Is Tallow Ingredient Pure?

16th February 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I use a fabric conditioner and I discovered it contains an ingredient called tallow. Upon contacting Unilever, a major company that deals with cosmetic products, they confirmed that it was an animal-derived product. My question is, would it be permissible to use such detergent product?


الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful



Based on my enquiries and research into the matter, animal-derived ingredient exists across many cosmetic and food products.[1] Animal ingredient comes in different forms under different names so the scope of permissibility depends on whether or not such an ingredient results in a significant “Chemical” change whereby it forms into something else (a new product, with different properties) (McMurry, Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition). A detailed answer is necessary which should hopefully not only answer the case in question but apply across other cosmetic products also that contain similar ingredients as well.

So to begin with, what is Tallow? Tallow[2] is derived from the animal fat that is made by rendering (melting) the suet, the white fatty layer that surrounds the meat or organ; kidney or loin, of an animal such as sheep, goat, cow or pig. It mainly consists of glyceryl esters, (such as Tri-Glycerides) of oleic, palmitic, stearic acids, linoleic and myristic acid. These terms commonly appear on the ingredient packet, so one must be aware that they are animal fat.[3] Tallow exists in a wide variety of products such as paints, soaps, shaving creams, comfort detergent as well as other personal care products.[4] The reason why they are used in products is so to bind the mixture of the other chemicals together.[5] In doing so it makes the product conducive to fulfilling its purpose.

There are two key issues relevant to its Islamic fiqh perspective; the ruling of the fat derived from animals whether pure or impure and secondly, if the substance is deemed impure, then does its ruling change when added into cosmetic products in addition to other chemicals. Regarding the first point, the flesh and fat of an animal are deemed impure unless it is slaughtered by severing the throat; with or without the recital of Almighty Allāh’s blessed name on it. Cutting the throat causes to drain out all of the blood in the animal which is the main source of the animal’s impurity. Once the blood is drained out, then the flesh and fat (as well as the bone and skin) become pure, though not permissible to eat if it is a non-Halāl animal or a Halāl animal that is slaughtered without Allāh’s name being mentioned on it.[6] Hence, if it is proven that the animal was slaughtered before harvesting its fat to be rendered down into Tallow then it is deemed pure. Pig, however, is an exception to this ruling as it is regarded “absolute impure” – najis al-ayn compared to other non-Halāl animals. Its flesh, fat, skin or any of its body parts remain impure even after it is slaughtered.[7]

If the animal was not slaughtered, then this leads to the second point that does the ruling change or not if it has undergone significant “chemical change”?

The mainstream Hanafi jurists view that any impurity that undergoes significant change whereby its entity (the very molecular structure) changes into something else then so does its ruling change. The common example cited is alcohol changing into vinegar which becomes Halāl to consume and not vice-versa. Another case example is that if soap was manufactured with impure oil then the soap remains pure and permissible to use, with the similar reason that the impurity changes as a result of the additional ingredients in the soap. This is known as tabdeel-mahiyyat actual physical and chemical change of molecular property that either becomes something else or it no longer retains its original property and molecular structure. This view was maintained by Imām Muhammad rahimahullah, who is from amongst the senior Hanafi Jurists, which the later Hanafi jurists adopted due to public predicament.[8] In Abideen Shami rahimahullah, a contemporary Hanafi jurist argues that this principle is not restricted to soap only but applicable in all instances where the actual chemical change occurs.[9] This includes modern cosmetic products whereby due to the change of molecular property with addition to other chemicals become pure and permissible to use.

What constitutes actual chemical change (in some cases physical change or quality change – Tabdeel sifat) is a topic in itself but what is important to know is that certain chemical changes can lead to a change of physical property, provided that it is significant enough whereby it is referred to something else. This can at times occur due to other chemical additives etc. Therefore, it can be safely stated that Tallow or any other animal fats found in cosmetic products are permissible to use due to a higher chance of it undergoing chemical and physical change due to other chemical additives.

The above was the fatwa position but from a personal piety perspective, it is preferable to use those detergent and cosmetic products that are not derived from nor contain animal fat.



[Allãh Knows Best]


Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department


[1] An example of food is margarine which contains natural fat from animals.

2.Tallow is molecule which is made up of mainly triglycerides and triesters (R,R’, R” = C11-C19 chains) (Animal fat), whose major constituents are derived from stearic and oleic acids. The Triglyceride can be broken down to simpler molecules by the process of “saponification”, which is the hydrolysis of the animal fat with an alkali. This normally occurs when the solid dry soap comes into contact with water. The alkalinity will come from the other suspended substances which the soap or cosmetic has been manufactured with. This is due to the LeBlanc Process which made Na2CO3, this process became commercially available in the 19 century. The end molecular products of the animal fats are a fatty aliphatic chain, the soap and a glycerol molecule. (McMurry J (2003), pg. 1027-1033). So the process of “Tabdeel-mahiyyat”, is evident. (Mufti Abu Bakar Karolia, Chemist)

[3] Some of these components can be derived from plants too but they are mostly obtained from animal fats. See the links below for more information on tallow.

[4] Same reference as above

[5] McMurry J, (2003), Organic Chemistry, Page 1027-1033, 6th Edition, Brooks/Cole

[6] According to some sources, manufacturing companies receive the animal flesh from slaughterhouses. See the links above.


Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 86 – shamila

[فَصْلٌ بَيَانُ مَا يَقَعُ بِهِ التَّطْهِيرُ]

(وَمِنْهَا) الذَّكَاةُ فِي تَطْهِيرِ الذَّبِيحِ، وَجُمْلَةُ الْكَلَامِ فِيهَا أَنَّ الْحَيَوَانَ إنْ كَانَ مَأْكُولَ اللَّحْمِ فَذُبِحَ طَهُرَ بِجَمِيعِ أَجْزَائِهِ إلَّا الدَّمَ الْمَسْفُوحَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مَأْكُولَ اللَّحْمِ فَمَا هُوَ طَاهِرٌ مِنْ الْمَيْتَةِ، مِنْ الْأَجْزَاءِ الَّتِي لَا دَمَ فِيهَا، كَالشَّعْرِ وَأَمْثَالِهِ، يَطْهُرُ مِنْهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ عِنْدَنَا.وَأَمَّا الْأَجْزَاءُ الَّتِي فِيهَا الدَّمُ كَاللَّحْمِ وَالشَّحْمِ وَالْجِلْدِ فَهَلْ تَطْهُرُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، اتَّفَقَ أَصْحَابُنَا عَلَى أَنَّ جِلْدَهُ يَطْهُرُ بِالذَّكَاةِ وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ: لَا يَطْهُرُ وَجْهُ قَوْلِهِ أَنَّ الذَّكَاةَ لَمْ تُفِدْ حِلًّا فَلَا تُفِيدُ طُهْرًا وَهَذَا؛ لِأَنَّ أَثَرَ الذَّكَاةِ يَظْهَرُ فِيمَا وُضِعَ لَهُ أَصْلًا، – وَهُوَ حِلُّ تَنَاوُلِ اللَّحْمِ – وَفِي غَيْرِهِ تَبَعًا فَإِذَا لَمْ يَظْهَرْ أَثَرُهَا فِي الْأَصْلِ كَيْفَ يَظْهَرُ فِي التَّبَعِ؛ فَصَارَ كَمَا لَوْ ذَبَحَهُ مَجُوسِيٌّ.(وَلَنَا) مَا رُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «دِبَاغُ الْأَدِيمِ ذَكَاتُهُ» أَلْحَقَ الذَّكَاةَ بِالدِّبَاغِ، ثُمَّ الْجِلْدُ يَطْهُرُ بِالدِّبَاغِ كَذَا بِالذَّكَاةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الذَّكَاةَ تُشَارِكُ الدِّبَاغَ فِي إزَالَةِ الدِّمَاءِ السَّائِلَةِ، وَالرُّطُوبَاتِ النَّجِسَةِ، فَتُشَارِكُهُ فِي إفَادَةِ الطَّهَارَةِ، وَمَا ذُكِرَ مِنْ مَعْنَى التَّبَعِيَّةِ فَغَيْرُ سَدِيدٍ؛ لِأَنَّ طَهَارَةَ الْجِلْدِ حُكْمٌ مَقْصُودٌ فِي الْجِلْدِ، كَمَا أَنَّ تَنَاوُلَ اللَّحْمِ حُكْمٌ مَقْصُودٌ فِي اللَّحْمِ، وَفِعْلُ الْمَجُوسِيِّ لَيْسَ بِذَكَاةٍ؛ لِعَدَمِ أَهْلِيَّةِ الذَّكَاةِ، فَلَا يُفِيدُ الطَّهَارَةَ فَتَعَيَّنَ تَطْهِيرُهُ بِالدِّبَاغِ، وَاخْتَلَفُوا فِي طَهَارَةِ اللَّحْمِ وَالشَّحْمِ، ذَكَرَ الْكَرْخِيُّ فَقَالَ: كُلُّ حَيَوَانٍ يَطْهُرُ بِالدِّبَاغِ؛ يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، فَهَذَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَطْهُرُ لَحْمُهُ وَشَحْمُهُ وَسَائِرُ أَجْزَائِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْحَيَوَانَ اسْمٌ لِجُمْلَةِ الْأَجْزَاءِ.وَقَالَ بَعْضُ مَشَايِخِنَا وَمَشَايِخِ بَلْخٍ: إنَّ كُلَّ حَيَوَانٍ يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالدِّبَاغِ يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، فَأَمَّا اللَّحْمُ وَالشَّحْمُ وَنَحْوُهُمَا فَلَا يَطْهُرُ، وَالْأَوَّلُ أَقْرَبُ إلَى الصَّوَابِ؛ لِمَا مَرَّ أَنَّ النَّجَاسَةَ لِمَكَانِ الدَّمِ الْمَسْفُوحِ، وَقَدْ زَالَ بِالذَّكَاةِ.

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 189

وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ مَا طَهُرَ جِلْدُهُ بِالدِّبَاغِ طَهُرَ بِالذَّكَاةِ لَحْمُهُ وَجِلْدُهُ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ مَأْكُولًا أَوْ لَا أَمَّا طَهَارَةُ جِلْدِهِ، فَهُوَ ظَاهِرُ الْمَذْهَبِ كَمَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَفِي النِّهَايَةِ أَنَّهُ اخْتِيَارُ بَعْضِ الْمَشَايِخِ وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ إنَّمَا يَطْهُرُ جِلْدُهُ بِالذَّكَاةِ إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ سُؤْرُهُ نَجِسًا اهـ. وَأَمَّا طَهَارَةُ لَحْمِهِ إذَا كَانَ غَيْرَ مَأْكُولٍ فَقَدْ اُخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ فَصَحَّحَ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَالْهِدَايَةِ وَالتَّجْنِيسِ طَهَارَتَهُ وَصَحَّحَ فِي الْأَسْرَارِ وَالْكِفَايَةِ وَالتَّبْيِينِ نَجَاسَتَهُ وَفِي الْمِعْرَاجِ أَنَّهُ قَوْلُ الْمُحَقِّقِينَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا وَفِي الْخُلَاصَةِ هُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ وَاخْتَارَهُ قَاضِي خان، وَفِي التَّبْيِينِ أَنَّهُ قَوْلُ أَكْثَرِ الْمَشَايِخِ، وَأَمَّا الْمُصَنِّفُ فَقَدْ اخْتَلَفَ كَلَامُهُ فَصَحَّحَ فِي الْكَافِي نَجَاسَتَهُ وَاخْتَارَ فِي الْكَنْزِ فِي الذَّبَائِحِ طَهَارَتَهُ وَسَنَتَكَلَّمُ عَلَيْهَا بِدَلَائِلِهَا وَبَيَانِ مَا هُوَ الْحَقُّ ثَمَّةَ إنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى لَكِنْ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنْ الْكُتُبِ أَنَّ الذَّكَاةَ إنَّمَا تُوجِبُ الطَّهَارَةَ فِي الْجِلْدِ وَاللَّحْمِ إذَا كَانَتْ مِنْ الْأَهْلِ فِي الْمَحَلِّ، وَهُوَ مَا بَيْنَ اللَّبَّةِ وَاللَّحْيَيْنِ، وَقَدْ سَمَّى بِحَيْثُ لَوْ كَانَ مَأْكُولًا يَحِلُّ أَكْلُهُ بِتِلْكَ الذَّكَاةِ فَذَبِيحَةُ الْمَجُوسِيِّ لَا تُوجِبُ الطَّهَارَةَ؛ لِأَنَّهَا إمَاتَةٌ وَقَدْ قَدَّمْنَا عَنْ مِعْرَاجِ الدِّرَايَةِ مَعْزِيًّا إلَى الْمُجْتَبَى أَنَّ ذَبِيحَةَ الْمَجُوسِيِّ وَتَارِكِ التَّسْمِيَةِ عَمْدًا تُوجِبُ الطَّهَارَةَ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مَأْكُولًا، وَكَذَا نَقَلَ صَاحِبُ الْمِعْرَاجِ فِي هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةِ الطَّهَارَةَ عَنْ الْقُنْيَةِ أَيْضًا هُنَا وَصَاحِبُ الْقُنْيَةِ هُوَ صَاحِبُ الْمُجْتَبَى، وَهُوَ الْإِمَامُ الزَّاهِدِيُّ الْمَشْهُورُ عِلْمُهُ وَفِقْهُهُ

[7] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 185

وَكُلُّ مَا يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ الذَّكَاةُ فَعَظْمُهُ لَا يَكُونُ نَجِسًا بِخِلَافِ الْآدَمِيِّ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ اهـ. وَكَذَا ذَكَرَ الْوَلْوَالِجِيُّ وَذَكَرَ فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ مَعْزِيًّا إلَى الذَّخِيرَةِ أَسْنَانَ الْكَلْبِ طَاهِرَةً وَأَسْنَانَ الْآدَمِيِّ نَجِسَةً؛ لِأَنَّ الْكَلْبَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ الذَّكَاةُ بِخِلَافِ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَالْآدَمِيِّ اهـ. وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ هَذَا كُلَّهُ عَلَى الْقَوْلِ بِطَهَارَةِ عَيْنِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ عَلَّلَهُ بِكَوْنِهِ يَطْهُرُ بِالذَّكَاةِ، وَأَمَّا عَلَى الْقَوْلِ بِنَجَاسَةِ عَيْنِهِ فَلَا تَعْمَلُ فِيهِ الذَّكَاةُ فَتَكُونُ أَسْنَانُهُ نَجِسَةً كَالْخِنْزِيرِ


[8] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 50

[الْبَابُ السَّابِعُ فِي النَّجَاسَةِ وَأَحْكَامِهَا وَفِيهِ ثَلَاثَةُ فُصُولٍ]

[الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي تَطْهِيرِ الْأَنْجَاسِ]

الْحِمَارُ أَوْ الْخِنْزِيرُ إذَا وَقَعَ فِي الْمَمْلَحَةِ فَصَارَ مِلْحًا أَوْ بِئْرِ الْبَالُوعَةِ إذَا صَارَ طِينًا يَطْهُرُ عِنْدَهُمَا خِلَافًا لِأَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -. كَذَا فِي مُحِيطِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ……….جُعِلَ الدُّهْنُ النَّجِسُ فِي الصَّابُونِ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ. كَذَا فِي الزَّاهِدِيِّ

Muheet biryani, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1, p. 191 – shamila

ولكنا لا نفتي بنجاسة الصابون لأنا لا نفتي بنجاسة الدهن؛ لأن الأصل الطهارة، والنجاسة يعارض أمراً نادراً وقع، إنما نفتي بنجاسة الدهن، ولا نفتي بنجاسة الصابون؛ لأن الدهن قد تغير وصار شيئاً آخر، وقد ذكرنا أن من مذهب محمد رحمه الله أن النجس يصير طاهراً بالتغيير، يفتى فيه بقول محمد رحمه الله لمكان عموم البلوى.

Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitāb al-Tahārah, vol 1 p. 394

وَفِي الْخُلَاصَةِ وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى وَفِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ أَنَّهُ الْمُخْتَارُ؛ لِأَنَّ الشَّرْعَ رَتَّبَ وَصْفَ النَّجَاسَةِ عَلَى تِلْكَ الْحَقِيقَةِ وَتَنْتَفِي الْحَقِيقَةُ بِانْتِفَاءِ بَعْضِ أَجْزَاءِ مَفْهُومِهَا فَكَيْفَ بِالْكُلِّ فَإِنَّ الْمِلْحَ غَيْرُ الْعَظْمِ وَاللَّحْمِ فَإِذَا صَارَ مِلْحًا تَرَتَّبَ حُكْمُ الْمِلْحِ وَنَظِيرُهُ فِي الشَّرْعِ النُّطْفَةُ نَجِسَةٌ وَتَصِيرُ عَلَقَةً وَهِيَ نَجِسَةٌ وَتَصِيرُ مُضْغَةً فَتَطْهُرُ وَالْعَصِيرُ طَاهِرٌ فَيَصِيرُ خَمْرًا فَيُنَجَّسُ وَيَصِيرُ خَلًّا فَيَطْهُرُ فَعَرَفْنَا أَنَّ اسْتِحَالَةَ الْعَيْنِ تَسْتَتْبِعُ زَوَالَ الْوَصْفِ الْمُرَتَّبِ عَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ فَرَّعُوا الْحُكْمَ بِطَهَارَةِ صَابُونٍ صُنِعَ مِنْ زَيْتٍ نَجَسٍ اهـ. وَفِي الْمُجْتَبَى جَعْلُ الدُّهْنِ النَّجَسُ فِي صَابُونٍ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ وَالتَّغْيِيرُ يُطَهِّرُ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَيُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى

The similar ruling applies to if pig fat was found in soap and it is certain that it has undergone significant change then using the soap will be permissible. See Mufti Kifayatullah, Kifayatul Mufti, Kitāb al-Tahārah, fourth Bab of soap, vol 2, p. 277-284


[9] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitāb al-Tahārah, Bāb al-Anjas, vol 1 p. 519

ثُمَّ هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةُ قَدْ فَرَّعُوهَا عَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدٍ بِالطَّهَارَةِ بِانْقِلَابِ الْعَيْنِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى وَاخْتَارَهُ أَكْثَرُ الْمَشَايِخِ خِلَافًا لِأَبِي يُوسُفَ كَمَا فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ وَالْفَتْحِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا. وَعِبَارَةُ الْمُجْتَبَى: جَعْلُ الدُّهْنِ النَّجِسِ فِي صَابُونٍ يُفْتَى بِطَهَارَتِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَغَيَّرَ وَالتَّغَيُّرُ يُطَهِّرُ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَيُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى. اهـ. وَظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّ دُهْنَ الْمَيْتَةِ كَذَلِكَ لِتَعْبِيرِهِ بِالنَّجِسِ دُونَ الْمُتَنَجِّسِ إلَّا أَنْ يُقَالَ هُوَ خَاصٌّ بِالنَّجِسِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْعَادَةَ فِي الصَّابُونِ وَضْعُ الزَّيْتِ دُونَ بَقِيَّةِ الْأَدْهَانِ تَأَمَّلْ، ثُمَّ رَأَيْت فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ مَا يُؤَيِّدُ الْأَوَّلَ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَعَلَيْهِ يَتَفَرَّعُ مَا لَوْ وَقَعَ إنْسَانٌ أَوْ كَلْبٌ فِي قِدْرِ الصَّابُونِ فَصَارَ صَابُونًا يَكُونُ طَاهِرًا لِتَبَدُّلِ الْحَقِيقَةِ. اهـ. ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْعِلَّةَ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ هِيَ التَّغَيُّرُ وَانْقِلَابُ الْحَقِيقَةِ وَأَنَّهُ يُفْتَى بِهِ لِلْبَلْوَى كَمَا عُلِمَ مِمَّا مَرَّ، وَمُقْتَضَاهُ عَدَمُ اخْتِصَاصِ ذَلِكَ الْحُكْمِ بِالصَّابُونِ، فَيَدْخُلُ فِيهِ كُلُّ مَا كَانَ فِيهِ تَغَيُّرٌ وَانْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ وَكَانَ فِيهِ بَلْوَى عَامَّةٌ، فَيُقَالُ: كَذَلِكَ فِي الدِّبْسِ الْمَطْبُوخِ إذَا كَانَ زَبِيبُهُ مُتَنَجِّسًا وَلَا سِيَّمَا أَنَّ الْفَأْرَ يَدْخُلُهُ فَيَبُولُ وَيَبْعَرُ فِيهِ وَقَدْ يَمُوتُ فِيهِ، وَقَدْ بَحَثَ كَذَلِكَ بَعْضُ شُيُوخِ مَشَايِخِنَا فَقَالَ: وَعَلَى هَذَا إذَا تَنَجَّسَ السِّمْسِمُ ثُمَّ صَارَ طَحِينَةً يَطْهُرُ، خُصُوصًا وَقَدْ عَمَّتْ بِهِ الْبَلْوَى وَقَاسَهُ عَلَى مَا إذَا وَقَعَ عُصْفُورٌ فِي بِئْرٍ حَتَّى صَارَ طِينًا لَا يَلْزَمُ إخْرَاجُهُ لِاسْتِحَالَتِهِ.

قُلْت: لَكِنْ قَدْ يُقَالُ: إنَّ الدِّبْسَ لَيْسَ فِيهِ انْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ؛ لِأَنَّهُ عَصِيرٌ جَمَدَ بِالطَّبْخِ؛ وَكَذَا السِّمْسِمُ إذَا دُرِسَ وَاخْتَلَطَ دُهْنُهُ بِأَجْزَائِهِ فَفِيهِ تَغَيُّرُ وَصْفٍ فَقَطْ؛ كَلَبَنٍ صَارَ جُبْنًا، وَبُرٍّ صَارَ طَحِينًا، وَطَحِينٍ صَارَ خُبْزًا؛ بِخِلَافِ نَحْوِ خَمْرٍ صَارَ خَلًّا وَحِمَارٍ وَقَعَ فِي مَمْلَحَةٍ فَصَارَ مِلْحًا، وَكَذَا دُرْدِيُّ خَمْرٍ صَارَ طِرْطِيرًا وَعَذِرَةٌ صَارَتْ رَمَادًا أَوْ حَمْأَةً، فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ كُلَّهُ انْقِلَابُ حَقِيقَةٍ إلَى حَقِيقَةٍ أُخْرَى لَا مُجَرَّدُ انْقِلَابِ وَصْفٍ كَمَا سَيَأْتِي – وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ –