Burying a Muslim in a Non-Muslim Cemetery

Burying a Muslim in a Non-Muslim Cemetery

26th October 2021

 

Question: A Muslim passed away and where they live the cemetery is divided into three parts. The front and rear are where Muslims are buried. Christians are buried in the middle part.  There was no space in the Muslim parts, so she was buried in the middle next to a Christian. They did so in order not to delay the burial. She was the first Muslim buried there. There was another Muslim buried there after and it’s anticipated that portion of the Christian cemetery will be allocated for Muslims in future. But it is still next to Christians.  Is that okay, or does she need to be moved to a Muslims only cemetery, particularly as she is next to a Christian at the moment? It may be possible they can move her if necessary.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

As a general note to begin with, having a specific burial cemetery for Muslims has been a continuous practice since the time of the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam. This is because our burial rituals are distinct from other faiths. Another reason for burying Muslims and non-Muslims in separate cemeteries is because according our tradition, Allāh’s wrath descends upon a disbeliever for not bringing faith upon Allāh I and His beloved Messenger sallallahu alayhi wasallam unlike for a true believer.[1] For this reason it is not appropriate nor permitted for a Muslim to buried in a non-Muslim cemetery.[2]

Concerning your case however, if this sister had to be buried in the Christian area due to lack of space in the Muslim area and next to her, another Muslim is buried then that would be permissible as a necessity. It will not be necessary to exhume her body thereafter to relocate her elsewhere. Exhuming the body is necessary in specific circumstances only like being buried in a land owned by someone else for instance.[3]

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Janāiz,  vol 1 p. 319

وَيُكْرَهُ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ الْكَافِرُ قَبْرَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ قَرَابَتِهِ مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَوْضِعَ الَّذِي فِيهِ الْكَافِرُ تَنْزِلُ فِيهِ السَّخْطَةُ وَاللَّعْنَةُ فَيُنَزَّهُ قَبْرُ الْمُسْلِمِ عَنْ ذَلِكَ، وَإِنَّمَا يَدْخُلُ قَبْرَهُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ لِيَضَعُوهُ عَلَى سُنَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ،

 

[2] Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, vol 2 p. 480

الفرض الرابع ـ دفن الميت:

مكان الدفن والدفن في البحر

ولا يدفن كافر في مقبرة المسلمين، ولا مسلم في مقبرة الكفار

 

[3] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb Janāiz, vol 2 p. 238

 

(وَلَا يُخْرَجُ مِنْهُ) بَعْدَ إهَالَةِ التُّرَابِ (إلَّا) لِحَقِّ آدَمِيٍّ كَ (أَنْ تَكُونَ الْأَرْضُ مَغْصُوبَةً أَوْ أُخِذَتْ بِشُفْعَةٍ) وَيُخَيَّرُ الْمَالِكُ بَيْنَ إخْرَاجِهِ وَمُسَاوَاتِهِ بِالْأَرْضِ كَمَا جَازَ زَرْعُهُ وَالْبِنَاءُ عَلَيْهِ إذَا بَلِيَ وَصَارَ تُرَابًا زَيْلَعِيٌّ.

(قَوْلُهُ إلَّا لِحَقِّ آدَمِيٍّ) احْتِرَازٌ عَنْ حَقِّ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى كَمَا إذَا دُفِنَ بِلَا غُسْلٍ أَوْ صَلَاةٍ أَوْ وُضِعَ عَلَى غَيْرِ يَمِينِهِ أَوْ إلَى غَيْرِ الْقِبْلَةِ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُنْبَشُ عَلَيْهِ بَعْدَ إهَالَةِ التُّرَابِ كَمَا مَرَّ (قَوْلُهُ كَأَنْ تَكُونَ الْأَرْضُ مَغْصُوبَةً) وَكَمَا إذَا سَقَطَ فِي الْقَبْرِ مَتَاعٌ أَوْ كُفِّنَ بِثَوْبٍ مَغْصُوبٍ أَوْ دُفِنَ مَعَهُ مَالٌ قَالُوا: وَلَوْ كَانَ الْمَالُ دِرْهَمًا بَحْرٌ

 

Dead Souls Meeting, Feeling Pain and Returning to this World

Dead Souls Meeting, Feeling Pain and Returning to this World

30th March 2021

 

Question: Do dead souls meet each other after death, do they feel pain and do they return to the world after death? Kindly elaborate in light of evidences.

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The true nature of the soul’s entity and its function rests with Allāh Almighty Alone. Allāh Almighty references in the noble Quran the limited knowledge humans possess about the soul, “They ask you (O Muhammad) regarding the ruh, say that the ruh is from the matters of my Lord and I have not been given any (of its) knowledge except a little.”[1] This suggests that albeit we have some indications of its entity, we cannot fully comprehend its actual potential and reality. These are matters beyond human realm and as a result, we can only rely on those prophetic narrations and scholarly interpretations that have been transmitted to us through reliable reports without dwelling into its modality.  What we know so far, as will be explored that dead souls do meet each other in the Hereafter either with those of the similar status or with whom Allāh Almighty wishes to unite. The soul remains connected to the human body but not in the similar way during one’s lifetime. It returns to this world during specific occasions. It is due to their connection that both the body and the soul feel pleasure and pain. Each point is detailed below.

 

Dead Souls meeting Each other

There are clear indications in the noble Quran and Hadīth that the pious and irreligious souls do meet. Allāh Almighty states in the Quran, “Those who obey Allāh and his Messenger will be amongst those whom Allāh has favoured amongst the Prophets, the truthful ones, the martyrs and the righteous, how beautiful is their companionship.”[2]  Imām Sa’īd ibn Jubayr rahimahullah reports the backdrop to this incident that once an Ansari companion came to the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam grieved. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam enquired from him the reason for his grievance. He responded by expressing his concern that he was unable to reunite with the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam after death despite his intense love towards the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam as he will be amongst the gathering of the Prophets whilst he will be in the lower station. Allāh Almighty responded to his concern by revealing the above verse. It is further reported that those in the high status will descend to meet those in the lower status and shall assemble in one of the gardens of paradise discussing and praising Allāh’s favours upon them whilst enjoying the pleasures of paradise.[3] This suggests that after death, Allāh Almighty will allow righteous souls to meet with one another. Contrarily, the disbelieving souls will be restricted from meeting other souls unless Allāh Almighty wills it otherwise as they will be suffering the punishment. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah rahimahullah explains under this verse the two types of souls; punishable souls and the blessed souls. He states that all punishable souls are preoccupied with the sufferings of the punishment they will be facing, preventing them from visiting each other. The blessed souls on the other hand will be set free and unrestricted from visiting one another, conversing amongst themselves what they used to do in this world and the affairs of the people in the world. Each soul shall accompany those friends who did similar good deeds. The soul of our Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wasallam however is with the highest companions.[4]

Following from this is another detailed narration wherein the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam elaborated on how the soul is extracted from a believer and a disbeliever. According to the narration of Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhu, when the angels extract a believer’s soul and give him the glad tidings, his soul is raised to the heavens and scented with a beautiful fragrance. The souls of the believers amongst his loved ones rejoice upon his arrival and talk to him. The wordings of the Hadīth are;

“Then the souls of the believers come to him and rejoice over him more than any one of you rejoices when his absent loved one comes to him. They ask him: ‘What happened to so and so, what happened to so and so? [They say this until one of them says]: ‘Let him be, for he was in the distress of the world. When he says, ‘Did he not come here?’ They say: ‘He was taken to the pit (of Hell).”[5]

In other narrations according to At-Tībi rahimahullah: “Some of them will say to others: Leave this new arrival alone for he has just left the weariness and the troubles of the world.”

Sa’īd ibn Musayyib rahimahullah states, “When a man dies then his child (who died before him) visits him just as he visits an absent person.”[6]  

It is also reported that when a disbeliever dies and given the severe warning of hell fire, he unites with other disbelievers in the punishment but are not free to converse or socialise with other souls like the believers do because of the severe punishment they will be experiencing. All of this establishes that new souls do meet with previously deceased souls. Righteous souls in particular are permitted to roam freely in paradise and meet their loved ones. Does this then necessarily imply that they return to this world also? The following section addresses this point.

 

Returning to this world

The question on the soul returning to this world or not pivots on the question whether the soul remains connected to the body or not after its departure. Ibn Qayyim Jawziyyah rahimahullah describes the five types of attachment of the soul with the body.

  1. Its attachment with the foetus (which is breathed into it after 120 days according to another narration).
  2. Its attachment upon delivery.
  3. Its attachment to a sleeping person; it is connected in one way but detached in another way. (According to another narration, the soul reaches to Allāh in prostration until it is granted permission to return to the body).
  4. Its connection in the world of barzakh, as in, though the soul has left the body, it is not completely detached from it. An example of this is the report of the soul reattaching with the body after death for questioning and to return the greeting.
  5. Its connection on the day of resurrection. This is where the soul enters the body for resurrection. This will be complete attachment in every way.[7]

This classification suggests that the soul remains attached to the body but in different ways depending on the human being’s state. Concerning the fourth point, the following report indicates to how the soul after its departure still remains connected to the body. In a detailed narration, when the angel of death extracts the soul of a believer, he gives it the glad tidings, shrouds the soul in a cloth from Jannah with a beautiful scent and ascends to the heavens up until the seventh heaven. Allāh Almighty then announces for his deeds to be recorded in the illiyyeeen (a station in Jannah) and then returns it to the world to reunite with the body for questioning.  The wordings of the Hadīth are;

“And then his soul is returned to the body. Two angels then come and make him sit upright and ask him. ‘Who is your Lord?’ He says, ‘My Lord is Allāh.’ They then ask him, ‘What is your religion?’ He says, ‘My religion is Islām.’  Then they ask him, ‘Who is this man who was sent amongst you?’ He will reply, ‘He is the Messenger of Allāh.’

As for the disbeliever, when his soul is extracted painfully, his soul is taken to the heavens emitting an ordure smell like the smell of a carcass. The deeds of the evil soul are recorded in the sijjeen (a place in Hell). The evil soul is barred from entering into the first heaven and thus falls from the heaven until its soul reunites with the body for questioning. The wordings of the Hadīth are;

“And then his soul is returned to the body. Then two angels come to make him sit upright and ask him. ‘Who is your Lord?’ He says, ‘I do not know.’ They then ask him, ‘What is your religion?’ He says, ‘I do not know.’  Then they ask him, ‘Who is this man who was sent amongst you?’ He will reply, ‘I do not know.’ [8]

In this detailed narration, the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said that the soul whether a believer or disbeliever reconnects with the body but momentarily for questioning. The soul then resides in the world of Barzakh to either receive the punishment or reward. Either way, the soul remains connected with the body but not in the manner during one’s life time. Mullah Ali Qari rahimahullah explains in his commentary,

“Every soul has an implicit (ma’nawi) connection (with the body) that does not resemble the attachment during worldly life. (the attachment) instead resembles that of a sleeping person except that the soul is strongly attached during sleep.”[9]

Mullah Ali Qari rahimahullah further on explains that this re-attachment is with the whole body and not with just some part of the body like others have claimed.[10] In other words, just as the soul remains attached to a dormant person yet unconscious then similarly, the soul remains attached to the body itself despite the soul not being able to revive the body irrespective if the body has decomposed or not. It thus returns for questioning only.[11]

There is another narration that when a living person greets the deceased in the grave then Allāh Almighty returns pious souls to the body to respond to the person’s greeting. Ibn Abdul Barr rahimahullah relates a Hadīth wherein the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “No Muslim passes by the grave of his brother who he was acquainted with in this world and greets him except that Allāh returns his soul (to the body) to respond to it.”

The above narrations so far establish that the soul remains attached to the body after death and that souls do meet in the world of barzakh and return to this world for questioning and to return the salām of his Muslim brother. There are no authentic narrations to establish that the souls return to visit their beloved and family members in this world.  However, through experience they can appear in their dreams. Ibn Qayyim Jawziyyah rahimahullah himself enlists numerous accounts of pious people visiting deceased souls in their dreams. For instance, Abdullah ibn Mubarak rahimahullah once saw Sufyan al-Thawri rahimahullah in his dream after his demise. He asked him, “How did Allāh treat you?” Sufyan al-Thawri rahimahullah replied, “I met the Prophet and his companions.”[12] After recalling the accounts of such dreams, Ibn Qayyim Jawziyyah rahimahullah concludes that evidently, dead souls can meet the living in their dreams informing them of the life after death, inform of the past and future events, monetary debt or other matters.[13]

In short, like dead souls are connected to their bodies, they can also meet the living through dreams but not necessarily come to visit them outside of dreams. The soul’s connection to the body raises another important question whether the dead body feels pain or not.

 

Body Feeling pain

Scholars have indicated that due to the connection between the body and soul after death, arguably both can feel either pain or comfort. Qadhi Iyadh rahimahullah states, “It is said that the luxury or punishment of the souls that is part of the body also remains inside the body which is punished and chastised or comforted and blessed.”[14]  Ibn Qayyim Jawziyyah rahimahullah states that with the soul and the body being connected after death, both share the experience of comfort and punishment. Thereafter, on the day of judgment, the soul returns to the body for resurrection standing in front of their graves before the Lord of the worlds. This is agreed by all whether Muslims, Jews or Christians.[15]

Scholars have also established bodily pain being felt after death from the prophetic Hadīth where the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Breaking the bone of the dead is like breaking it whilst being alive.” The mainstream understanding is that it refers to the bodily dignity, however Ibn Mālik rahimahullah maintains that it refers to the dead body feeling pain. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani rahimahullah infers that body also feels comfort and pleasure like it did whilst being alive. It is authentically reported from Ibn Mas’ūd radhiyallahu anhu that harming the deceased believer is like harming him whilst being alive.[16]

It is evident that the body needs to be treated with dignity because it experiences both relief and pain like the living. For this reason, Hanafi jurists such as Ibn Ābideen Shāmi rahimahullah under the discussion of bathing the deceased writes that “pure water to be boiled moderately because the deceased feels the pain like the living does.”[17]

To conclude the discussion, deceased souls remain connected with their human body whose reality only Allāh Almighty knows. Allāh Almighty created the soul with certain abilities beyond human comprehension. We come to discover a sample of its ability through prophetic reports and statements of the pious predecessors and anything beyond that is mere speculation. What we know is that the body feels pleasure and pain because of the soul. It returns for questioning and to return the greeting from the living. Righteous souls meet and socialise with one another through Allāh’s divine will.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Surah al-Isra [85:17]

[2] Quran, Surah Nisa [4:96]

 

[3] Ibn Katheer, vol 2, p. 311

قَالَ ابْنُ جَرِيرٍ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ الْقُمِّيُّ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ أَبِي الْمُغِيرَةِ، عن سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، قَالَ: جَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأنصار إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ مَحْزُونٌ، فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «يَا فُلَانُ مَا لِي أَرَاكَ محزونا؟» فقال: يا نبي الله شيء فكرت فيه، فقال: مَا هُوَ؟ قَالَ: نَحْنُ نَغْدُو عَلَيْكَ وَنَرُوحُ نَنْظُرُ إِلَى وَجْهِكَ وَنُجَالِسُكَ وَغَدًا تُرْفَعُ مَعَ النَّبِيِّينَ فَلَا نَصِلُ إِلَيْكَ، فَلَمْ يَرُدَّ النَّبِيُّ صلّى الله عليه وسلّم شَيْئًا، فَأَتَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ بِهَذِهِ الْآيَةِ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ الآية، فَبَعَثَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَبَشَّرَهُ. وقد روي هذا الأثر مرسلا عن مسروق، وعن عكرمة، وَعَامِرٍ الشَّعْبِيِّ وَقَتَادَةَ، وَعَنِ الرَّبِيعِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ وَهُوَ مِنْ أَحْسَنِهَا سَنَدًا، قَالَ ابْنُ جَرِيرٍ: حَدَّثَنَا الْمُثَنَّى، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الرَّبِيعِ قَوْلُهُ: وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ الآية، وقال: إِنَّ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالُوا: قَدْ عَلِمْنَا أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَهُ فَضْلٌ عَلَى مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ فِي دَرَجَاتِ الْجَنَّةِ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَهُ وَصَدَّقَهُ، وَكَيْفَ لَهُمْ إِذَا اجْتَمَعُوا فِي الْجَنَّةِ أَنْ يَرَى بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا. فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِي ذَلِكَ، يَعْنِي هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ، فَقَالَ: يَعْنِي رَسُولَ اللَّهِ «إِنِ الْأَعْلَيْنَ يَنْحَدِرُونَ إِلَى مَنْ هُوَ أَسْفَلُ منهم، فيجتمعون في رياض فَيَذْكُرُونَ مَا أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيُثْنُونَ عَلَيْهِ، وَيَنْزِلُ لَهُمْ أَهْلُ الدَّرَجَاتِ فَيَسْعَوْنَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِمَا يَشْتَهُونَ وَمَا يَدْعُونَ بِهِ، فَهُمْ فِي رَوْضَةٍ يُحْبَرُونَ وَيَتَنَعَّمُونَ فِيهِ»

 

[4] Kitab Ruh p. 43, vol 1

فهي أيضا مسألة شريفة كبيرة القدر، وجوابها أن الارواح قسمان : أرواح معذبة ، وأرواح منعمة . فالمعذبة في شغل مما هي فيه من العذاب عن التزاور والتلاقي . والارواح المنعمة المرسلة غير المحبوسة تتلاقى وتتزاور وتتذاكر ما كان منها في الدنيا وما يكون من اهل الدنيا، فتكون كل روح مع رفيقها الذي هو  على مثل عملها. وروح نبينا محمد في الرفيق الاعلى.

 

[5] Sunnan Nasai, No. 1833

بَابُ مَا يُلْقَى بِهِ الْمُؤْمِنُ مِنَ الْكَرَامَةِ عِنْدَ خُرُوجِ نَفْسِهِ

أَخْبَرَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ قَسَامَةَ بْنِ زُهَيْرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: ” إِذَا حُضِرَ الْمُؤْمِنُ أَتَتْهُ مَلَائِكَةُ الرَّحْمَةِ بِحَرِيرَةٍ بَيْضَاءَ فَيَقُولُونَ: اخْرُجِي رَاضِيَةً مَرْضِيًّا عَنْكِ إِلَى رَوْحِ اللَّهِ، وَرَيْحَانٍ، وَرَبٍّ غَيْرِ غَضْبَانَ، فَتَخْرُجُ كَأَطْيَبِ رِيحِ الْمِسْكِ، حَتَّى أَنَّهُ لَيُنَاوِلُهُ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا، حَتَّى يَأْتُونَ بِهِ بَابَ السَّمَاءِ فَيَقُولُونَ: مَا أَطْيَبَ هَذِهِ الرِّيحَ الَّتِي جَاءَتْكُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ، فَيَأْتُونَ بِهِ أَرْوَاحَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَلَهُمْ أَشَدُّ فَرَحًا بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدِكُمْ بِغَائِبِهِ يَقْدَمُ عَلَيْهِ، فَيَسْأَلُونَهُ: مَاذَا فَعَلَ فُلَانٌ؟ مَاذَا فَعَلَ فُلَانٌ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ: دَعُوهُ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ فِي غَمِّ الدُّنْيَا، فَإِذَا قَالَ: أَمَا أَتَاكُمْ؟ قَالُوا: ذُهِبَ بِهِ إِلَى أُمِّهِ الْهَاوِيَةِ، وَإِنَّ الْكَافِرَ إِذَا احْتُضِرَ أَتَتْهُ مَلَائِكَةُ الْعَذَابِ بِمِسْحٍ فَيَقُولُونَ: اخْرُجِي سَاخِطَةً مَسْخُوطًا عَلَيْكِ إِلَى عَذَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، فَتَخْرُجُ كَأَنْتَنِ رِيحِ جِيفَةٍ، حَتَّى يَأْتُونَ بِهِ بَابَ الْأَرْضِ، فَيَقُولُونَ: مَا أَنْتَنَ هَذِهِ الرِّيحَ حَتَّى يَأْتُونَ بِهِ أَرْوَاحَ الْكُفَّارِ “

Mirqat, Sharhu Mishkat, vol 3, p. 1174

(مَاذَا فَعَلَ فُلَانٌ؟) أَيْ: كَيْفَ حَالُهُ وَشَأْنُهُ؟ أَيْ: فِي الطَّاعَةِ لِيَفْرَحُوا بِهِ وَيَدْعُوا لَهُ بِالِاسْتِقَامَةِ أَوْ فِي الْمَعْصِيَةِ لِيَحْزَنُوا عَلَيْهِ، وَيَسْتَغْفِرُوا لَهُ. (مَاذَا فَعَلَ فُلَانٌ؟) تَأْكِيدٌ، أَوِ الْمُرَادُ شَخْصٌ آخَرُ، وَهُوَ الْأَظْهَرُ. (فَيَقُولُونَ) أَيْ: بَعْضٌ آخَرُ مِنَ الْأَرْوَاحِ، وَفِي نُسْخَةٍ صَحِيحَةٍ: فَيَقُولُ: أَيْ: بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْ أَحَدُهُمْ. (دَعُوهُ) أَيِ: اتْرُكُوهُ. (الْآنَ) وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ حَتَّى يَسْتَرِيحَ. قَالَ الطِّيبِيُّ: أَيْ: يَقُولُ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ: دَعُوا الْقَادِمَ فَإِنَّهُ حَدِيثُ عَهْدٍ بِتَعَبِ الدُّنْيَا. (فَإِنَّهُ) أَيِ: الْقَادِمُ. (فِي غَمِّ الدُّنْيَا) وَفِي نُسْخَةٍ صَحِيحَةٍ: فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ فِي غَمِّ الدُّنْيَا فَكَانَ زَائِدَةٌ، أَوْ ضَمِيرُ فَإِنَّهُ لِلشَّأْنِ، وَكَانَ أَيِ: الْقَادِمُ فِي غَمِّ الدُّنْيَا إِلَى الْآنَ مَا اسْتَرَاحَ مِنْ هَمِّهَا.

 

[6] Kitab Ruh p. 52

وقال سعيد بن المسئب: إذا مات الرجل استقبله ولده كما يستقبل الغائب

 

[7] Kitab Ruh p. 124-5

على أن قوله : “ثم تعاد روحه في جسده ” لا يدل على حياة مستقرة ، وإنما يدل على إعادة لها إلى البدن وتعلق به . والروج لم تزل متعلقة ببدنها، وإن بلي ، وتمزق . وسر ذلك أن الروج لها بالبدن خمسة أنواع من التعلق متغايرة الاحكام )

أحدها: تعلقها به في بطن الام جنينا

الثاني : تعلقها به بعد خروجه إ لى وجه الارض .

الثالث : تعلقها يه في حال النوم ، فلها به تعلق من وجه ، ومفارقة من وجه.

الرابع : تعلقها به في البرزخ ، فإنها وان فارقته و تجردت عنه فإنها لم تفارقه فراقا كليا بحيث لا يبقى لها التفات ) 5( إليه البتة . وقد ذكرنا في أول

ا لجواب من الاحاديث والاثار ما يدل على ردها إليه وقت سلام المسلم، وهذا الرد إعادة خاصة لا توجب حياة البدن قبل يوم القيامة

]فقال ابن عبد البر: ثبت عن النبي لمجي! أنه قال : “ما من مسلم  يمر بقبرأخيه ، كان يعرفه في الدنيا، فيسلم عليه الا رد الله عليه روحه حتى يرد عليه السلام [

الخامس : تعلقها به يوم بعث الاجساد. وهو اكمل انواع تعلقها بالبدن ، ولا نسبة لما قبله من أنواع التعلق إليه ؛ إذ هو تعلق لا يقبل البدن معه

موتا ولا نوما ولا فسادا

[8] MIshkat al-Masabeeh No. 1630

وَعَنِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ قَالَ: «خَرَجْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – فِي جِنَازَةِ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ فَانْتَهَيْنَا إِلَى الْقَبْرِ، وَلَمَّا يُلْحَدْ فَجَلَسَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – وَجَلَسْنَا حَوْلَهُ كَأَنَّ عَلَى رُءُوسِنَا الطَّيْرَ وَفِي يَدِهِ عُودٌ يَنْكُتُ بِهِ فِي الْأَرْضِ، فَرَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ فَقَالَ: اسْتَعِيذُوا بِاللَّهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلَاثًا، ثُمَّ قَالَ: إِنَّ الْعَبْدَ الْمُؤْمِنَ إِذَا كَانَ فِي انْقِطَاعٍ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَإِقْبَالٍ مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ نَزَلَ إِلَيْهِ مَلَائِكَةٌ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ، بِيضُ الْوُجُوهِ، كَأَنَّ وُجُوهَهُمُ الشَّمْسُ، مَعَهُمْ كَفَنٌ مِنْ أَكْفَانِ الْجَنَّةِ، وَحَنُوطٌ مِنْ حَنُوطِ الْجَنَّةِ، حَتَّى يَجْلِسُوا مِنْهُ مَدَّ الْبَصَرِ، ثُمَّ يَجِيءُ مَلَكُ الْمَوْتِ – عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ – حَتَّى يَجْلِسَ عِنْدَ رَأْسِهِ فَيَقُولُ: أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الطَّيِّبَةُ اخْرُجِي إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ. قَالَ: فَتَخْرُجُ تَسِيلُ كَمَا تَسِيلُ الْقَطْرَةُ مِنَ السِّقَاءِ، فَيَأْخُذُهَا فَإِذَا أَخَذَهَا لَمْ يَدَعُوهَا فِي يَدِهِ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ حَتَّى يَأْخُذُوهَا فَيَجْعَلُوهَا فِي ذَلِكَ الْكَفَنِ، وَفِي ذَلِكَ الْحَنُوطِ، وَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا كَأَطْيَبِ نَفْحَةِ مِسْكٍ وُجِدَتْ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْأَرْضِ، قَالَ: فَيَصْعَدُونَ بِهَا فَلَا يَمُرُّونَ يَعْنِي بِهَا عَلَى مَلَأٍ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ إِلَّا قَالُوا: مَا هَذَا الرُّوحُ الطَّيِّبُ؟ يَقُولُونَ: فُلَانُ ابْنُ فُلَانٍ بِأَحْسَنِ أَسْمَائِهِ الَّتِي كَانُوا يُسَمُّونَهُ بِهَا فِي الدُّنْيَا، حَتَّى يَنْتَهُوا بِهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا، فَيَسْتَفْتِحُونَ لَهُ فَيُفْتَحُ لَهُمْ فَيُشَيِّعُهُ مِنْ كُلِّ سَمَاءٍ مُقَرَّبُوهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الَّتِي تَلِيهَا، حَتَّى يُنْتَهَى بِهِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ السَّابِعَةِ فَيَقُولُ اللَّهُ – عَزَّ وَجَلَّ -: اكْتُبُوا كِتَابَ عَبْدِي فِي عِلِّيِّينَ، وَأَعِيدُوهُ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ; فَإِنِّي مِنْهَا خَلَقْتُهُمْ، وَفِيهَا أُعِيدُهُمْ، وَمِنْهَا أُخْرِجُهُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَى. قَالَ: فَتُعَادُ رُوحُهُ فِي جَسَدِهِ فَيَأْتِيهِ مَلَكَانِ فَيُجْلِسَانِهِ فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَنْ رَبُّكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: رَبِّيَ اللَّهُ. يَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَا دِينُكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: دِينِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ. فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَا هَذَا الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي بُعِثَ فِيكُمْ؟ يَقُولُ: هُوَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ –. فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: وَمَا عِلْمُكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: قَرَأْتُ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ فَآمَنْتُ بِهِ وَصَدَّقْتُ، فَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ أَنْ صَدَقَ عَبْدِي، فَأَفْرِشُوهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَأَلْبِسُوهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَافْتَحُوا لَهُ بَابًا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ قَالَ: فَيَأْتِيهِ مِنْ رَوْحِهَا وَطِيبِهَا فَيُفْسَحُ لَهُ فِي قَبْرِهِ مَدَّ بَصَرِهِ. قَالَ: وَيَأْتِيهِ رَجُلٌ حَسَنُ الْوَجْهِ، حَسَنُ الثِّيَابِ طَيِّبُ الرِّيحِ. فَيَقُولُ: أَبْشِرْ بِالَّذِي يَسُرُّكَ، هَذَا يَوْمُكَ الَّذِي كُنْتَ تُوعَدُ فَيَقُولُ لَهُ مَنْ أَنْتَ فَوَجْهُكَ الْوَجْهُ وَيَجِيءُ بِالْخَيْرِ، فَيَقُولُ: أَنَا عَمَلُكَ الصَّالِحُ. فَيَقُولُ: رَبِّ، أَقِمِ السَّاعَةَ، رَبِّ أَقِمِ السَّاعَةَ حَتَّى أَرْجِعَ إِلَى أَهْلِي وَمَالِي. قَالَ: وَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَ الْكَافِرَ إِذَا كَانَ فِي انْقِطَاعٍ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَإِقْبَالٍ مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ نَزَلَ إِلَيْهِ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَلَائِكَةٌ سُودُ الْوُجُوهِ، مَعَهُمُ الْمُسُوحُ فَيَجْلِسُونَ مِنْهُ مَدَّ الْبَصَرِ، ثُمَّ يَجِيءُ مَلَكُ الْمَوْتِ حَتَّى يَجْلِسَ عِنْدَ رَأْسِهِ فَيَقُولُ: أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْخَبِيثَةُ اخْرُجِي إِلَى سَخَطٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ. قَالَ: فَتُفَرَّقُ فِي جَسَدِهِ فَيَنْتَزِعُهَا كَمَا يُنْزَعُ السَّفُّودُ مِنَ الصُّوفِ الْمَبْلُولِ، فَيَأْخُذُهَا وَإِذَا أَخَذَهَا لَمْ يَدْعُوهَا فِي يَدِهِ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ حَتَّى يَجْعَلُوهَا فِي تِلْكَ الْمُسُوحِ، وَتَخْرُجَ مِنْهَا كَأَنْتَنِ رِيحِ جِيفَةٍ وُجِدَتْ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْأَرْضِ، فَيَصْعَدُونَ بِهَا فَلَا يَمُرُّونَ بِهَا عَلَى مَلَأٍ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ إِلَّا قَالُوا: مَا هَذَا الرُّوحُ الْخَبِيثُ؟ يَقُولُونَ: فُلَانُ ابْنُ فُلَانٍ بِأَقْبَحِ أَسْمَائِهِ الَّتِي كَانَ يُسَمَّى بِهَا فِي الدُّنْيَا، حَتَّى يُنْتَهَى بِهِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا فَيُسْتَفْتَحُ لَهُ، فَلَا يُفْتَحُ لَهُ ثُمَّ قَرَأَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: {لَا تُفَتَّحُ لَهُمْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ وَلَا يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ حَتَّى يَلِجَ الْجَمَلُ فِي سَمِّ الْخِيَاطِ} [الأعراف: 40] فَيَقُولُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: اكْتُبُوا كِتَابَهُ فِي سِجِّينٍ، فِي الْأَرْضِ السُّفْلَى، فَتُطْرَحُ رُوحُهُ طَرْحًا، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ: {وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ} [الحج: 31] فَتُعَادُ رُوحُهُ فِي جَسَدِهِ، وَيَأْتِيهِ مَلَكَانِ فَيُجْلِسَانِهِ فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَنْ رَبُّكَ؟ يَقُولُ: هَاهْ هَاهْ، لَا أَدْرِي. فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَا دِينُكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: هَاهْ هَاهْ لَا أَدْرِي. فَيَقُولَانِ: مَا هَذَا الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي بُعِثَ فِيكُمْ؟ فَيَقُولُ: هَاهْ هَاهْ لَا أَدْرِي. فَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ أَنْ كَذَبَ فَأَفْرِشُوهُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَافْتَتِحُوا لَهُ بَابًا إِلَى النَّارِ فَيَأْتِيهِ حَرُّهَا وَسَمُومُهَا، وَيُضَيَّقُ عَلَيْهِ قَبْرُهُ حَتَّى تَخْتَلِفَ فِيهِ أَضْلَاعُهُ، وَيَأْتِيهِ رَجُلٌ قَبِيحُ الْوَجْهِ، قَبِيحُ الثِّيَابِ، مُنْتِنُ الرِّيحِ، فَيَقُولُ: أَبْشِرْ بِالَّذِي يَسُوءُكَ، هَذَا يَوْمُكَ الَّذِي كُنْتَ تُوعَدُ. فَيَقُولُ: مَنْ أَنْتَ، فَوَجْهُكَ الْوَجْهُ يَجِيءُ بِالشَّرِّ؟ فَيَقُولُ: أَنَا عَمَلُكَ الْخَبِيثُ، فَيَقُولُ: رَبِّ لَا تُقِمِ السَّاعَةَ»

[9] Mirqat, Sharhu Mishkat, vol 3, p. 1177

قَالَ: فَتُعَادُ رُوحُهُ فِي جَسَدِهِ فَيَأْتِيهِ مَلَكَانِ فَيُجْلِسَانِهِ فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَنْ رَبُّكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: رَبِّيَ اللَّهُ. يَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَا دِينُكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: دِينِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ.

وَلِكُلِّ رُوحٍ بِجَسَدِهَا اتِّصَالٌ مَعْنَوِيٌّ لَا يُشْبِهُ الِاتِّصَالَ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا، بَلْ أَشْبَهُ شَيْءٍ بِهِ حَالُ النَّائِمِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ هُوَ أَشَدَّ مِنْ حَالِ النَّائِمِ اتِّصَالًا، وَبِهَذَا يُجْمَعُ بَيْنَ مَا وَرَدَ أَنَّ مَقَرَّهَا فِي عِلِّيِّينَ أَوْ سِجِّينٍ وَبَيْنَ مَا نَقَلَهُ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الْبَرِّ عَنِ الْجُمْهُورِ أَنَّهَا عِنْدَ أَفَنِيَةِ قُبُورِهَا.

 

[10] Mirqat, Sharhu Mishkat, vol 3, p. 1178

(فَتُعَادُ رُوحُهُ فِي جَسَدِهِ) ظَاهِرُ الْحَدِيثِ أَنَّ عَوْدَ الرُّوحِ إِلَى جَمِيعِ أَجْزَاءِ بَدَنِهِ، فَلَا الْتِفَاتَ إِلَى قَوْلِ الْبَعْضِ بِأَنَّ الْعَوْدَ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ إِلَى الْبَعْضِ، وَلَا إِلَى قَوْلِ ابْنِ حَجَرٍ إِلَى نِصْفِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَصِحُّ أَنْ يُقَالَ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْعَقْلِ بَلْ يَحْتَاجُ إِلَى صِحَّةِ النَّقْلِ

[11] Kitab Ruh p. 123

ان أراد به حياة أخرى غير هذه ا لحياة ، بل تعاد الروح إليه إعادة غير الاعادة المألوفة في الدنيا، ليسأل ويمتحن في قبره فهذا حق، ونفيه خطأ. وقد دل عليه النص الصحيح الصريح ، وهو قوله : “فتعاد روحه في جسده

 

[12] Kitab Ruh p. 49

وقال عبد الله بن المبارك : رأيت سفيان الثوري في النوم فقلت له : ما. فعل الله بك ؟ قال : لقيت محمدا وحزبه

 

[13] Kitab Ruh p. 59

وقد دل على التقاء ارواح الاحياء والاموات ان ا لحي يرى الميت في منامه ، فيستخبره ، ويخبره الميت بما لا يعلمه الحي ، فيصادف خبره كما اخبر في الماضي و لمستقبل . وربما خبره بمال دفنه الميت في مكان لم يعلم به سواه . وربما خبره بدين عليه ، وذكر له شواهده و دلته

 

[14] Sharhu Nawawi vol 13, p. 32

قَالَ الْقَاضِي وَقِيلَ إِنَّ هَذَا الْمُنَعَّمَ أَوِ الْمُعَذَّبَ مِنَ الْأَرْوَاحِ جُزْءٌ مِنَ الْجَسَدِ تَبْقَى فِيهِ الرُّوحُ وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَأَلَّمُ وَيُعَذَّبُ وَيَلْتَذُّ وَيُنَعَّمُ وَهُوَ الذى يقول رب ارجعون وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَسْرَحُ فِي شَجَرِ الْجَنَّةِ فَغَيْرُ مُسْتَحِيلٍ أَنْ يُصَوَّرَ هَذَا الْجُزْءُ طَائِرًا أَوْ يُجْعَلَ فِي جَوْفِ طَائِرٍ وَفِي قَنَادِيلَ تَحْتَ الْعَرْشِ وَغَيْرَ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

 

[15] Kitab Ruh p. 149

“فإذا عرفت هذه الاقوال الباطلة فلتعلم أن مذهب سلف الامة و ئمتها: أن الميت إذا مات يكون في نعيم أو عذاب ، وأن ذلك يحصل لروحه وبدنه ، و ان الروح تبقى بعد مفارقة البدن منعمة أو معذبة ، وأنها تتصل بالبدن أحيانا فيحصل له معها النعيم أو العذاب . ثم إذا كان يوم القيامة الكبرى أعيدت الارواح إ لى الأجساد، وقاموا من قبورهم لرب العالمين. ومعاد الابدان متفق عليه بين المسلمين و ليهود والنصارى “.

 

[16] Mirqat, Sharhu Mishkat, vol 3, p. 1226

(وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ: أَنَّ رَسُولَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: قَالَ ” «كَسْرُ عَظْمِ الْمَيِّتِ كَكَسْرِهِ حَيًّا» ” يَعْنِي فِي الْإِثْمِ كَمَا فِي رِوَايَةٍ. قَالَ الطِّيبِيُّ: إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى أَنَّهُ لَا يُهَانُ مَيِّتًا، كَمَا لَا يُهَانُ حَيًّا. قَالَ ابْنُ الْمَلَكِ: وَإِلَى أَنَّ الْمَيِّتَ يَتَأَلَّمُ. قَالَ ابْنُ حَجَرٍ: وَمِنْ لَازَمِهِ أَنَّهُ يَسْتَلِذُّ بِمَا يَسْتَلِذُّ بِهِ الْحَيُّ اهـ. وَقَدْ أَخْرَجَ ابْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ: أَذَى الْمُؤْمِنِ فِي مَوْتِهِ كَأَذَاهُ فِي حَيَاتِهِ. (رَوَاهُ مَالِكٌ وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ) قَالَ مِيرَكُ: وَسَكَتَ عَلَيْهِ. (وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ) قَالَ مِيرَكُ: وَرَوَاهُ ابْنُ حِبَّانَ فِي صَحِيحِهِ اهـ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ الْقَطَّانِ: سَنَدُهُ حَسَنٌ.

 

[17] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb alJanāiz, vol 2 p. 196

(قَوْلُهُ: وَإِلَّا فَمَاءٌ خَالِصٌ مُغْلًى) أَيْ إغْلَاءً وَسَطًا لِأَنَّ الْمَيِّتَ يَتَأَذَّى بِمَا يَتَأَذَّى بِهِ الْحَيُّ ط وَأَفَادَ كَلَامُهُ أَنَّ الْحَارَّ أَفْضَلُ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ وَسَخٌ أَوْ لَا نَهْرٌ

 

Subscribing to a Death Committee; Permissible or not?

Subscribing to a Death Committee; Permissible or not?

20th April 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Death\Funeral committees which are run in many local Muslim communities. From a sharia perspective are they sharia compliant? Are they generally permissible in Islām?  From what I can gather is that each member pays a fixed amount each year say £100, after 1yr you can then make a claim to cover full funeral costs irrespective of whether one’s contributions were sufficient to cover the cost of a funeral.  Not sure of what happens to over payments. When contributing to such a committee who owns each contribution in the fund; is it the member or trustees? Is Zakaat payable if so who is liable each member or the trustees? How does this differ from standard insurance? Does any special intention have to be made at the outset by each member? If setting up a community death committee, what is one’s sharia obligations?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, for the sake of clarity, there are multiple Death Committees operating in the UK, each one functioning under specific conditions. The earliest Death Committee was founded around during the 1980s by a group of elders back home in Pakistan who recognised the need for generating funds to fulfil funeral expenses for the local villagers due to poverty. This concept was then transposed to the UK with some modifications of its terms and conditions over time. Many Masajids, funeral directories and local people connected with funeral services offer this scheme to their local people, each one operating differently from others with specific set of conditions. To address each of those conditions in light of its Islamic ruling is not possible lest it complicates the discussion unless the legal ruling of a specific clause from the condition is specified in the query. After obtaining information about its model and terms and conditions from websites, acquaintances who are members of the scheme and speaking to reliable funeral committees running the committee as well as scholars who have dealt with its legal stance, we conclude with the following answer.[1] To begin with, first understand the scheme itself. Death Committee was founded under the pretext of assisting the Muslim community to help cover all funeral costs at the time of someone’s death. It operates by people contributing funds on a yearly basis (or monthly charges by certain committees) in exchange of funeral services. Initially, an application form is filled out along with a joining fee payment as an initial subscription and then followed with a yearly payment of a fixed amount. The amount varies depending on the funeral costs as it tends to rise occasionally. Different committees charge different amount nevertheless, it averages between £30-£100 yearly. By paying the joining fee (varying between different committees) you become a member of this scheme which means that you are eligible to the benefits of the funeral package (which again varies between different committees). The annual contribution is paid by one member of the family. This single membership includes spouse and children below the age of 18. After reaching the age of 18, he or she is now responsible for renewing their own membership by paying the applicable fee. Anyone failing to pay the fee after its due date is issued a reminder and respite to pay the amount. Failing to pay will automatically remove them from the membership and all contributions made are non-refundable. In order to rejoin, a joining fee must be paid in addition to the yearly membership fee. In the advent of the death of a member, the next of kin or spouse continues with the existing membership without any additional charges. In the case when an individual remarries then they either continue with their existing membership or pay the new membership fee depending on the specific requirements set by the committee. All annual contributions are placed in a mutual pot that subsidises all funeral expenses. Occasionally, certain committees may request extra contributions from its members when they run short of funds. The operators of this scheme – trustees – set up a bank account and deposit all of the funds into it and take charge over these funds by discharging all funeral expenditures for its deceased beneficiary from this pot. The funding covers funeral directories, cemeteries costs, transportation if buried abroad including one person’s return ticket and in some cases catering costs. If a member dies abroad and buried there then a certain amount is paid to the family members to cover all local costs. Some committees cover repatriation costs as well whilst other may not necessarily cover it.

Most trustees, as some have informed me, do not take personal wages from the funds except that the initial joining fee is used to cover all admin costs. The information and as confirmed by the trustees, this contribution is not like a family kittee bank; a collective funding of savings by members to financially support each other and then reimbursed through monthly payments. Contrarily, the Death Committee, as some have mentioned to me, is a charitable contribution and not a loan-based system. Meaning that all members contribute as a form of charity to become recipients of all funeral benefits. This thus dismisses the question of underpayment or overpayment as all funds are treated as a charity contribution in return of funeral benefits for themselves, their families and for other contributing members.

The foregoing was a basic outline of the scheme across the board. They however differ in the details; each one operating with specific requirements and conditions dissimilar from the other. This being the dilemma, it is difficult to make a generic statement whether every committee comply fully with the Islamic ethical codes or not. Hence, all committees must be judged respectively by their own merit based on their terms and conditions.

In our understanding, no such model pre-existed our time during the prophetic time nor the generation of the companions or in the subsequent generation. Tracing such scheme in search of a similitude precedence from the Sunnah so to seek a clear legal stance is difficult, which means that this scheme is an unprecedented one. This scheme will therefore be judged according the general principles outlined in Islām. As far as the concept itself is concerned, it is not a reprehensible one but rather a beneficial concept for the welfare of Muslims. It in of itself concurs with the general Sharī῾ah objectives of Maslaha namely, public interest of procuring benefit and deferring harm. The rationale behind the Death Committee is to relieve individuals from the exorbitant costs of funeral expenses at the time of one’s death through a mutual funding in a pool affordable to everyone. The committee then uses the funds to cover all funeral costs. Essentially, to create ease for people and remove the financial constrains they inevitably incur. It can therefore be treated as a charitable contribution, as was pointed out earlier, with the aim of Muslims supporting one another. What is necessary is that the terms and conditions must not infringe the Islamic principles. It is to primarily serve the interest of the members and not the trustees themselves. No such clause should be included that lead to further harm for the members or entail any form of compulsion. For example, as a charity-based operation it is not permissible to fine members for delay in payment as this is force. It is however permissible to exclude members from the committee if they fail to make any further contributions. Likewise, no additional charges can be imposed on members like for instance, charging new members the overall costs of the past years as this goes against the principles of equity and fairness.

From the Sharī῾ah perspective, the Death Committee can represent somewhat a takaful or waqf model or alternatively a simple tabarru model.  A takaful or a waqf model means that all participants agree to pay a certain premium in a pool.[2] Each participant in return becomes a recipient of a type of cover they require for their personal circumstances – which in this case, funeral services. All risks are specified and all participants share the risks mutually. Takaful is a mutual co-operation system used as an alternative model to conventional insurance.[3] Albeit takaful and waqf operate differently, the end result is not much different. Whilst in the takaful model, the participants are considered the owners of the funds, the waqf model is somewhat a charity model where participants are not the owners but are the beneficiaries.  In the waqf model for instance, the operators can choose to invest in the money if need be to benefit the waqf funds only – e.g. to increase the funds to cover all funeral costs. The operators are not considered the owners of the waqf funding as a whole but act as guardians over it. They can however take a reasonable wage if necessary but only when the participants are aware of it and does not affect the waqf funding to cover funeral costs. [4] Each model requires a details discussion in respect to its application to the Death Committee with certain conditions which is beyond the scope of our answer. Suffice to say, it is important to remember that the participants are the primary beneficiaries and not the trustees. Should it be the case where the trustees use the funds to procure profit from it or based on a risk model whereby if during the year someone dies then they are paid out otherwise the operators take full possession over the funding pool, then this resembles conventional insurance that is prohibited. The primary distinction between insurance and the takaful/waqf model is that in the latter, the participants are the primary beneficiaries and (as in the takaful model) the owners of the funds, whereas in the former case – insurance – the company takes complete ownership over the funds for profit procurement and for private investors to invest in.

Another alternative model is a tabarru model which simply means charity. In other words, that members voluntarily contribute an amount to support one another to cover all expenses. In this model, there is no formal structure nor any conditions or a specific amount to be paid annually, unlike a waqf or takaful model that is structured with an agreed amount paid annually. It is merely to benefit people financially during urgent times. So, any Death Committee following either of these models whilst complying to their respective conditions makes it a valid scheme otherwise not.

The question of Zakāt on the funds depends on which respective model is adopted. If it resembles a takaful model then the participants are liable to pay Zakat on it as they are considered the owners. Other than that, in the tabarru’ or waqf model the participants are not liable to pay Zakāt on it as they do not own it. The trustees in this case however are encouraged to pay Zakāt on it so that it is not left without Zakat being paid on it although it is not essential as waqf and tabarru are both a form of charity in of themselves.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written and researched by Mufti Abdul Waheed

Answer attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] See the following links for more information on Death Committee, [accessed 30th March 2020]

http://ilfordmosque.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Funeral-Membership-Form-with-Rules-and-Regulations-Dec-2014.pdf

http://bmf1.co.uk/thaqwa-funeral-committee/

http://www.crawleymosque.com/funeral-assurance-committee/

http://www.wasiyyah.co.uk/Death%20Committee.html

https://theislamicburialfoundation.com/funeral-services.php

Information was also obtained from personal interview with senior members for instance, Maulana Zaffar from Pakistan Muslim Welfare Society on Tue 7th April 2020 who have been running the service for 30 plus years with 100 plus members.

 

[2] Waqf is permitted in all moveable assets including Janaziz preparations.

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Waqf, vol 2, p. 361

وَأَمَّا وَقْفُ الْمَنْقُولِ مَقْصُودًا فَإِنْ كَانَ كُرَاعًا أَوْ سِلَاحًا يَجُوزُ فِيمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ إنْ كَانَ شَيْئًا لَمْ يَجْرِ التَّعَارُفُ بِوَقْفِهِ كَالثِّيَابِ وَالْحَيَوَانِ لَا يَجُوزُ عِنْدَنَا وَإِنْ كَانَ مُتَعَارَفًا كَالْفَأْسِ وَالْقُدُومِ وَالْجِنَازَةِ وَثِيَابِهَا وَمَا يُحْتَاجُ إلَيْهِ مِنْ الْأَوَانِي وَالْقُدُورِ فِي غَسْلِ الْمَوْتَى وَالْمَصَاحِفِ لِقِرَاءَةِ الْقُرْآنِ قَالَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى -: إنَّهُ لَا يَجُوزُ، وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى -: يَجُوزُ، وَإِلَيْهِ ذَهَبَ عَامَّةُ الْمَشَايِخِ رَحِمَهُمْ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى مِنْهُمْ الْإِمَامُ السَّرَخْسِيُّ كَذَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ وَهُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ وَالْفَتْوَى عَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى -، كَذَا قَالَ شَمْسُ الْأَئِمَّةِ الْحَلْوَانِيُّ كَذَا فِي مُخْتَارِ الْفَتَاوَى وَلَوْ جَعَلَ جِنَازَةً وَمُلَاءَةً وَمُغْتَسَلًا يُقَالُ بِالْفَارِسِيَّةِ حَوْضُ مَسِّينِ وَقْفًا فِي مَحِلِّهِ فَمَاتَ أَهْلُهَا كُلُّهُمْ لَا يُرَدُّ إلَى الْوَرَثَةِ بَلْ يُحْمَلُ إلَى مَكَان آخَرَ أَقْرَبَ إلَى هَذِهِ الْمَحَلَّةِ كَذَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb  al-waqf, vol 4 p. 340

(وَمَحَلُّهُ الْمَالُ الْمُتَقَوِّمُ)

[3] Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance, https://www.islamic-banking.com/explore/islamic-finance/islamic-insurance-takaful, [accessed 30th March 2020]

 

[4] For more details on the Islamic waqf system, see Shaykh Khalid Sayfullah Rahmani, Qamūs al-Fiqh, Ch. Waqf, vol 5, pp. 293-309

Giving Ghusl to the deceased Body Who has Died as a Result of Coronavirus

Giving Ghusl to the deceased Body Who has Died as a Result of Coronavirus

30th March 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: If someone has passed away due to coronavirus and the hospital staff has returned the body wrapped up in a plastic bag so that no one is affected with the disease then how should the body be given ghusl?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, it must be noted that there are many obligatory rights that are afforded to the deceased person, amongst which is the ghusl; whether full ghusl according to the sunnah method or mere pouring water over the body. So long as Ghusl is possible, resorting to other means such as wiping or tayammum will not suffice. [1] Based on the information provided from reliable sources and speaking to those experienced in the field, washing (as well as shrouding) the dead body possess very little risk of transmission of COVID-19 from the body to the person provided that adequate precautions are adopted by those washing and shrouding the body.[2] This suggests that it is not permitted to discard the ghusl due to the fear of transmission if it is proven to be less likely the case. The jurists have mentioned that without the ghusl and burial had commenced, then ghusl would have to be given and Janazah Salah repeated.[3] Given the current circumstances, those washing the body must wear the appropriate gear; the PPE (personal protective equipment) to fulfil this obligation.

If in a hypothetical situation, ghusl becomes no longer possible due to the severity of the situation and government bans it altogether, then due to dharurah, one can wipe wet hands/cloth (soaked that is) over the body bag like as if someone wipes over a bandage due to a wound. If this is not possible then it is permissible to resort to tayammum (dry ablution).[4]

If the governmental restrictions tighten, then in absolute dire situations the deceased would then have to be buried with neither ghusl nor tayammum. However, as indicated above that this is currently not the case hence, the body must be washed (or wiped over with water or dry ablution if need be that is).

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah      Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Al bahr al raaiq, Kitaabul Janaaiz, vol 2, p 187

وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ الْمُصَنِّفُ صِفَةَ الْغُسْلِ، وَمَنْ يَغْسِلُ وَالْغَاسِلَ وَحُكْمَ الْمَيِّتِ قَبْلَهُ وَبَعْدَهُ أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ فَهُوَ مِنْ فُرُوضِ الْكِفَايَةِ كَالصَّلَاةِ عَلَيْهِ وَتَجْهِيزِهِ وَدَفْنِهِ حَتَّى لَوْ اجْتَمَعَ أَهْلُ بَلْدَةٍ عَلَى تَرْكِهَا قُوتِلُوا، وَلَوْ صَلَّوْا عَلَيْهِ قَبْلَ الْغُسْلِ أَعَادُوا الصَّلَاةَ، وَكَذَا إذَا ذَكَرُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُهَالَ عَلَيْهِ التُّرَابُ يُنْزَعُ اللَّبَنُ وَيُخْرَجُ وَيُغَسَّلُ وَيُصَلَّى عَلَيْهِ، وَإِنْ أَهَالُوهُ لَمْ يُنْبَشْ، وَلَمْ تُعَدْ الصَّلَاةُ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَوْ بَقِيَ مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ فَذَكَرُوهُ بَعْدَ الصَّلَاةِ وَالتَّكْفِينِ يُغَسَّلُ ذَلِكَ الْعُضْوُ وَيُعَادُ، فَإِنْ بَقِيَ أُصْبُعٌ وَنَحْوُهَا بَعْدَ التَّكْفِينِ لَا يُغَسَّلُ وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ يُغَسَّلُ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ كَذَا فِي الْمُجْتَبَى

 

[2] See, Dr S.Shahid, Evaluating the current guidelines regarding the handling and ritual washing (Ghusl) of the Muslim Deceased Patient with COVID-19, Leicester, [25th March 2020]

British Board of Scholars & Imams (BBSI), http://www.bbsi.org.uk/covid-funeralguidance/ [Accessed 29th March 2020].

According to the Royal College of Pathologists, a Body bag is not required but only to maintain dignity, see, https://www.rcpath.org/uploads/assets/0b7d77fa-b385-4c60-b47dde930477494b/G200-TBPs-Guidance-for-care-of-deceased-during-COVID-19-pandemic.pdf

https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/COVID-19-safe-handling-of-bodies-or-persons-dying-from-COVID19.pdf

[3] ref: 1

[4] Kasani, Bada’I al Sanaa I’, Kitaabul Janaaiz, Vol 1, P 304

وَمِنْهَا وُجُودُ الْمَاءِ؛ لِأَنَّ وُجُودَ الْفِعْلِ مُقَيَّدٌ بِالْوُسْعِ وَلَا وُسْعَ مَعَ عَدَمِ الْمَاءِ فَسَقَطَ الْغُسْلُ، وَلَكِنْ يُيَمَّمُ بِالصَّعِيدِ لِأَنَّ التَّيَمُّمَ صَلُحَ بَدَلًا عَنْ الْغُسْلِ فِي حَالِ الْحَيَاةِ فَكَذَا بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ، غَيْرَ أَنَّ الْجِنْسَ يُيَمِّمُ الْجِنْسَ بِيَدِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ يُبَاحُ لَهُ مَسُّ مَوَاضِعِ التَّيَمُّمِ مِنْهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَهْوَةٍ، كَمَا فِي حَالَةِ الْحَيَاةِ فَكَذَا بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ

Radd al Muhtaar, Kitabul Janaiz, vol 2, p 201

(قَوْلُهُ يُمِّمَ لِفَقْدِ مَاءٍ إلَخْ) قَالَ فِي الْفَتْحِ وَلَوْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ مَاءٌ فَيُمِّمَ الْمَيِّتُ وَصَلَّوْا عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ وَجَدُوهُ غَسَّلُوهُ وَصَلَّوْا عَلَيْهِ ثَانِيًا عِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ وَعَنْهُ يُغَسَّلُ وَلَا تُعَادُ الصَّلَاةُ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَوْ كَفَّنُوهُ وَبَقِيَ مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ لَمْ يُغَسَّلْ فَإِنَّهُ يُغَسَّلُ ذَلِكَ الْعُضْوُ وَلَوْ بَقِيَ نَحْوُ الْأُصْبُعِ لَا يُغَسَّلُ اهـ

 Fatawa Hindiyya, vol 1, p 160

وَإِذَا مَاتَ الرَّجُلُ فِي السَّفَرِ وَلَيْسَ هُنَاكَ مَاءٌ طَاهِرٌ يُيَمَّمُ وَيُصَلَّى عَلَيْهِ، هَكَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ.
رَجُلٌ مَاتَ وَلَمْ يَجِدُوا مَاءً فَيَمَّمُوهُ وَصَلَّوْا عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ وَجَدُوا مَاءً غُسِّلَ وَصُلِّيَ عَلَيْهِ ثَانِيًا فِي قَوْلِ أَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – كَذَا فِي فَتَاوَى قَاضِي خَانْ .

 

Categories of a Shaheed

Categories of a Shaheed

6th January 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question:  This word Shaheed is used by people for every death resulting from an illness. I’m aware if one dies of stomach illness, plague, wall collapsing on them, drowning, killed unjustly, highway robbery went wrong, fighting against those in revolt against a Khalifah and as a result was killed etc will be called a proper Shaheed provided they did not talk excessively, slept, sold or bought, minor, insane, in their monthly illnesses, took medication and another salah has not entered and few more. If they did not do any of the above and died instantly then I’m aware they are Shaheed of the proper status. My question is, all those who died instantly after an impact, will they be buried without Ghusl or is Ghusl only not given to those who died the ultimate death i.e. in the battlefield?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, the Shaheed status consists of two elements; a) a Shaheed in the case of worldly matters i.e. not to give ghusl to the person and burying them in their original clothing etc, and b) a Shaheed in the case of the hereafter i.e. attaining the lofty ranks in paradise promised in multiple Ahadeeth but with the ritual burial .[1] With regards to a person martyred on the battlefield and dying as a result thereof instantly, he will be classed as a Shaheed in both aspects (worldly and in the hereafter). Contrarily, a person who dies due to a plague, stomach illness or by drowning etc, will receive the reward of a Shaheed in the hereafter and not in this world; meaning that they will be rewarded with the lofty positions and honours promised to the martyrs,[2] even though they will be treated as a normal deceased individual,[3] as in, they will be given ghusl and shrouded just like everyone else.[4]

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Ābideen, Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaat, Bāb Alshaheed, vol 2 p. 252

قَوْلُهُ فِي الشَّهِيدِ الْكَامِلِ) وَهُوَ شَهِيدُ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ، وَشَهَادَةُ الدُّنْيَا بِعَدَمِ الْغُسْلِ إلَّا لِنَجَاسَةٍ أَصَابَتْهُ غَيْرَ دَمِهِ كَمَا فِي أَبِي السُّعُودِ، وَشَهَادَةُ الْآخِرَةِ بِنَيْلِ الثَّوَابِ الْمَوْعُودِ لِلشَّهِيدِ أَفَادَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ ط وَالْمُرَادُ بِشَهِيدِ الْآخِرَةِ مَنْ قُتِلَ مَظْلُومًا أَوْ قَاتَلَ لِإِعْلَاءِ كَلِمَةِ اللَّهِ – تَعَالَى – حَتَّى قُتِلَ فَلَوْ قَاتَلَ لِغَرَضٍ دُنْيَوِيٍّ فَهُوَ شَهِيدُ دُنْيَا فَقَطْ تَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ أَحْكَامُ الشَّهِيدِ فِي الدُّنْيَا، وَعَلَيْهِ فَالشُّهَدَاءُ ثَلَاثَةٌ

[2] Ibn Ābideen, Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Salaat, Bāb Alshaheed, vol 2 p. 248

وَقَيَّدَ بِالْقَتْلِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ مَاتَ حَتْفَ أَنْفِهِ أَوْ بِتَرَدٍّ أَوْ حَرْقٍ أَوْ غَرَقٍ أَوْ هَدْمٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ شَهِيدًا فِي حُكْمِ الدُّنْيَا، وَإِنْ كَانَ شَهِيدًا فِي الْآخِرَةِ كَمَا سَيَأْتِي

 

[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Salaat, Bāb al-Janaza, Fasl fi Shaheed vol 1, p. 169

وَالْأَصْلُ أَنَّ كُلَّ مَنْ صَارَ مَقْتُولًا فِي قِتَالِ ثَلَاثٍ أَهْلِ الْحَرْبِ أَوْ الْبُغَاةِ أَوْ قُطَّاعِ الطَّرِيقِ بِمَعْنَى مُضَافِ الْعَدُوِّ وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ بِالْمُبَاشَرَةِ أَوْ التَّسْبِيبِ كَانَ شَهِيدًا وَكُلُّ مَنْ صَارَ مَقْتُولًا بِمَعْنًى غَيْرِ مُضَافٍ إلَى الْعَدُوِّ لَا يَكُونُ شَهِيدًا، كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ.

 

[4] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Janaaiz,  Bāb al-Shaheed, vol 2 p. 211

 (قَوْلُهُ هُوَ مَنْ قَتَلَهُ أَهْلُ الْحَرْبِ أَوْ الْبَغْيِ أَوْ قُطَّاعُ الطَّرِيقِ أَوْ وُجِدَ فِي الْمَعْرَكَةِ وَبِهِ أَثَرٌ أَوْ قَتَلَهُ مُسْلِمٌ ظُلْمًا، وَلَمْ يَجِبْ بِقَتْلِهِ دِيَةٌ) بَيَانٌ لِشَرَائِطِهِ، قُيِّدَ بِكَوْنِهِ مَقْتُولًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ مَاتَ حَتْفَ أَنْفِهِ أَوْ تَرَدَّى مِنْ مَوْضِعٍ أَوْ احْتَرَقَ بِالنَّارِ أَوْ مَاتَ تَحْتَ هَدْمٍ أَوْ غَرَقٍ لَا يَكُونُ شَهِيدًا أَيْ فِي حُكْمِ الدُّنْيَا وَإِلَّا فَقَدْ «شَهِدَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – لِلْغَرِيقِ وَلِلْحَرِيقِ وَالْمَبْطُونِ وَالْغَرِيبِ بِأَنَّهُمْ شُهَدَاءُ» فَيَنَالُونَ ثَوَابَ الشُّهَدَاءِ كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ، وَفِي التَّجْنِيسِ رَجُلٌ قَصَدَ الْعَدُوَّ لِيَضْرِبَهُ فَأَخْطَأَ فَأَصَابَ نَفْسَهُ فَمَاتَ يُغَسَّلُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ مَا صَارَ مَقْتُولًا بِفِعْلٍ مُضَافٍ إلَى الْعَدُوِّ وَلَكِنَّهُ شَهِيدٌ فِيمَا يَنَالُ مِنْ الثَّوَابِ فِي الْآخِرَةِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ قَصَدَ الْعَدُوَّ لَا نَفْسَهُ اهـ.

Someone seeing or touching their Deceased Spouse

Someone seeing or touching their Deceased Spouse

27th November 2018

 

Question: Can husband/wife, see/touch their deceased spouse?

 

Answer

 

Without a doubt the wife can touch her deceased husband. The Fuqaha state that she may even give him Ghusl. A man cannot touch his deceased wife’s body as their marriage is nor broken but can see her face.[1] This prohibition is only by touching her actual body otherwise if he merely places his hand on her body whilst shrouded then there is no harm in that.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Ibn Humām, Fathul Qadeer, Kitāb al-Janaiz,  Fasl fil Ghusl, vol 2 p. 111

[فُرُوعٌ] لَا يُغَسِّلُ الزَّوْجُ امْرَأَتَهُ وَلَا أُمُّ الْوَلَدِ سَيِّدَهَا، خِلَافًا لِلشَّافِعِيِّ فِي الْأَوَّلِ وَلِزُفَرَ فِي الثَّانِي؛ لِأَنَّهُمَا صَارَتَا أَجْنَبِيَّتَيْنِ، وَعِدَّةُ أُمِّ الْوَلَدِ لِلِاسْتِبْرَاءِ لَا أَنَّهَا مِنْ حُقُوقِ الْوَصْلَةِ الشَّرْعِيَّةِ، بِخِلَافِ عِدَّةِ الزَّوْجَةِ فَلِذَا تُغَسِّلُ هِيَ زَوْجَهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مُحْرِمَةً أَوْ صَائِمَةً أَوْ مُظَاهَرًا مِنْهَا إلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ مُعْتَدَّةً عَنْ نِكَاحٍ فَاسِدٍ

 

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Janaiz, Bāb Salātul Janaiz, vol 2 p. 198-9

(وَيُمْنَعُ زَوْجُهَا مِنْ غُسْلِهَا وَمَسِّهَا لَا مِنْ النَّظَرِ إلَيْهَا عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ) مُنْيَةٌ…………(وَهِيَ لَا تُمْنَعُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ)

(قَوْلُهُ وَهِيَ لَا تُمْنَعُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ) أَيْ مِنْ تَغْسِيلِ زَوْجِهَا دَخَلَ بِهَا أَوْ لَا كَمَا فِي الْمِعْرَاجِ وَمِثْلُهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ الْمُجْتَبَى. قُلْت: أَيْ لِأَنَّهَا تَلْزَمُهَا عِدَّةُ الْوَفَاةِ، وَلَوْ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ بِهَا، وَفِي الْبَدَائِعِ: الْمَرْأَةُ تُغَسِّلُ زَوْجَهَا؛ لِأَنَّ إبَاحَةَ الْغُسْلِ مُسْتَفَادَةٌ بِالنِّكَاحِ، فَتَبْقَى مَا بَقِيَ النِّكَاحُ، وَالنِّكَاحُ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ بَاقٍ إلَى أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ الْعِدَّةُ بِخِلَافِ مَا إذَا مَاتَتْ فَلَا يُغَسِّلُهَا لِانْتِهَاءِ مِلْكِ النِّكَاحِ لِعَدَمِ الْمَحَلِّ فَصَارَ أَجْنَبِيًّ

Reciting Noble Quran Near the Grave

Reciting Noble Quran Near the Grave

27th November 2018

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته 

Question: Can one recite Qur’ān near the grave?

 

الجواب حامداً ومصلياً 

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

It is allowed to recite the Noble Quran near the grave. It is preferable to recite Surah Yaseen although a person should not raise his voice while doing so as it is makruh tahrimi. A Hadeeth reports that whosoever enters the graveyard and recites Surah Yaseen the Allāh Almighty alleviates (the punishment) for the inmates for that day and he (the reciter) receives the good deeds equal to the number of the inmates. [1]

 

[Allah Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Maulana Anas Mullah       Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

 JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] وَلَا بَأْسَ بِقِرَاءَةِ الْقُرْآنِ عِنْدَ الْقُبُورِ وَرُبَّمَا تَكُونُ أَفْضَلَ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُخَفِّفَ اللَّهُ عَنْ أَهْلِ الْقُبُورِ شَيْئًا مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ أَوْ يَقْطَعَهُ عِنْدَ دُعَاءِ الْقَارِئِ وَتِلَاوَتِهِ وَفِيهِ وَرَدَ آثَارُ «مَنْ دَخَلَ الْمَقَابِرَ فَقَرَأَ سُورَةَ يس خَفَّفَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمئِذٍ وَكَانَ لَهُ بِعَدَدِ مَنْ فِيهَا حَسَنَاتٌ» . اهـ

(البحر الرائق، كتاب الجنائز، الصلاة علي الميت في المسجد، جلد ٢، ص٢١٠)

 

قِرَاءَةُ الْقُرْآنِ عِنْدَ الْقُبُورِ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍرَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَىلَا تُكْرَهُ وَمَشَايِخُنَارَحِمَهُمْ اللَّهُ تَعَالَىأَخَذُوا بِقَوْلِهِ وَهَلْ يَنْتَفِعُ وَالْمُخْتَارُ أَنَّهُ يَنْتَفِعُ، هَكَذَا فِي الْمُضْمَرَاتِ

(الفتاوي الهندية، كتاب الصلاة، باب الجنائز، فصل في القبر والدفن، جلد ١، ص١٦٦)

 

وَيَقْرَأُ يس، وَفِي الْحَدِيثِ «مَنْ قَرَأَ الْإِخْلَاصَ أَحَدَ عَشَرَمَرَّةً ثُمَّ وَهَبَ أَجْرَهَا لِلْأَمْوَاتِ أُعْطِيَ مِنْ الْأَجْرِ بِعَدَدِ الْأَمْوَاتِ» ،
«
مَنْ دَخَلَ الْمَقَابِرَ فَقَرَأَ سُورَةَ يس خَفَّفَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ، وَكَانَ لَهُ بِعَدَدِ مَنْ فِيهَا حَسَنَاتٌ» بَحْرٌ. وَفِي شَرْحِ اللُّبَابِ وَيَقْرَأُ مِنْ الْقُرْآنِ مَا تَيَسَّرَ لَهُ مِنْ الْفَاتِحَةِ وَأَوَّلِ الْبَقَرَةِ إلَى الْمُفْلِحُونَ وَآيَةِ الْكُرْسِيِّوَآمَنَ الرَّسُولُوَسُورَةِ يس وَتَبَارَكَ الْمُلْكُ وَسُورَةِ التَّكَاثُرِ وَالْإِخْلَاصِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ مَرَّةً أَوْ إحْدَى عَشَرَ أَوْ سَبْعًا أَوْ ثَلَاثًا، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: اللَّهُمَّ أَوْصِلْ ثَوَابَ مَا قَرَأْنَاهُ إلَى فُلَانٍ أَوْ إلَيْهِمْ [

(رد المحتار، كتاب الصلاة، باب الجنائز، مطلب في زيارة القبور، جلد ٢، ص٢٤٢)

 

Death

Death

27th November 2018

Reciting Quran Near the Grave

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته 

Question:

Can one recite Qur’ān near the grave?

الجواب حامداً ومصلياً 

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer:

Yes, it is allowed to recite the Noble Quran near the grave. It is preferable to recite Surah Yaseen although a person should not raise his voice while doing so as it is makruh tahrimi. A Hadeeth reports that whosoever enters the graveyard and recites Surah Yaseen the Allāh I alleviates (the punishment) for the inmates for that day and he (the reciter) receives the good deeds equal to the number of the inmates. [1]

Written by:

 

Moulana Anas Mulla

JKN Fatawa Department 

Reviewed by:

 

Mufti Abdul Waheed       

JKN Fatawa Department 

Attested by:

 

Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department 

 

 

[1] وَلَا بَأْسَ بِقِرَاءَةِ الْقُرْآنِ عِنْدَ الْقُبُورِ وَرُبَّمَا تَكُونُ أَفْضَلَ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُخَفِّفَ اللَّهُ عَنْ أَهْلِ الْقُبُورِ شَيْئًا مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ أَوْ يَقْطَعَهُ عِنْدَ دُعَاءِ الْقَارِئِ وَتِلَاوَتِهِ وَفِيهِ وَرَدَ آثَارُ «مَنْ دَخَلَ الْمَقَابِرَ فَقَرَأَ سُورَةَ يس خَفَّفَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمئِذٍ وَكَانَ لَهُ بِعَدَدِ مَنْ فِيهَا حَسَنَاتٌ» . اهـ

(البحر الرائق، كتاب الجنائز، الصلاة علي الميت في المسجد، جلد ٢، ص٢١٠)

 

قِرَاءَةُ الْقُرْآنِ عِنْدَ الْقُبُورِ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍرَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَىلَا تُكْرَهُ وَمَشَايِخُنَارَحِمَهُمْ اللَّهُ تَعَالَىأَخَذُوا بِقَوْلِهِ وَهَلْ يَنْتَفِعُ وَالْمُخْتَارُ أَنَّهُ يَنْتَفِعُ، هَكَذَا فِي الْمُضْمَرَاتِ

(الفتاوي الهندية، كتاب الصلاة، باب الجنائز، فصل في القبر والدفن، جلد ١، ص١٦٦)

 

وَيَقْرَأُ يس، وَفِي الْحَدِيثِ «مَنْ قَرَأَ الْإِخْلَاصَ أَحَدَ عَشَرَمَرَّةً ثُمَّ وَهَبَ أَجْرَهَا لِلْأَمْوَاتِ أُعْطِيَ مِنْ الْأَجْرِ بِعَدَدِ الْأَمْوَاتِ» ،
«
مَنْ دَخَلَ الْمَقَابِرَ فَقَرَأَ سُورَةَ يس خَفَّفَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ، وَكَانَ لَهُ بِعَدَدِ مَنْ فِيهَا حَسَنَاتٌ» بَحْرٌ. وَفِي شَرْحِ اللُّبَابِ وَيَقْرَأُ مِنْ الْقُرْآنِ مَا تَيَسَّرَ لَهُ مِنْ الْفَاتِحَةِ وَأَوَّلِ الْبَقَرَةِ إلَى الْمُفْلِحُونَ وَآيَةِ الْكُرْسِيِّوَآمَنَ الرَّسُولُوَسُورَةِ يس وَتَبَارَكَ الْمُلْكُ وَسُورَةِ التَّكَاثُرِ وَالْإِخْلَاصِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ مَرَّةً أَوْ إحْدَى عَشَرَ أَوْ سَبْعًا أَوْ ثَلَاثًا، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: اللَّهُمَّ أَوْصِلْ ثَوَابَ مَا قَرَأْنَاهُ إلَى فُلَانٍ أَوْ إلَيْهِمْ [

(رد المحتار، كتاب الصلاة، باب الجنائز، مطلب في زيارة القبور، جلد ٢، ص٢٤٢)

When does Ta’ziyyat Begin?

When does Ta’ziyyat Begin?

25th April 2016

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Q: 1) When does the three days Taziyyat period start? Is it after the person’s death or after burial and can one do tazi’yyat after three days?

2) Should the visitors demand food from the bereaved household members to prepare food for them?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

  1. Ta’ziyyat (bereavement) is for three days which begins from the person’s death and not necessarily from the burial time. Ta’ziyyat should not be made after the third day of the person’s death except if either a bereaved family member or those wanting to express their condolences were absent during those three days. [1] Other than that, Islām does not recognise extending the mourning period beyond three days.
  2. Visitors who come to express their condolences should not demand prepared food from the bereaved family. Scholars have condemned the culture of the bereaved family preparing food for the guests and regard it as a bid’ah (innovation) practice. [2] In fact the guests are encouraged to prepare cooked food for the bereaved family due to their engagement in the moaning of their deceased. This has been reported from the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam as an act of courteousness and compassion.[3] In today’s customary practice where the bereaved family members prepare food for the visitors on the third or fourth day is an innovation in the religion and a sin. To refrain from such practice is necessary and as such, one must avoid partaking in the meal as much as possible.[4]

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Fatāwa Hindiyyah, Kitābus Salāh, Bāb fil Janāiz,  vol 1 p. 183

وَوَقْتُهَا مِنْ حِينِ يَمُوتُ إلَى ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ وَيُكْرَهُ بَعْدَهَا إلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ الْمُعَزِّي أَوْ الْمُعَزَّى إلَيْهِ غَائِبًا فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهَا وَهِيَ بَعْدَ الدَّفْنِ أَوْلَى مِنْهَا قَبْلَهُ وَهَذَا إذَا لَمْ يُرَ مِنْهُمْ جَزَعٌ شَدِيدٌ فَإِنْ رُئِيَ ذَلِكَ قُدِّمَتْ التَّعْزِيَةُ

[2] Ibn Ābideen al-Shāmi Kitābus Salāh, Bāb Salātil Janāiz,  vol 3 p. 148

وَيُكْرَهُ اتِّخَاذُ الضِّيَافَةِ مِنْ الطَّعَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَيِّتِ لِأَنَّهُ شُرِعَ فِي السُّرُورِ لَا فِي الشُّرُورِ، وَهِيَ بِدْعَةٌ مُسْتَقْبَحَةٌ: وَرَوَى الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ بِإِسْنَادٍ صَحِيحٍ عَنْ جَرِيرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ ” كُنَّا نَعُدُّ الِاجْتِمَاعَ إلَى أَهْلِ الْمَيِّتِ وَصُنْعَهُمْ الطَّعَامَ مِنْ النِّيَاحَةِ

[3] Mishkāt No: 1739

وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ قَالَ: لَمَّا جَاءَ نَعْيُ جَعْفَرٍ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسلم صانعوا لِآلِ جَعْفَرٍ طَعَامًا فَقَدْ أَتَاهُمْ مَا يَشْغَلُهُمْ

[4] Mirqāt Sharh Mishkāt Bāb al-Bukā alal Mayit, vol 3, p. 1241

قَالَ الطِّيبِيُّ: دَلَّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يُسْتَحَبُّ لِلْأَقَارِبِ وَالْجِيرَانِ تَهْيِئَةُ طَعَامٍ لِأَهْلِ الْمَيِّتِ اهـ. وَالْمُرَادُ طَعَامٌ يُشْبِعُهُمْ يَوْمَهُمْ وَلَيْلَتَهُمْ، فَإِنَّ الْغَالِبَ أَنَّ الْحُزْنَ الشَّاغِلَ عَنْ تَنَاوُلِ الطَّعَامِ لَا يَسْتَمِرُّ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ يَوْمٍ، وَقِيلَ: يُحْمَلُ لَهُمْ طَعَامٌ إِلَى ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مُدَّةَ التَّعْزِيَةِ، ثُمَّ إِذَا صُنِعَ لَهُمْ مَا ذَكَرَ مِنْ أَنْ يُلِحَّ عَلَيْهِمْ فِي الْأَكْلِ لِئَلَّا يَضْعُفُوا بِتَرْكِهِ اسْتِحْيَاءً، أَوْ لِفَرْطِ جَزَعٍ، وَاصْطِنَاعُهُ مِنْ بَعِيدٍ أَوْ قَرِيبٍ لِلنَّائِحَاتِ شَدِيدُ التَّحْرِيمِ ; لِأَنَّهُ إِعَانَةٌ عَلَى الْمَعْصِيَةِ، وَاصْطِنَاعُ أَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ لَهُ لِأَجْلِ اجْتِمَاعِ النَّاسِ عَلَيْهِ بِدْعَةٌ مَكْرُوهَةٌ، بَلْ صَحَّ عَنْ جَرِيرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: كُنَّا نَعُدُّهُ مِنَ النِّيَاحَةِ، وَهُوَ ظَاهِرٌ فِي التَّحْرِيمِ. قَالَ الْغَزَالِيُّ: وَيُكْرَهُ الْأَكْلُ مِنْهُ، قُلْتُ: وَهَذَا إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ أَوِ الْغَائِبِ، وَإِلَّا فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ بِلَا خِلَافٍ. (رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ) وَقَالَ: حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ نَقَلَهُ مِيرَكُ. (وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ، وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ) قَالَ مِيرَكُ: رَوَاهُ النَّسَائِيُّ.

 

Burying a Foetus

Burying a Foetus

22nd October 2015

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Questions

  1. What does Islam say in regards to a foetus born before 24 weeks pregnancy, should we allow the hospital to bury it or bury it straight away yourself?
  1. Is communal burial ok i.e to bury in a grave altogether?
  1. If a baby dies soon after birth and does breath can this baby go in a communal grave or does it have to be a separate grave?
  1. If a foetus or a baby requires to be buried then should this be done straight away or can it be left for 4-12 weeks as some hospitals do?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

1: In reference to your query, if the hospital gives you the legal right to take the foetus and bury it yourself then you should do so and bury it straightaway.

 

2: Yes a communal burial is permissible. Note that no ritual bath, shrouding and Janazah Salāh apply to a foetus.

 

3: It can be and should be buried in a communal grave. Just to note that any baby delivered showing signs of life before dying must be named, given a ritual bath and shrouded. Thereafter, Janazah Salāh must be performed on it.

 

4: It should be buried straight away. Unnecessary delay in the burial is makrooh (disliked).

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department