her first husband will be given a choice to either to take her back or release her by reclaiming his mahr in order to remain with her second husband.

 

Mawsoo’atul Fiqhiyyat Kuwaitiyyah, vol 38, p. 279 – shamila

وَعِنْدَ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ أَنَّ الْمَفْقُودَ إِنْ عَادَ قَبْل نِكَاحِ زَوْجَتِهِ غَيْرَهُ، فَهِيَ زَوْجَتُهُ، وَهَذَا هُوَ الْقَوْل الْمَشْهُورُ الْمَعْمُول بِهِ، فَإِنْ عَادَ بَعْدَ النِّكَاحِ، فَعَنْ مَالِكٍ فِي ذَلِكَ رِوَايَتَانِ: الأْولَى: إِنْ عَادَ قَبْل الدُّخُول، فَهُوَ أَحَقُّ بِهَا، وَيُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ زَوْجِهَا الثَّانِي، وَأَمَّا إِنْ عَادَ بَعْدَ الدُّخُول، فَالثَّانِي عَلَى نِكَاحِهِ، وَلاَ يُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَهُ، وَبَيْنَ زَوْجَتِهِ. الثَّانِيَةُ: إِنْ عَادَ الْمَفْقُودُ، فَوَجَدَ زَوْجَتَهُ قَدْ تَزَوَّجَتْ فَلاَ سَبِيل لَهُ عَلَيْهَا، وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ دُخُولٌ. وَقَدْ أَخَذَ بِكُلٍّ مِنَ الرِّوَايَتَيْنِ طَائِفَةٌ مِنَ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ، وَقَال ابْنُ الْقَاسِمِ، وَأَشْهَبُ بِأَنَّ أَقْوَى الْقَوْلَيْنِ مَا جَاءَ فِي الرِّوَايَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ  وَهِيَ مَذْكُورَةٌ فِي الْمُوَطَّأِ

وَقَوْل الشَّافِعِيَّةِ يَخْتَلِفُ بَيْنَ الْقَدِيمِ وَالْجَدِيدِ: فَفِي الْقَوْل الْقَدِيمِ: إِنْ قَدِمَ الْمَفْقُودُ بَعْدَ زَوَاجِ امْرَأَتِهِ، فَفِي عَوْدَتِهَا إِلَيْهِ قَوْلاَنِ، وَقِيل يُخَيَّرُ الأَْوَّل بَيْنَ أَخْذِهَا مِنَ الثَّانِي، وَتَرْكِهَا لَهُ وَأَخْذِ مَهْرِ الْمِثْل مِنْهُ. وَفِي الْقَوْل الْجَدِيدِ: هِيَ بَاقِيَةٌ عَلَى نِكَاحِ الْمَفْقُودِ، فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَتْ غَيْرَهُ فَنِكَاحُهَا بَاطِلٌ، تَعُودُ لِلأْوَّل بَعْدَ انْتِهَاءِ عِدَّتِهَا مِنَ الثَّانِي.

وَذَهَبَ الْحَنَابِلَةُ إِلَى أَنَّ الْمَفْقُودَ إِنْ قَدِمَ قَبْل أَنْ تَتَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَتُهُ، فَهِيَ عَلَى عِصْمَتِهِ. فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَتْ غَيْرَهُ، وَلَمْ يَدْخُل بِهَا، فَهِيَ زَوْجَةُ الأْوَّل فِي رِوَايَةٍ، وَهِيَ الصَّحِيحُ، وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ أَنَّهُ يُخَيَّرُ.فَإِنْ دَخَل بِهَا الثَّانِي، كَانَ الأْوَّل بِالْخِيَارِ، إِنْ شَاءَ أَخَذَ زَوْجَتَهُ بِالْعَقْدِ الأْوَّل، وَإِنْ شَاءَ أَخَذَ مَهْرَهَا وَبَقِيَتْ عَلَى نِكَاحِ الثَّانِي.

 

[3] Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Hiylatun Najizah, p. 68-69

[4] Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah, No: 16720

ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ جَعْدَةَ، أَنَّ رَجُلًا اسْتَهُوَتْهُ الْجِنُّ عَلَى عَهْدِ عُمَرَ، فَأَتَتِ امْرَأَتُهُ عُمَرَ، فَأَمَرَهَا «أَنْ تَرَبَّصَ أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ، ثُمَّ أَمَرَ وَلِيَّهُ بَعْدَ أَرْبَعِ سِنِينَ أَنْ يُطَلِّقَهَا، ثُمَّ أَمَرَهَا أَنْ تَعْتَدَّ، فَإِذَا انْقَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا تَزَوَّجَتْ، فَإِنْ جَاءَ زَوْجُهَا خُيِّرَ بَيْنَ امْرَأَتِهِ وَالصَّدَاقِ»

 

Sarakhsi, Kitāb al-Mabsoot, Kitāb al-Mafqood, vol 11 p. 39-40

عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى رَحِمَهُمَا اللَّهُ قَالَ لَقِيتُ: الْمَفْقُودَ نَفْسَهُ فَحَدَّثَنِي حَدِيثَهُ قَالَ: أَكَلْت حَرِيرًا فِي أَهْلِي ثُمَّ خَرَجْتُ فَأَخَذَنِي نَفَرٌ مِنْ الْجِنِّ فَمَكَثْتُ فِيهِمْ ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُمْ فِي عِتْقِي فَأَعْتَقُونِي، ثُمَّ أَتَوْا بِي قَرِيبًا مِنْ الْمَدِينَةِ فَقَالُوا أَتَعْرِفُ النَّخْلَ فَقُلْتُ: نَعَمْ فَخَلُّوا عَنِّي فَجِئْتُ، فَإِذَا عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – قَدْ أَبَانَ امْرَأَتِي بَعْدَ أَرْبَعِ سِنِينَ وَحَاضَتْ وَانْقَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا وَتَزَوَّجَتْ فَخَيَّرَنِي عُمَرُ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – بَيْنَ أَنْ يَرُدَّهَا عَلَيَّ وَبَيْنَ الْمَهْرِ. وَأَهْلُ الْحَدِيثِ – رَحِمَهُمُ اللَّهُ – يَرَوْنَ فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَنَّهُ هَمَّ بِتَأْدِيبِهِ حِينَ رَآهُ، وَجَعَلَ يَقُولُ: يَغِيبُ أَحَدُكُمْ عَنْ زَوْجَتِهِ هَذِهِ الْمُدَّةَ الطَّوِيلَةَ، وَلَا يَبْعَثُ بِخَبَرِهِ فَقَالَ: لَا تَعْجَلْ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَذَكَرَ لَهُ قِصَّتَهُ.

 

[5] Sarakhsi, Kitāb al-Mabsoot, Kitāb al-Mafqood, vol 11 p. 39-40

وَهَذَا الْحَدِيثُ دَلِيلٌ لَنَا أَيْضًا فَنَتَّبِعُ الْآثَارَ، وَلَا نَشْتَغِلُ بِكَيْفِيَّةِ ذَلِكَ، وَكَأَنَّ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – إنَّمَا رَجَعَ عَنْ قَوْلِهِ فِي امْرَأَةِ الْمَفْقُودِ لَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ مِنْ حَالِ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ، وَأَمَّا تَخْيِيرُهُ إيَّاهُ بَيْنَ أَنْ يَرُدَّهَا عَلَيْهِ وَبَيْنَ الْمَهْرِ فَهُوَ بِنَاءٌ عَلَى مَذْهَبِ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – فِي الْمَرْأَةِ إذَا نُعِيَ إلَيْهَا زَوْجُهَا فَاعْتَدَّتْ، وَتَزَوَّجَتْ ثُمَّ أَتَى الزَّوْجُ الْأَوَّلُ حَيًّا إنَّهُ يُخَيَّرُ بَيْنَ أَنْ تُرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ وَبَيْنَ الْمَهْرِ، وَقَدْ صَحَّ رُجُوعُهُ عَنْهُ إلَى قَوْلِ عَلِيٍّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُفَإِنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ تُرَدُّ إلَى زَوْجِهَا الْأَوَّلِ، وَيُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ الْآخَرِ، وَلَهَا الْمَهْرُ بِمَا اسْتَحَلَّ مِنْ فَرْجِهَا، وَلَا يَقْرَبُهَا الْأَوَّلُ حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا مِنْ الْآخَرِ وَبِهَذَا كَانَ يَأْخُذُ إبْرَاهِيمُ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – فَيَقُولُ: قَوْلُ عَلِيٍّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – أَحَبُّ إلَيَّ مِنْ قَوْلِ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ -، وَبِهِ نَأْخُذُ أَيْضًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَبَيَّنَ أَنَّهَا تَزَوَّجَتْ، وَهِيَ مَنْكُوحَةٌ وَمَنْكُوحَةُ الْغَيْرِ لَيْسَتْ مِنْ الْمُحَلَّلَاتِ بَلْ هِيَ مِنْ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ فِي حَقِّ سَائِرِ النَّاسِ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: {وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنْ النِّسَاءِ} [النساء: 24] فَكَيْفَ يَسْتَقِيمُ تَرْكُهَا مَعَ الثَّانِي، وَإِذَا اخْتَارَ الْأَوَّلُ الْمَهْرَ، وَلَكِنْ يَكُونُ النِّكَاحُ مُنْعَقِدًا بَيْنَهُمَا فَكَيْفَ يَسْتَقِيمُ دَفْعُ الْمَهْرِ إلَى الْأَوَّلِ، وَهُوَ بَدَلُ بُضْعِهَا فَيَكُون مَمْلُوكًا لَهَا دُونَ زَوْجِهَا كَالْمَنْكُوحَةِ إذَا وُطِئَتْ بِشُبْهَةٍ، فَعَرَفْنَا أَنَّ الصَّحِيحَ أَنَّهَا زَوْجَةُ الْأَوَّلِ، وَلَكِنْ لَا يَقْرَبُهَا لِكَوْنِهَا مُعْتَدَّةً لِغَيْرِهِ كَالْمَنْكُوحَةِ إذَا وُطِئَتْ بِالشُّبْهَةِ. وَذُكِرَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – أَنَّ عُمَرَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – رَجَعَ عَنْ ثَلَاثِ قَضِيَّاتٍ إلَى قَوْلِ عَلِيٍّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ -، عَنْ امْرَأَةِ أَبِي كَنَفٍ، وَالْمَفْقُودِ زَوْجُهَا، وَالْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي تَزَوَّجَتْ فِي عِدَّتِهَا. أَمَّا حُكْمُ الْمَفْقُودِ وَالْمُعْتَدَّةِ فَقَدْ بَيَّنَّا.

 

[6] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Talāq, vol 5 p. 189

مطلب فِي عدة الْمَوْت

(قَوْلُهُ: وَفِي حَقِّ الْحَامِلِ) أَيْ مِنْ نِكَاحٍ وَلَوْ فَاسِدًا، فَلَا عِدَّةَ عَلَى الْحَامِلِ مِنْ زِنًا أَصْلًا بَحْرٌ (قَوْلُهُ: مُطْلَقًا) أَيْ سَوَاءً كَانَ عَنْ طَلَاقٍ، أَوْ وَفَاةٍ، أَوْ مُتَارَكَةٍ، أَوْ وَطْءٍ بِشُبْهَةٍ نَهْرٌ

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Talāq, vol 1, p. 554

الْبَابُ الثَّالِثَ عَشَرَ فِي الْعِدَّةِ

وَعِدَّةُ الْحَامِلِ أَنْ تَضَعَ حَمْلَهَا كَذَا فِي الْكَافِي. سَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ حَامِلًا وَقْتَ وُجُوبِ الْعِدَّةِ أَوْ حَبِلَتْ بَعْدَ الْوُجُوبِ كَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ. وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ حُرَّةً أَوْ مَمْلُوكَةً قِنَّةً أَوْ مُدَبَّرَةً أَوْ مُكَاتَبَةً أَوْ أُمَّ وَلَدٍ أَوْ مُسْتَسْعَاةً مُسْلِمَةً أَوْ كِتَابِيَّةً كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ.

وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ عَنْ طَلَاقٍ أَوْ وَفَاةٍ أَوْ مُتَارَكَةٍ أَوْ وَطْءٍ بِشُبْهَةٍ كَذَا فِي النَّهْرِ الْفَائِقِ. وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ الْحَمْلُ ثَابِتَ النَّسَبِ أَمْ لَا وَيُتَصَوَّرُ ذَلِكَ فِيمَنْ تَزَوَّجَ حَامِلًا بِالزِّنَا كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ.

 

[7] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Talāq, Bab al-Iddat, vol 5 p. 247-248

فَصْلٌ فِي ثُبُوتِ النَّسَبِ

(غَابَ عَنْ امْرَأَتِهِ فَتَزَوَّجَتْ بِآخَرَ وَوَلَدَتْ أَوْلَادًا) ثُمَّ جَاءَ الزَّوْجُ الْأَوَّلُ (فَالْأَوْلَادُ لِلثَّانِي عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ) الَّذِي رَجَعَ إلَيْهِ الْإِمَامُ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى كَمَا فِي الْخَانِيَّةِ وَالْجَوْهَرَةِ وَالْكَافِي وَغَيْرِهَا. وَفِي حَاشِيَةِ شَرْحِ الْمَنَارِ لِابْنِ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ. وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى إنْ احْتَمَلَهُ الْحَالُ، لَكِنْ فِي آخِرِ دَعْوَى الْجَمْعِ حَكَى أَرْبَعَةَ أَقْوَالٍ ثُمَّ أَفْتَى بِمَا اعْتَمَدَهُ الْمُصَنِّفُ، وَعَلَّلَهُ ابْنُ مَالِكٍ بِأَنَّهُ الْمُسْتَفْرِشُ حَقِيقَةً، فَالْوَلَدُ لِلْفِرَاشِ الْحَقِيقِيِّ وَإِنْ كَانَ فَاسِدًا وَتَمَامُهُ فِيهِ فَرَاجِعْهُ.

(قَوْلُهُ: غَابَ عَنْ امْرَأَتِهِ إلَخْ) شَامِلٌ لِمَا إذَا بَلَغَهَا مَوْتُهُ أَوْ طَلَاقُهُ فَاعْتَدَّتْ وَتَزَوَّجَتْ ثُمَّ بَانَ خِلَافُهُ، وَلِمَا إذَا ادَّعَتْ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ بَانَ خِلَافُهُ اهـ ح. (قَوْلُهُ: وَفِي حَاشِيَةِ شَرْحِ الْمَنَارِ إلَخْ) قَالَ الشَّارِحُ فِي شَرْحِهِ عَلَى الْمَنَارِ: لَكِنَّ الصَّحِيحَ مَا أَوْرَدَهُ الْجُرْجَانِيُّ أَنَّ الْأَوْلَادَ مِنْ الثَّانِي إنْ احْتَمَلَهُ الْحَالُ، وَأَنَّ الْإِمَامَ رَجَعَ إلَى هَذَا الْقَوْلِ، وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى كَمَا فِي حَاشِيَةِ ابْنِ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ عَنْ [الْوَاقِعَاتِ وَالْأَسْرَارِ] وَنَقَلَهُ ابْنُ نُجَيْمٍ عَنْ الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ اهـ وَاحْتِمَالُ الْحَالِ بِأَنْ تَلِدَهُ لِسِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَأَكْثَرَ مِنْ وَقْتِ النِّكَاحِ. (قَوْلُهُ: حَكَى أَرْبَعَةَ أَقْوَالٍ) حَاصِلُ عِبَارَتِهِ مَعَ شَرْحِهِ لِابْنِ مَالِكٍ أَنَّ الْأَوْلَادَ لِلْأَوَّلِ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ مُطْلَقًا: أَيْ سَوَاءٌ أَتَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ، أَوْ لَا، لِأَنَّ نِكَاحَ الْأُولَى صَحِيحٌ فَاعْتِبَارُهُ أَوْلَى. وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لِلثَّانِي وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى لِأَنَّ الْوَلَدَ لِلْفِرَاشِ الْحَقِيقِيِّ وَإِنْ كَانَ فَاسِدًا. وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ لِلْأَوَّلِ إنْ أَتَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ مِنْ عَقْدِ الثَّانِي لِتَيَقُّنِ الْعُلُوقِ مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ، وَإِنْ لِأَكْثَرَ فَلِلثَّانِي. وَعِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ لِلْأَوَّلِ إنْ كَانَ بَيْنَ وَطْءِ الثَّانِي وَالْوِلَادَةِ أَقَلُّ مِنْ سَنَتَيْنِ، فَلَوْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُمَا فَلِلثَّانِي لِتَيَقُّنِ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ الْأَوَّلِ، وَالنِّكَاحُ الصَّحِيحُ مَعَ احْتِمَالِ الْعُلُوقِ مِنْهُ أَوْلَى بِالِاعْتِبَارِ، وَإِنَّمَا وَضْعُ الْمَسْأَلَةِ فِي الْوَلَدِ إذْ الْمَرْأَةُ تُرَدُّ إلَى الْأَوَّلِ إجْمَاعًا. اهـ.

قُلْت: وَظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّهُ عَلَى الْمُفْتَى بِهِ يَكُونُ الْوَلَدُ لِلثَّانِي مُطْلَقًا وَإِنْ جَاءَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ مِنْ وَقْتِ الْعَقْدِ كَمَا يَدُلُّ عَلَيْهِ ذِكْرُ الْإِطْلَاقِ قَبْلَهُ، وَالِاقْتِصَارُ عَلَى التَّفْصِيلِ بَعْدَهُ، وَهَذَا خِلَافُ مَا قَالَهُ ابْنُ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ، وَهَذَا وَجْهُ الِاسْتِدْرَاكِ لَكِنْ لَا يَخْفَى مَا فِيهِ، فَقَدْ ذَكَرْنَا قَرِيبًا أَنَّ الْمَنْكُوحَةَ لَوْ وَلَدَتْ لِدُونِ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ نَسَبُهُ مِنْ زَوْجٍ وَيَفْسُدُ النِّكَاحُ أَيْ لِأَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ تَصَوُّرِ الْعُلُوقِ مِنْهُ وَفِيمَا دُونَ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ لَا يُتَصَوَّرُ ذَلِكَ، وَهَذَا إذَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ بِأَنَّ لَهَا زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ فَكَيْفَ إذَا ظَهَرَ زَوْجٌ غَيْرُهُ فَلَا شَكَّ فِي عَدَمِ ثُبُوتِهِ مِنْ الثَّانِي، وَلِهَذَا قَالَ فِي شَرْحِ دُرَرِ الْبِحَارِ: إنَّ هَذَا مُشْكِلٌ فِيمَا إذَا أَتَتْ بِهِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ مُذْ تَزَوَّجَهَا. اهـ.

وَالْحَقُّ أَنَّ الْإِطْلَاقَ غَيْرُ مُرَادٍ وَأَنَّ الصَّوَابَ مَا نَقَلَهُ ابْنُ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ، وَبِهِ يَظْهَرُ أَنَّ هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةَ عَنْ الْإِمَامِ الْمُفْتَى بِهَا هِيَ الَّتِي أَخَذَ بِهَا أَبُو يُوسُفَ، وَأَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ تَقْيِيدِ كَلَامِ الْمُصَنِّفِ وَالْمَجْمَعِ بِمَا نَقَلَهُ ابْنُ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ، وَأَنَّهُ لَا وَجْهَ لِلِاسْتِدْرَاكِ. عَلَيْهِ بِمَا فِي الْمَجْمَعِ، وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

 

Ambiguous Terms for Divorce

7th October 2021

 

Question: The man said the following to his wife in a heated argument. Here is his full statement. “Gosh I still tried to make this so-called relationship work because of nikaah I was so stupid I should have left u when I found out about your bad habits. Your mother who is a divorcee knows about her life but she still chose a divorce for u as well – where is the shame in that. You don’t know the value of nikah or the importance of it. A woman like you who ruined her marriage without the blink of eye. U don’t know what marriage is? What nikah is? Now you have ruined your marriage after using me you have started a relationship with someone else. How can you value nikah? I am well rid of u now, good riddance to bad rubbish and that’s the end of it. Don’t ever contact me again.” What type of Talaq has taken place?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query by uttering such words constitute one irrevocable divorce. From the above statement, there is no clear mention of the word divorce. However, looking at the context of the full conversation we can deduce that statements such as “I am well rid of u now…that’s the end of it”[1] and “Now you have ruined your marriage after using me” within such a context are ambiguously[2] referring to divorce[3], hence an irrevocable divorce would imply from the use of these sentences even if he later on denies it. [4]

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam  

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1]Ibn Ābideen, Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Talaaq, Bāb Alkinayaat, vol 3 p. 298

 وَأَمَّا حَالَةُ الْمُذَاكَرَةِ فَتُصَدَّقُ مَعَ كُلٍّ مِنْهُمَا بَلْ لَا يُتَصَوَّرُ سُؤَالُهَا الطَّلَاقَ إلَّا فِي إحْدَى الْحَالَتَيْنِ لِأَنَّهُمَا ضِدَّانِ لَا وَاسِطَةَ بَيْنَهُمَا(قَوْلُهُ انْتَقِلِي) مِثْلُ اُخْرُجِي وَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ

 

[2] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Talaaq, Bāb fi Eeqaa’ al talaaq, Fasl fil Kinaayat  vol 1, p. 375

وَالْأَحْوَالُ ثَلَاثَةٌ (حَالَةُ) الرِّضَا (وَحَالَةُ) مُذَاكَرَةِ الطَّلَاقِ بِأَنْ تَسْأَلَ هِيَ طَلَاقَهَا أَوْ غَيْرُهَا يَسْأَلُ طَلَاقَهَا (وَحَالَةُ) الْغَضَبِ فَفِي حَالَةِ الرِّضَا لَا يَقَعُ الطَّلَاقُ فِي الْأَلْفَاظِ كُلِّهَا إلَّا بِالنِّيَّةِ وَالْقَوْلُ قَوْلُ الزَّوْجِ فِي تَرْكِ النِّيَّةِ مَعَ الْيَمِينِ وَفِي حَالَةِ مُذَاكَرَةِ الطَّلَاقِ يَقَعُ الطَّلَاقُ فِي سَائِرِ الْأَقْسَامِ قَضَاءً إلَّا فِيمَا يَصْلُحُ جَوَابًا وَرَدَّا فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُجْعَلُ طَلَاقًا كَذَا فِي الْكَافِي

[3]  Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Talaaq, Bāb fi Eeqaa’ al talaaq, Fasl fil Kinaayat  vol 1, p. 375

وَلَوْ قَالَ فِي حَالِ مُذَاكَرَةِ الطَّلَاقِ بَايَنْتُك أَوْ أَبَنْتُك أَوْ أَبَنْت مِنْك أَوْ لَا سُلْطَانَ لِي عَلَيْك أَوْ سَرَّحْتُك أَوْ وَهَبْتُك لِنَفْسِك أَوْ خَلَّيْت سَبِيلَك أَوْ أَنْتِ سَائِبَةٌ أَوْ أَنْتِ حُرَّةٌ أَوْ أَنْتِ أَعْلَمُ بِشَأْنِك. فَقَالَتْ: اخْتَرْت نَفْسِي. يَقَعُ الطَّلَاقُ وَإِنْ قَالَ لَمْ أَنْوِ الطَّلَاقَ لَا يُصَدَّقُ قَضَاءً

 

[4] Usool al-shashi,Fasl fi Al Sareeh wal Kinaayah, pg 68

وَالْكِنَايَة هِيَ مَا استتر مَعْنَاهُ وَحكم الْكِنَايَة ثُبُوت الحكم بهَا عِنْد وجود النِّيَّة أَو بِدلَالَة الْحَال إِذْ لَا بُد لَهُ من دَلِيل يَزُول بِهِ التَّرَدُّد

Waiting Period and Demanding Half of Husband’s Assets

Waiting Period and Demanding Half of Husband’s Assets

28th September 2021

 

Question: I wanted to ask a few questions about iddah, specifically in the case of faskh-e-nikkah, as in what would be the length of a woman’s iddah? And also if the woman is of an old age, how should she go about counting the days of her iddah if she doesn’t menstruate? In the UK, when a couple divorces, all the assets and properties are split between the pair. Is this permissible in Islām? My final question would be that if the father of my children is agreeing to pay the expenses of my children, if I was to ever use the money for my personal needs would this be permissible in Islam?

 

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your case scenario, iddah or known as grace period is mandatory upon a woman who has been separated from her husband after her marriage was consummated whether it was a talaq or a faskh – dissolved through an Islamic court. Her waiting period as prescribed in the Quran is three complete menstrual cycles.[1] Though the Quran references to a divorced woman, the similar rule applies to faskh also.[2] This is because both a talaq and faskh bear the same cause of marriage separation as of which iddah will be also prescribed for her in the case of faskh.[3]  The reason behind the iddah is to cleanse her womb before she moves on with another marital relationship with someone else. The underlying reason exists both with talaq and with faskh which is why the same iddah is necessary for faskh as well. If she reached the age of menopause then her iddah according to the Quran will change to three months.[4] In both cases, she is eligible for maintenance and living accommodation until her waiting period expires.[5]

As for demanding half of her ex-husband’s property and assets after divorce through the court, then this will not be permissible Islamically. The only assets she can demand from him are either her outstanding mahr, outstanding debt owed to her that she previously lent or basic maintenance during her waiting period.[6] The court’s decision to divide the property into half is not valid for a number of reasons;

Firstly, just as her personal properties belong to her, so do his personal properties belong to him. Demanding what is not rightfully  hers is an injustice against him which is a punishable offence in the Hereafter.

Secondly, many have sought to justify her right to half of his assets claiming that it is to compensate for his shortcomings in fulfilling his financial obligations towards her during marriage. This is not justifiable reason. Classical jurists have elaborated on the legal status of non-paid expenses towards one’s wife. To summarise, the legal default status of expenses – nafaqah – as the jurists explain equates to hadyah – gift. Albeit he becomes sinful for his failure, default expenses of the past are not considered a debt and hence not binding on him. They become binding in two exceptional instances only namely; mutual agreement between couple or a Muslim judge stipulates allowance for her in the court. If the husband made a binding agreement that he will grant specific monthly allowance or she presented her case to a Muslim court where he stipulated monthly allowances for her from her husband and thereafter, he fails, only then can she  demand the default payments of the past.[7] Even in the above case, she can only demand the agreed amount payable to her in either of the above two instances and that is only during the marriage or her waiting period. Contrarily, demanding half of his assets is an injustice on her part for taking that which does not rightfully belong to her after their marriage has ended. Moreover, a non-Muslim judge’s decree in marital issues is not valid when it conflicts with the fundamentals of Islām which is the case here.  In short, it would not be valid Islamically to reclaim half of his assets.

Your final question is whether she can use some of the child’s expenses after divorce then as alluded earlier, the wife is Islamically entitled to expenses during her grace period. After it expires, he has no obligation towards her because they are no longer married. His financial obligation does remains towards his biological child only. So, taking a share of the child’s expenses for herself will not be permissible without his consent.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Quran [Surah Baqarah 2:228]

وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنْفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ

“And divorced women will wait for themselves (a grace period of) three menses.”

 

[2] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh vol 3 p. 504-5 – shamila

وَأَنْوَاعُهَا حَيْضٌ، وَأَشْهُرٌ، وَوَضْعُ حَمْلٍ كَمَا أَفَادَهُ بِقَوْلِهِ (وَهِيَ فِي) حَقِّ (حُرَّةٍ) وَلَوْ كِتَابِيَّةً تَحْتَ مُسْلِمٍ (تَحِيضُ لِطَلَاقٍ) وَلَوْ رَجْعِيًّا (أَوْ فَسْخٍ بِجَمِيعِ أَسْبَابِهِ).

(قَوْلُهُ: لِطَلَاقٍ، أَوْ فَسْخٍ) تَقَدَّمَ فِي بَابِ الْوَلِيِّ نَظْمًا فِرَقُ النِّكَاحِ الَّتِي تَكُونُ فَسْخًا وَاَلَّتِي تَكُونُ طَلَاقًا (قَوْلُهُ: بِجَمِيعِ أَسْبَابِهِ) مِثْلُ الِانْفِسَاخِ بِخِيَارِ الْبُلُوغِ، وَالْعِتْقِ، وَعَدَمِ الْكَفَاءَةِ، وَمِلْكِ أَحَدِ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الْآخَرَ، وَالرِّدَّةِ فِي بَعْضِ الصُّوَرِ، وَالِافْتِرَاقِ عَنْ النِّكَاحِ الْفَاسِدِ، وَالْوَطْءِ بِشُبْهَةٍ فَتْحٌ؛ لَكِنَّ الْأَخِيرَ لَيْسَ فَسْخًا.

 

[3] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al–Talāq, vol 3 p. 190

وَعَلَى هَذَا يُبْنَى وَقْتُ وُجُوبِ الْعِدَّةِ أَنَّهَا تَجِبُ مِنْ وَقْتِ وُجُودِ سَبَبِ الْوُجُوبِ مِنْ الطَّلَاقِ، وَالْوَفَاةِ، وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى لَوْ بَلَغَ الْمَرْأَةَ طَلَاقُ زَوْجِهَا أَوْ مَوْتُهُ فَعَلَيْهَا الْعِدَّةُ مِنْ يَوْمِ طَلَّقَ أَوْ مَاتَ عِنْدَ عَامَّةِ الْعُلَمَاءِ،

[4] Quran [Surah Talaq 65:4]

 

وَاللَّائِي يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمْ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُهُنَّ ثَلَاثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَاللَّائِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ

“And those women amongst you who have despaired from menstruation if you doubt then they waiting period is three months, and those that do not menstruate.”

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh vol 3 p. 507

(قَوْلُهُ: وَالْعِدَّةُ فِي حَقِّ مَنْ لَمْ تَحِضْ) شُرُوعٌ فِي النَّوْعِ الثَّانِي مِنْ أَنْوَاعِ الْعِدَّةِ وَهُوَ الْعِدَّةُ بِالْأَشْهُرِ وَهُوَ مَعْطُوفٌ عَلَى قَوْلِهِ وَهِيَ فِي حَقِّ حُرَّةٍ تَحِيضُ (قَوْلُهُ: حُرَّةً أَمْ أُمَّ وَلَدٍ) أَيْ لَا فَرْقَ بَيْنَهُمَا فِيمَا سَيَأْتِي مِنْ أَنَّ عِدَّةَ كُلٍّ مِنْهُمَا ثَلَاثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ

 

Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al–Talāq, vol 3 p. 192

وَأَمَّا عِدَّةُ الْأَشْهُرِ فَنَوْعَانِ: نَوْعٌ يَجِبُ بَدَلًا عَنْ الْحَيْضِ، وَنَوْعٌ يَجِبُ أَصْلًا بِنَفْسِهِ أَمَّا الَّذِي يَجِبُ بَدَلًا عَنْ الْحَيْضِ فَهُوَ عِدَّةُ الصَّغِيرَةِ وَالْآيِسَةِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي لَمْ تَحِضْ رَأْسًا فِي الطَّلَاقِ، وَسَبَبُ وُجُوبِهَا هُوَ الطَّلَاقُ، وَهُوَ سَبَبُ وُجُوبِ عِدَّةِ الْأَقْرَاءِ، وَأَنَّهَا تَجِبُ قَضَاءً لِحَقِّ النِّكَاحِ الَّذِي اُسْتُوْفِيَ فِيهِ الْمَقْصُودُ، وَشَرْطُ وُجُوبِهَا شَيْئَانِ: أَحَدُهُمَا – أَحَدُ الْأَشْيَاءِ الثَّلَاثَةِ: الصِّغَرُ أَوْ الْكِبَرُ، أَوْ فَقْدُ الْحَيْضِ أَصْلًا مَعَ عَدَمِ الصِّغَرِ، وَالْكِبَرِ، وَالْأَصْلُ فِيهِ قَوْله تَعَالَى {وَاللائِي يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمْ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُهُنَّ ثَلاثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَاللائِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ} [الطلاق: 4]

 

[5] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Talāq, vol 1, p. 558

[الْفَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ فِي نَفَقَةِ الْمُعْتَدَّةِ]

وَإِنْ حَاضَتْ فِي الْأَشْهُرِ الثَّلَاثَةِ وَاسْتَقْبَلَتْ عِدَّتَهَا بِالْحَيْضِ فَلَهَا النَّفَقَةُ، وَكَذَلِكَ لَوْ كَانَتْ صَغِيرَةً يُجَامَعُ مِثْلُهَا فَطَلَّقَهَا بَعْدَ مَا دَخَلَ بِهَا أَنْفَقَ عَلَيْهَا ثَلَاثَةَ أَشْهُرٍ، فَإِنْ حَاضَتْ فِيهَا وَاسْتَقْبَلَتْ عِدَّةَ الْأَقْرَاءِ أَنْفَقَ عَلَيْهَا حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ.

 

Muheetul Burhani, Kitāb al-Talāq vol 3, p. 553

الفصل الثاني في نفقة المطلقات

اجتمع على المطلقة طلاقاً رجعياً تستحق النفقة والسكنى ما دامت العدة قائمة سواء كانت حاملاً أو حائلاً، وهذا لأن بعد الطلاق الرجعي النكاح قائم وإنما أشرف على الزوال عند انقضاء العدة وذلك غير مسقط للنفقة، كما إذا أو علق طلاقها بمضي شهر، وأما المبتوتة فلها النفقة والسكنى أيضاً ما دامت في العدة حائلاً كانت أو حاملاً، وهذا مذهبنا.

 

[6] Mufti Ismail Kacholvi, Fatawa Deeniyyah, Ch. Divorce, vol 3, pp. 577-579

 

[7] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Salāh vol 3 p. 594

(وَالنَّفَقَةُ لَا تَصِيرُ دَيْنًا إلَّا بِالْقَضَاءِ أَوْ الرِّضَا) أَيْ اصْطِلَاحِهِمَا عَلَى قَدْرٍ مُعَيَّنٍ أَصْنَافًا أَوْ دَرَاهِمَ، فَقَبْلَ ذَلِكَ لَا يَلْزَمُ شَيْءٌ، وَبَعْدَهُ تَرْجِعُ بِمَا أَنْفَقَتْ وَلَوْ مِنْ مَالِ نَفْسِهَا بِلَا أَمْرِ قَاضٍ.

[مَطْلَبٌ لَا تَصِيرُ النَّفَقَةُ دَيْنًا إلَّا بِالْقَضَاءِ أَوْ الرِّضَا]

(قَوْلُهُ وَالنَّفَقَةُ لَا تَصِيرُ دَيْنًا إلَخْ) أَيْ إذَا لَمْ يُنْفِقْ عَلَيْهَا بِأَنْ غَابَ عَنْهَا أَوْ كَانَ حَاضِرًا فَامْتَنَعَ فَلَا يُطَالَبُ بِهَا بَلْ تَسْقُطُ بِمُضِيِّ الْمُدَّةِ. قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ: وَذُكِرَ فِي الْغَايَةِ مَعْزُوًّا إلَى الذَّخِيرَةِ أَنَّ نَفَقَةَ مَا دُونَ الشَّهْرِ لَا تَسْقُطُ فَكَأَنَّهُ جَعَلَ الْقَلِيلَ مِمَّا لَا يُمْكِنُ الِاحْتِرَازُ عَنْهُ، إذْ لَوْ سَقَطَتْ بِمُضِيِّ يَسِيرٍ مِنْ الزَّمَانِ لَمَا تَمَكَّنَتْ مِنْ الْأَخْذِ أَصْلًا. اهـ وَمِثْلُهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ، وَكَذَا فِي الشُّرُنْبُلَالِيَّةِ عَنْ الْبُرْهَانِ وَوَجْهُهُ فِي غَايَةِ الظُّهُورِ لِمَنْ تَدَبَّرْ فَافْهَمْ.

ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ بِالنَّفَقَةِ نَفَقَةُ الزَّوْجَةِ، بِخِلَافِ نَفَقَةِ الْقَرِيبِ فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَصِيرُ دَيْنًا وَلَوْ بَعْدَ الْقَضَاءِ وَالرِّضَا، حَتَّى لَوْ مَضَتْ مُدَّةٌ بَعْدَهُمَا تَسْقُطُ كَمَا يَأْتِي وَسَيَأْتِي أَنَّ الزَّيْلَعِيَّ اسْتَثْنَى نَفَقَةَ الصَّغِيرِ وَيَأْتِي تَمَامُ الْكَلَامِ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَ قَوْلِ الْمُصَنِّفِ قَضَى بِنَفَقَةِ غَيْرِ الزَّوْجَةِ إلَخْ (قَوْلُهُ إلَّا بِالْقَضَاءِ) بِأَنْ يَفْرِضَهَا الْقَاضِي عَلَيْهِ أَصْنَافًا أَوْ دَرَاهِمَ أَوْ دَنَانِيرَ نَهْرٌ (قَوْلُهُ فَقَبْلَ ذَلِكَ لَا يَلْزَمُهُ شَيْءٌ) أَيْ لَا يَلْزَمُهُ عَمَّا مَضَى قَبْلَ الْقَرْضِ بِالْقَضَاءِ أَوْ الرِّضَا وَلَا عَمَّا يَسْتَقْبِلُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَجِبْ بَعْدُ،

أَطْلَقَ النَّفَقَةَ فَشَمِلَ نَفَقَةَ الْعِدَّةِ إذَا لَمْ تَقْبِضْهَا حَتَّى انْقَضَتْ الْعِدَّةُ: فَفِي الْفَتْحِ أَنَّ الْمُخْتَارَ عِنْدَ الْحَلْوَانِيِّ أَنَّهَا لَا تَسْقُطُ، وَسَنَذْكُرُ عَنْ الْبَحْرِ أَنَّ الصَّحِيحَ  السُّقُوطُ وَأَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ إصْلَاحِ الْمُتُونِ هُنَا لِإِطْلَاقِهَا عَدَمَ السُّقُوطِ، وَأَنَّ هَذَا كُلَّهُ فِي غَيْرِ الْمُسْتَدَانَةِ وَسَيَأْتِي تَمَامُ الْكَلَامِ فِيهِ

 

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Talāq, vol 1, p. 551

[الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي نَفَقَةِ الزَّوْجَةِ]

إذَا خَاصَمَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ زَوْجَهَا فِي نَفَقَةِ مَا مَضَى مِنْ الزَّمَانِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَفْرِضَ الْقَاضِي لَهَا النَّفَقَةَ وَقَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَرَاضَيَا عَنْ شَيْءٍ فَإِنَّ الْقَاضِيَ لَا يَقْضِي لَهَا نَفَقَةَ مَا مَضَى عِنْدَنَا كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ