When Can you Pay Fidya instead of Fasting?

28th April 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I have a question regarding fasting on behalf of someone.  They have an autoimmune disease and get Migraines, headaches, weak immune system which causes nausea, throwing up, eye-sight issues and just general unwell health out with Ramadhān but during fasting makes it worse. They have not managed to fast for a few years now due to the above symptoms and have not regained health to make them up during any other times of the year.  Therefore, they have accumulated a lot of qadha fasts. They are asking can they give fidya?  And if no why not as the parent feels, her child (although he’s 19) isn’t getting better and now has too many fasts that he will need to do qadha of.  He has always fasted enthusiastically so this is difficult on him to not fast but he just can’t manage to. 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

Thank you for your question. In reference to your query, Islām has given concession for an ill person not to fast during Ramadhān on the condition that they make up these fasts later on as Qadha. The concession of fidya applies to that ill person only who has a very strong indication confirmed by experienced Muslim doctors that due to the acute and terminal illness, there is no hope of them recovering to their normal condition where they are able to fast ever in the future. If there is hope of recovering or at least to a state where fasting is possible [be it in 10 years’ or so], then fidya will not suffice but instead, Qadha is necessary whenever possible. [1] The person in question must, therefore, judge according to this general rule and seek a professional Muslim Doctor’s advice.

If the law of fidya does apply to the person in question as descried above, then the amount of fidya is the same as sadaqutul fitr per fast which is half a saa’ of wheat or its monetary value. Half a saa’ is approximately 1.75kg.[2] Alternatively you can give the monetary value which is common nowadays. So, pay the amount equivalent to fitrana.

If fidya was given and then the person ends up recovering, be it after many years then all the fidya that was given will become nafil charity, and all the missed fasts will have to be kept.[3] Also note that having many qadha fasts is not a reason for paying fidya. Qadha fasts do not have to be kept consecutively nor to be kept during any particular time of the year. For example, if a person keeps three months, then throughout his life he will be able to complete all his qadhas inshallah.[4]

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by:  Apa Sajeda          Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Kasani, Bada’ia Sana’ia, Kitab Alsawm, Vol 2, Pg 105.

وَأَمَّا وُجُوبُ الْفِدَاءِ: فَشَرْطُهُ الْعَجْزُ عَنْ الْقَضَاءِ عَجْزًا لَا تُرْجَى مَعَهُ الْقُدْرَةُ فِي جَمِيعِ عُمْرِهِ فَلَا يَجِبُ إلَّا عَلَى الشَّيْخِ الْفَانِي، وَلَا فِدَاءَ عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ وَالْمُسَافِرِ وَلَا عَلَى الْحَامِلِ وَالْمُرْضِعِ وَكُلِّ مَنْ يُفْطِرُ لِعُذْرٍ تُرْجَى مَعَهُ الْقُدْرَةُ لِفَقْدِ شَرْطِهِ وَهُوَ الْعَجْزُ الْمُسْتَدَامُ، وَهَذَا لِأَنَّ الْفِدَاءَ خَلَفٌ عَنْ الْقَضَاءِ، وَالْقُدْرَةُ عَلَى الْأَصْلِ تَمْنَعُ الْمَصِيرَ إلَى الْخَلَفِ كَمَا فِي سَائِرِ الْأَخْلَافِ مَعَ أُصُولِهَا،

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Alrai’q, Kitab Alsawm, Vol 2, Pg 303

(قَوْلُهُ: لِمَنْ خَافَ زِيَادَةَ الْمَرَضِ الْفِطْرُ) لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ} [البقرة: ١٨٤] فَإِنَّهُ أَبَاحَ الْفِطْرَ لِكُلِّ مَرِيضٍ لَكِنْ الْقَطْعُ بِأَنَّ شَرْعِيَّةَ الْفِطْرِ فِيهِ إنَّمَا هُوَ لِدَفْعِ الْحَرَجِ وَتَحَقُّقُ الْحَرَجِ مَنُوطٌ بِزِيَادَةِ الْمَرَضِ أَوْ إبْطَاءِ الْبُرْءِ أَوْ إفْسَادِ عُضْوٍ ثُمَّ مَعْرِفَةُ ذَلِكَ بِاجْتِهَادِ الْمَرِيضِ وَالِاجْتِهَادُ غَيْرُ مُجَرَّدِ الْوَهْمِ بَلْ هُوَ غَلَبَةُ الظَّنِّ عَنْ أَمَارَةٍ أَوْ تَجْرِبَةٍ أَوْ بِإِخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ مُسْلِمٍ غَيْرِ ظَاهِرِ الْفِسْقِ

 

[2] Kasani, Bada’ia Sana’ia, Kitab Alsawm, Vol 2, Pg 103.

وَمِقْدَارُ الْفِدْيَةِ مِقْدَارُ صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ، وَهُوَ أَنْ يُطْعِمَ عَنْ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ مِسْكِينًا مِقْدَارَ مَا يُطْعِمُ فِي صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ.

 

[3]  Fatawa Hindiyya, Kitab Alsawm, Vol 1, Pg 207.

وَلَوْ قَدَرَ عَلَى الصِّيَامِ بَعْدَ مَا فَدَى بَطَلَ حُكْمُ الْفِدَاءِ الَّذِي فَدَاهُ حَتَّى يَجِبَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّوْمُ هَكَذَا فِي النِّهَايَةِ.

 

[4] Kasani, Bada’ia Sana’ia, Kitab Alsawm, Vol 2, Pg 97.

فَإِنْ بَرِئَ الْمَرِيضُ أَوْ قَدِمَ الْمُسَافِرُ وَأَدْرَكَ مِنْ الْوَقْتِ بِقَدْرِ مَا فَاتَهُ يَلْزَمُهُ قَضَاءُ جَمِيعِ مَا أَدْرَكَ، لِأَنَّهُ قَدَرَ عَلَى الْقَضَاءِ لِزَوَالِ الْعُذْرِ،