Should the Masājid be Closed and is it Permissible to Perform Jumu’ah Salāh at Home Because of the Coronavirus?

27th March 2020

Question: As you are aware that because of the enormous outbreak of the coronavirus, many organisations have decided close the Masājid whilst others choose to keep it open. What is the correct position and what are the guidelines regarding those vulnerable to the coronavirus? As a result of closing the Masājid, Jumu’ah Salāh has also been suspended. Would it be permissible to perform Jumu’ah Salāh at home or should Zuhr Salāh be performed instead?


الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful



Thank you for your very much pertinent question in our time. There has been a significant discussion amongst the circles of the scholars across the country whether the Masājid (plural of Masjid) should remain open or closed and whether or not Jumu’ah Salāh should be suspended altogether in light of the coronavirus pandemic. It is inevitable that scholars will differ amongst each other on this issue due to its unprecedented nature. Valid reasons exist on both sides concerning both issues respectively. What is important, nonetheless, is that regardless of whatever stance you take, you abide by it whilst to simultaneously, respect the opposing view. The global COVID-19 pandemic has unfortunately evoked anxiety and panic amongst many of our Muslim brothers and sisters globally and hence, not something to be treated lightly. As we are all responsible for our actions, it is necessary not to turn this into a polemical debate nor make others a target of criticism just because they hold a different view. May Allāh Almighty keep us all strong and united during such adversity, Amīn. Concerning the case in question about Masājid, our personal stance is that so long as the decision rests in the hands of the Muslims, the Masājid should remain open for the five daily Salāh times, [1] but operate within a restricted capacity in light of the government guidelines. So long as the government does not enforce the closure of all religious places, the five daily Salāhs and Adhān should continue so that the Masājid are not abandoned altogether even if it means only a handful of Muslims attend. Masājid are amongst the important shrines in the Islamic tradition established for the worship of Allāh alone and are a source of refuge in critical crises like the current pandemic. Albeit it is unexpected how long this pandemic will continue; it is estimated that it can last for weeks or even months. So potentially, we are looking at everyone praying Salāh in their homes throughout that duration or even longer. There are a few reasons why we stress that the Masājid should remain open;

  1. In one narration the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam referred to those frequenting the Masjid as the people of Allāh, whilst in another narration, he said that a sign of faith in a person is the one who frequents the Masjid.[2] Frequenting the Masjid helps rejuvenate our faith and connection with Allāh Almighty, and closing them only diminishes our connection with Him.
  2. The Masājid are a means of averting Allāh’s In one narration narrated by Sayyidunā Anas ibn Mālik radhiyallahu anhu from the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam, “Whenever Allāh intends to punish people, He (the Almighty) looks at the people (inhabitants) of the Masājid, and so He averts the punishment.”[3]

One cannot imagine Allāh Almighty’s infinite mercy over His creation that He averts his punishment because of those populating His blessed house. This illustrates His love for those continuing to inhabit His house for worship and moreover, they serve as a means of protection for others. It is counterproductive and inconceivable in a believer’s mind to expect Allāh Almighty to remove this pandemic when His blessed houses are emphatically instructed to be fully closed without anyone worshipping therein. Whilst many would argue the case otherwise applying the law of necessity, keeping the Masājid open does not necessarily prevent following government restrictions such as social distancing and isolating the vulnerable ones. In light of the current government guidelines,[4] we recommend that a dedicated handful (2 or 3) of young men amongst the local community to continue joining the Imām in the five daily prayers whereas the rest of the people perform their Salāhs at home in a small congregation. The Masājid must also follow all hygienic protocols set by health professions. They must at least remain open during Salāh times short enough to perform the fardh prayers only. All Salāhs including Jumu’ah must be performed in a short manner. For the Jumu’ah Salāh, according to a prophetic tradition reported in Dār al-Qutni, four people including the Imām is sufficient for the validity of the Salāh.[5] Only the Arabic khutbah should be recited with a short recitation of tilāwat in the two rak’ats prayer. The Sunnah prayers of all the Salāhs should be performed at home. After the congregational prayer, the congregants should disperse maintaining two meters distance between each other. If possible, all should wear a face mask so to prevent droplet particles transmitting.

As for the frail, the vulnerable and those tested positive of COVID-19, they must remain home and not attend the Masjid. Such people fall under the remit of genuinely excused people who are exempted from attending the congregational prayers including Jumu’ah Salāh. The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam himself excused them from the congregational prayers including Jumu’ah.[6] It is worth noting here that in spite of the concession, whilst there are those amongst the ill people who cannot be barred from attending the Masjid, there are specific categories amongst them who can be prevented. For the latter instance, jurists cite the case of a leper (majdhūm) regarding whom there is apprehension that if he attends the congregational prayer and other congregants are likely to be infected by him then the people can prevent him from coming to the Masjid so to avert others being harmed by him.[7] In a similar case, COVID-19 patients (as well as those vulnerable to it) can be restricted from attending the Masjid using the same analogy of a majdhūm. They are required to self-isolate so to prevent the harm of the disease transmitting onto others.

Apart from illness, other legitimate reasons that prevent communal prayers include dire circumstances. For instance, if an Imām (the leader) prevents people from congregating for the Jumu’ah Salāh for a specific reason then they should not congregate at all. This is only if the reason was acceptable circumstantially, otherwise, the people will not obey him and congregate to perform the Jumu’ah Salāh amongst themselves.[8] It must be reminded that the Imām here refers to the Muslim Khalif who was commissioned with the responsibility of leading the masses in Jumu’ah. Although no such Imām exists in our context, the point to note from this is that the Sharī῾ah gives concessions where public predicament (umūm balwa) exists on the grounds of specific reasons that affect the general masses whether such reasons are based on circumstantial reasons or illnesses.

At the present moment, the government and health ministers have cautioned all citizens by enforcing social distancing so to mitigate the spread of the virus. Most importantly, to prevent an overflow of an unexpected high number of COVID-19 patients being admitted into the hospital. Yet in spite of this, the number of deaths and affected people continue to rise exponentially. As a result of this, the government has instructed all citizens to remain home and not to leave without necessity. From a fiqhi stance, it raises the question that how can those not tested positive of COVID-19 be excused of not attending the congregational prayers in the Masjid? Under the topic of plague (tā’oon), Ibn Ābidīn Shāmi rahimahullah discusses the variant opinions as to whether a healthy person residing in a city struck with plague is treated similar to an excused person or not. According to some Shāfi’ee scholars a healthy person can be treated as a genuinely excused (ill) person (considering the likelihood probability of being affected by the plague) whilst according to the Hanafi principles, he is still viewed a healthy person (hence no exemptions apply). Ibn Ābidīn Shāmi rahimahullah concludes that such matters are left contingent on the predominant assumption of the fear of perishing or not.[9] In other words, if the probability of being infected by disease transmitting and dying is greater, then the law of illness would apply to all. So given the circumstantial evidence of the crises, it can be argued that the general Muslim population residing in the midst of the pandemic along with the death toll and the infectious rate climbing are genuinely excused from attending the congregational prayers at the Masjid and thus, everyone should perform their Salāhs at home in small groups of family members. In all cases, where it is deemed necessary for people not to attend the communal prayers collectively, then according to the narration of Sayyidunā Abdulah Ibn Abbās radhiyallahu anhu, the muadhin can announce during the Adhān صَلُّوا فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ (perform Salāh in your homes) instead of the words حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ.[10]

The foregoing discussion was necessary so to understand the ruling of concession applicable to the present pandemic. We now move onto the second part of the above question of performing Jumu’ah Salāh at home. One must remember that there are distinct rulings pertaining to Jumu’ah Salāh alone that don’t apply to the five daily Salāhs. Take for instance, to perform the five daily Salāhs in congregation is not an integral condition for their validity whilst for the Jumu’ah Salāh, performing it in congregation is conditional. Among the distinct ruling that pivots this discussion and pertinent to the topic is that in the Hanafi school law, granting public access (Idhn al-Ām) to anyone wanting to participate is essential. So, to perform Jumu’ah Salāh at a place where there is restricted access or in a private space where people generally do not congregate for the communal prayer is not permitted. Other forms of restrictions that invalidate the Jumu’ah Salāh include closing the doors on others to prevent entry.[11] The underlying rationale is that Jumu’ah by its definition implies Jama’ah – a group of people – so by its very nature, it must be performed in a public place were all are able to congregate. Contrarily, the home environment is generally not viewed as a communal place for people to congregate but restricted for family members only. For this reason, classical scholars prohibited performing Jumu’ah Salāh in prisons, however later scholars allowed it due to necessity with the condition that none of the inmates are prevented from attending.[12]

Henceforth, for the condition of idhn al-Ām to be fulfilled, people must either congregate in communal places or one must give the local community public access into their home such that no one is prevented entry.[13] This means that one cannot restrict anyone nor limit the number of attendees of those who wish to join. But in doing so defeats the very objective of social distancing because large congregations pose a greater risk of disease infection. Enthusiastic people who hear about a Jumu’ah congregation taking place nearby tend to flock towards it. This would inevitably lead people to unintentionally overlook all precautionary measures primarily due to the likelihood chance of the gathering exceeding the maximum limit that requires social distancing and thus, increases the risk of contagiousness. Once again, the presumption of public predicament (umūm balwa) comes into play here. For this reason, it is therefore not advisable to take the risk of attempting to congregate people for the Jumu’ah Salāh and instead, substitute it with Zuhr Salāh at home (because of genuine predicament) which now becomes the original fardh prayer in the absence of Jumu’ah prayer.[14] In doing so, one can perform it individually or in a small congregation with family members.



[Allãh Knows Best]


Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department



[1] Jurists have stated that keeping the Masājid closed even during Salāh times is Makrooh.

Binayah Sharhu Hidayah vol 2 p.470

ويكره أن يغلق باب المسجد؛ لأنه يشبه المنع من الصلاة، وقيل: لا بأس به إذا خيف على متاع المسجد في غير أوان الصلاة،

(ويكره أن يغلق باب المسجد؛ لأنه يشبه المنع من الصلاة) ش: أي لأن الإغلاق شبه المنع فيكره؛ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ مَنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ أَنْ يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ} [البقرة: 114] (البقرة: الآية 114) ، وقوله أن يغلق من الإغلاق، ولا يقال: غلق فهو مغلوق إلا في لغة رديئة متروكة، وفي ” الجامع الصغير ” ويكره غلق باب المسجد وهو على اللغة المتروكة، وصوابه إغلاق باب المسجد.

م: (وقيل: لا بأس به) ش: أي بإغلاق باب المسجد م: (إذا خيف على متاع المسجد) ش: من السرقة م: (في غير أوان الصلاة) ش: أي في غير وقتها للاحتياط وهو حسن، وقيل: إذا تقارب الوقتان كالعصر والمغرب والعشاء لا يغلق، وبعد العشاء يغلق إلى طلوع الفجر، ومن طلوع الشمس إلى وقت الزوال، ذكره شمس الأئمة وقاضي خان، والتدبير في الإغلاق وتركه إلى أهل المحلة، فإنهم إذا اجتمعوا على رجل جعلوه متوليا بغير أمر القاضي يكون متوليا


[2] Tafseer ibn Kathīr vol 4, p. 120, commentary of [9:18]

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ؛ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: “إِذَا رَأَيْتُمُ الرَّجُلَ يَعْتَادُ الْمَسْجِدَ فَاشْهَدُوا لَهُ بِالْإِيمَانِ؛ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: {إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ} وَرَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ، وَابْنُ مَرْدَوَيْهِ، وَالْحَاكِمُ فِي مُسْتَدْرَكِهِ مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ وَهْبٍ، بِهِ

عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “إِنَّمَا عُمَّارُ المساجد هم أهل الله

[3] Tafseer ibn Kathīr vol 4, p. 120, commentary of [9:18]

عَنْ أَخِيهِ مَالِكِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ مَرْفُوعًا: “إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ عَاهَةً، نَظَرَ إِلَى أَهْلِ الْمَسَاجِدِ، فَصَرَفَ عَنْهُمْ”. ثُمَّ قَالَ: غَرِيبٌ


[4] These recommendations are in light of the current guidelines with the possibility of change depending on the circumstances.


[5] Darul Qutni no. 1594

بَابُ الْجُمُعَةِ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْقَرْيَةِ

عَنْ أُمِّ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الدَّوْسِيَّةِ , قَالَتْ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «الْجُمُعَةُ وَاجِبَةٌ عَلَى أَهْلِ كُلِّ قَرْيَةٍ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُونُوا إِلَّا ثَلَاثَةً وَرَابِعُهُمْ إِمَامُهُمُ».

Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 2 p. 151

(و) السادس: (الجماعة) وأقلها ثلاثة رجال (ولو غير الثلاثة الذين حضروا) الخطبة (سوى الإمام) بالنص لأنه لا بد من الذاكر وهو الخطيب وثلاثة سواه بنص – {فاسعوا إلى ذكر الله} [الجمعة: 9]-

(قوله وأقلها ثلاثة رجال) أطلق فيهم فشمل العبيد والمسافرين والمرضى والأميين والخرسى لصلاحيتهم للإمامة في الجمعة، إما لكل أحد أو لمن هو مثلهم في الأمي والأخرس فصلحا أن يقتديا بمن فوقهما، واحترز بالرجال عن النساء والصبيان فإن الجمعة لا تصح بهم وحدهم لعدم صلاحيتهم للإمامة فيها بحال بحر عن المحيط (قوله ولو غير الثلاثة الذين حضروا الخطبة) أي على رواية اشتراط حضور ثلاثة في الخطبة أما على رواية عدم الاشتراط أصلا أو أنه يكفي حضور واحد فأظهر (قوله سوى الإمام) هذا عند أبي حنيفة ورجح الشارحون دليله واختاره المحبوبي والنسفي كذا في تصحيح الشيخ قاسم (قوله بنص {فاسعوا} [الجمعة: 9] لأن طلب الحضور إلى الذكر متعلقا بلفظ الجمع وهو الواو يستلزم ذاكرا فلزم أن يكون مع الإمام جمع وتمامه في شرح المنية


[6] If they are exempted from the congregational prayers such as Jumuah then this includes all other prayers as well.

Muheet Burhani p. 86 vol 2

والأصل فيه قوله عليه السلام: «من كان يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر فعليه الجمعة إلا مسافر أو مملوك أو امرأة أو صبي أو مريض» غير أن الإسلام والبلوغ والعقل شرائط الوجوب، والصحة والإقامة والحرية والذكورة شرائط الأداء، حتى أن المسافر والمملوك والمريض إذا حضروا الجمعة وأدوها جازت، وكانت فريضة؛ لأن سقوط فرض السعي منهم للضرر والحرج، فإذا تحملوها التحقوا في الأداء بغيرهم.

والشيخ الكبير الذي ضعف، وعجز عن السعي لا تلزمه الجمعة كالمريض، وعلى المكاتب الجمعة، وكذلك على معتق البعض إذا كان يسعى فلا جمعة على العبد المأذون، وعلى العبد الذي يؤدي الضريبة.

Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb, vol 1, p. 144

(الْبَابُ السَّادِسَ عَشَرَ فِي صَلَاةِ الْجُمُعَةِ) وَهِيَ فَرْضُ عَيْنٍ، كَذَا فِي التَّهْذِيبِ (ثُمَّ لِوُجُوبِهَا شَرَائِطُ فِي الْمُصَلِّي) وَهِيَ الْحُرِّيَّةُ وَالذُّكُورَةُ وَالْإِقَامَةُ وَالصِّحَّةُ، كَذَا فِي الْكَافِي، وَالْقُدْرَةُ عَلَى الْمَشْيِ، كَذَا فِي الْبَحْرِ الرَّائِقِ، وَالْبَصَرُ، هَكَذَا فِي التُّمُرْتَاشِيِّ، حَتَّى لَا تَجِبَ الْجُمُعَةُ عَلَى الْعَبِيدِ وَالنِّسْوَانِ وَالْمُسَافِرِينَ وَالْمَرْضَى، كَذَا فِي مُحِيطِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ وَلَا عَلَى الْمُقْعَدِ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ، كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ.

إذَا أَصَابَ النَّاسَ مَطَرٌ شَدِيدٌ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فَهُمْ فِي سَعَةٍ مِنْ التَّخَلُّفِ، كَذَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ.


Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 2 p. 153

(وصحة) وألحق بالمريض الممرض والشيخ الفاني

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb, vol 2 p. 163

وَأَمَّا الشَّيْخُ الْكَبِيرُ الَّذِي ضَعُفَ فَهُوَ مُلْحَقٌ بِالْمَرِيضِ فَلَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ، وَفِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ وَالْمَطَرُ الشَّدِيدُ وَالِاخْتِفَاءُ مِنْ السُّلْطَانِ الظَّالِمِ مُسْقِطٌ فَلَوْ قَالَ الْمُصَنِّفُ وَشَرْطُ وُجُوبِهَا الْإِقَامَةُ وَالذُّكُورَةُ وَالصِّحَّةُ وَالْحُرِّيَّةُ وَوُجُودُ الْبَصَرِ وَالْقُدْرَةُ عَلَى الْمَشْيِ وَعَدَمُ الْحَبْسِ وَالْخَوْفِ وَالْمَطَرِ الشَّدِيدِ لَكَانَ أَشْمَلَ


[7] See kifayatul Mufti vol 3, pg. 138


[8] Muheet Burhani p. 87 vol 2

الإمام إذ منع أهل مصر أن يجمعوا، حكي عن الفقيه أبي جعفر رحمه الله أنه إذا نهاهم مجتهداً بسبب من الأسباب، أو أراد أن يخرج ذلك الموضع من أن يكون مصراً لم يجمعوا، فأما إذا نهاهم متعنتاً، أو إضراراً بهم، فلهم أن يجتمعوا على رجل يصلي بهم الجمعة، ولو أن إمام مصر مصلٍ ثم نفر الناس عنه لخوف عدو وما أشبه ذلك ثم عادوا إليه، فإنهم لا يجمعون إلا بإذن مستأنف من الإمام.


[9] Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 3 p. 390

مطلب حال فشو الطاعون هل للصحيح حكم المريض

(قوله ومثله حال فشو الطاعون) نقل في الفتح عن الشافعية أنه في حكم المرض وقال ولم أره لمشايخنا اهـ وقواعد الحنفية تقتضي أنه كالصحيح. قال الحافظ العسقلاني في كتابه بذل الماعون: وهو الذي ذكره لي جماعة من علمائهم. وفي الأشباه: غايته أن يكون كمن في صف القتال فلا يكون فارا اهـ وهو الصحيح عند مالك كما في الدر المنتقى.

قال في الشرنبلالية: وليس مسلما إذ لا مماثلة بين من هو مع قوم يدفعون عنه في الصف وبين من هو مع قوم هم مثله ليس لهم قوة الدفع عن أحد حال فشو الطاعون. اهـ. قلت: إذا دخل الطاعون محلة أو دارا يغلب على أهلها خوف الهلاك كما في حال التحام القتال، بخلاف المحلة أو الدار التي لم يدخلها فينبغي الجري على هذا التفصيل، لما علمت من أن العبرة لغلبة خوف الهلاك، ثم لا يخفى أن هذا كله فيمن لم يطعن


[10] Bukhari p.6 vol 2

901 – حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي عَبْدُ الحَمِيدِ، صَاحِبُ الزِّيَادِيِّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الحَارِثِ ابْنُ عَمِّ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ، قَالَ: ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ لِمُؤَذِّنِهِ فِي يَوْمٍ مَطِيرٍ: إِذَا قُلْتَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، فَلاَ تَقُلْ حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ، قُلْ: «صَلُّوا فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ»، فَكَأَنَّ النَّاسَ اسْتَنْكَرُوا، قَالَ: فَعَلَهُ مَنْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِنِّي، إِنَّ الجُمْعَةَ عَزْمَةٌ وَإِنِّي كَرِهْتُ أَنْ أُحْرِجَكُمْ فَتَمْشُونَ فِي الطِّينِ وَالدَّحَضِ


[11] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, , vol 2 p. 151

(قَوْلُهُ الْإِذْنُ الْعَامُّ) أَيْ أَنْ يَأْذَنَ لِلنَّاسِ إذْنًا عَامًّا بِأَنْ لَا يَمْنَعَ أَحَدًا مِمَّنْ تَصِحُّ مِنْهُ الْجُمُعَةُ عَنْ دُخُولِ الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي تُصَلَّى فِيهِ وَهَذَا مُرَادُ مَنْ فَسَّرَ الْإِذْنَ الْعَامَّ بِالِاشْتِهَارِ،

(قَوْلُهُ لِأَنَّ الْإِذْنَ الْعَامَّ مُقَرَّرٌ لِأَهْلِهِ) أَيْ لِأَهْلِ الْقَلْعَةِ لِأَنَّهَا فِي مَعْنَى الْحِصْنِ وَالْأَحْسَنُ عَوْدُ الضَّمِيرِ إلَى الْمِصْرِ الْمَفْهُومِ مِنْ الْمَقَامِ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَكْفِي الْإِذْنُ لِأَهْلِ الْحِصْنِ فَقَطْ بَلْ الشَّرْطُ الْإِذْنُ لِلْجَمَاعَاتِ كُلِّهَا كَمَا مَرَّ عَنْ الْبَدَائِعِ


[12] See Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani Fiqhi Maqalāt, vol 4, pp. 30-38

[13] Muheetul Burhani vol 2 p. 85

والشرط السادس: الإذن العام، وهو أن تفتتح أبواب الجامع، ويؤذن للناس كافة حتى أن جماعة لو اجتمعوا في الجامع وأغلقوا الأبواب على أنفسهم وجمعوا لم يجزئهم ذلك وكذلك إذا أراد السلطان أن يجمع بحشمه في داره، فإن فتح باب الدار، وأذن للناس إذناً عاماً جازت صلاته، شهدها العامة أو لم يشهدوها، وإن لم يفتح باب الدار وأغلق الأبواب كلها، وأجلس عليها البوابين ليمنعوا الناس عن الدخول لم تجزئهم الجمعة؛ لأن اشتراط السلطان للتحرز عن تفويتها على الناس، ولا يحصل ذلك إلا بالإذن العام وكما يحتاج العام إلى السلطان لإقامة الجمعة والسلطان أيضاً يحتاج إلى العام بأن يأذن لهم إذناً عاماً حتى تجور صلاة الكل بهذا النظر من الجانبين

 Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, vol 2 p. 152

هُوَ يَحْصُلُ بِفَتْحِ أَبْوَابِ الْجَامِعِ لِلْوَارِدِينَ كَافِي فَلَا يَضُرُّ غَلْقُ بَابِ الْقَلْعَةِ لِعَدُوٍّ أَوْ لِعَادَةٍ قَدِيمَةٍ لِأَنَّ الْإِذْنَ الْعَامَّ مُقَرَّرٌ لِأَهْلِهِ وَغَلْقُهُ لِمَنْعِ الْعَدُوِّ لَا الْمُصَلِّي……. وَلَوْ فَتَحَهُ وَأَذِنَ لِلنَّاسِ بِالدُّخُولِ جَازَ وَكُرِهَ

(قَوْلُهُ لِأَنَّ الْإِذْنَ الْعَامَّ مُقَرَّرٌ لِأَهْلِهِ) أَيْ لِأَهْلِ الْقَلْعَةِ لِأَنَّهَا فِي مَعْنَى الْحِصْنِ وَالْأَحْسَنُ عَوْدُ الضَّمِيرِ إلَى الْمِصْرِ الْمَفْهُومِ مِنْ الْمَقَامِ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَكْفِي الْإِذْنُ لِأَهْلِ الْحِصْنِ فَقَطْ بَلْ الشَّرْطُ الْإِذْنُ لِلْجَمَاعَاتِ كُلِّهَا كَمَا مَرَّ عَنْ الْبَدَائِعِ……..

قُلْت: وَلَا يَخْفَى بُعْدُهُ عَنْ السِّيَاقِ. وَفِي الْكَافِي التَّعْبِيرُ بِالدَّارِ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَالْإِذْنُ الْعَامُّ وَهُوَ أَنْ تُفْتَحَ أَبْوَابُ الْجَامِعِ وَيُؤْذَنَ لِلنَّاسِ، حَتَّى لَوْ اجْتَمَعَتْ جَمَاعَةٌ فِي الْجَامِعِ وَأَغْلَقُوا الْأَبْوَابَ وَجَمَعُوا لَمْ يَجُزْ، وَكَذَا السُّلْطَانُ إذَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ بِحَشَمِهِ فِي دَارِهِ فَإِنْ فَتَحَ بَابَهَا وَأَذِنَ لِلنَّاسِ إذْنًا عَامًّا جَازَتْ صَلَاتُهُ شَهِدَتْهَا الْعَامَّةُ أَوْ لَا وَإِنْ لَمْ يَفْتَحْ أَبْوَابَ الدَّارِ وَأَغْلَقَ الْأَبْوَابَ وَأَجْلَسَ الْبَوَّابِينَ لِيَمْنَعُوا عَنْ الدُّخُولِ لَمْ تَجُزْ لِأَنَّ اشْتِرَاطَ السُّلْطَانِ لِلتَّحَرُّزِ عَنْ تَفْوِيتِهَا عَلَى النَّاسِ وَذَا لَا يَحْصُلُ إلَّا بِالْإِذْنِ الْعَامِّ. اهـ. قُلْت: وَيَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَكُونَ مَحَلُّ النِّزَاعِ مَا إذَا كَانَتْ لَا تُقَامُ إلَّا فِي مَحَلٍّ وَاحِدٍ، أَمَّا لَوْ تَعَدَّدَتْ فَلَا لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَتَحَقَّقُ التَّفْوِيتُ كَمَا أَفَادَهُ التَّعْلِيلُ تَأَمَّلْ

Although Ibn Ābideen Shāmi argues that idhn-Ām was prescribed with the fear that the communal prayer is not missed due to only one congregation taking place in the previous times, other conditions must be taken into consideration so to ensure that the laws pertaining Jumu’ah Salāh are followed correctly. In light of the other conditions, it still does not befit performing Jumu’ah at home.


[14] Muheetul Burhani vol 2 p. 63

وإنما قال أبو حنيفة، وأبو يوسف، ومحمد رحمهم الله: إن أصل الفرض الظهر؛ لأن أصل الفرض في حق كل أحد ما يتمكن من أدائه بنفسه، وهو إنما يتمكن من أداء الظهر بنفسه، إما ما يتمكن بأداء الجمعة، ولأنا لو جعلنا أصل الفرض الجمعة كان الظهر خلفاً عن الجمعة عند فواتها، وأربع ركعات لا تكون خلفاً عن ركعتين، ولأن الظهر كان مشروعاً في هذا الوقت قبل شروع الجمعة