Do Benefits Equate to Nafaqah?

17th September 2022


Question: If the wife receives tax credit benefits which suffices for her needs but also asks the husband on top of that to give her the nafaqah (marital expenses); can he refuse paying nafaqah? Also kindly explain how nafaqah works in Islām.


الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful



To begin with tax credit is a government pay-out of extra income to individuals to support them with their basic living costs. As there are many forms of tax credits the most common ones which presumably you are referring to are working tax credits and child tax credit. Working tax credit are for those employees or self-employed individuals with low income, earning below the minimum threshold whereas child tax credit in addition to child benefit is for those responsible for children. The government calculates your annual income and then tops it up with additional revenue so to meet the minimal threshold of your yearly income.[1] This scheme like other benefit schemes provided by the government for struggling parents and workers Islamically does not absolve the husband from his legal responsibility of nafaqah towards his wife and children. In other words, he must still pay nafaqah towards her and for his children.

Nafaqah by definition as Shaykh Wahbah Zuhayli rahimahullah explains is to spend from ones earning and provide adequate essentials for one’s family (in this case, wife and children) such as food, clothes, cooking utensils, cleaning assets for the home, cutlery etc and shelter to the best of one’s ability. Commencing with his wife (and children) in maintenance is essential as advised by the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam (as will be mentioned below).[2] The following conditions must be fulfilled according to the Hanafi jurists for nafaqah to be necessary;

  1. The Nikāh between them should be valid that is, adopting all of the necessary Islamic conditions for the relationship between them to be Halāl. Hence, nafaqah is not necessary nor can be demanded if their Nikāh was not valid (Nikāh Fasid).[3]
  2. The wife to relocate to her husband’s accommodation and his right to retain her after marriage. This means that in order for her to be eligible for nafaqah, she must live with him permanently after marriage and not to prevent him from intimacy thereafter. This also includes if she intends to relocate but he refuses to accommodate her, even so she is entitled to nafaqah because the prevention is from him instead from her.[4] If she refuses to move in with him without a valid reason or constantly leaves the home without his permission then he is not obliged to pay nafaqah to her because she now becomes a nashizah – disobeying wife.[5]

The man’s obligation to provide nafaqah is established through sound evidence from the Quran and Sunnah. Allāh Almighty states in the Quran, Men are maintainers (qawwamūn) over women because of that which Allāh has conferred (favours) over each of them and because of them (men) spending from their wealth.”[6] The term Qawwām implies to many meanings such as leader, protector, provider and maintainer. In this context it refers to financial maintenance. The great Tafsīr master Imām Qurtubi rahimahullah comments under this verse that Allāh has conferred men over women for financially providing for them, thus if he fails to financially secure her then he is not fulfilling his duty of Qawwām as of which, she can legally demand for her marriage to be annulled through an Islamic judicial process.[7] It is reported that a man once asked the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam about the wife’s right over her husband, to which he responded, “To feed her when he eats, to cloth her when he dresses, he does not strike her in the face, does not ridicule her and nor he separates from her except in the home.”[8]  It is evident from the above that it is a man’s legal duty to financially secure the needs of his wife and children by providing from his own earnings. Government benefits are not coming from him so in that respect he is not classed as a provider. Ibn Abidīn Shamī rahimahullah, a renowned Hanafi jurist mentions that despite she has her own wealth, she can still ask for expenses;

(And the husband is to spend on her by himself) because he is a Qawwām over her, not so he can take the residue because what has been stipulated for her or given to her is for her ownership…………that if she eats from her wealth or asks (from others for money) then she can reclaim from him the stipulated amount.”[9]

Ibn Nujaym rahimahullah also mentions the same as above except that he adds that after stipulating maintenance for her in addition to benefits, if she utilises all of the money before the agreed date of her next payment between them, then she cannot demand any more from him until her next due payment. He states;

This indicates also that if she lavishly spends and consumes her expenses of the month before its passing (i.e. passing of the month) and she is in need then he will not stipulate any more for her, like as though her expenses perished.” [10]  

Furthermore, the jurists mention that if he married a wealthy woman (or possesses wealth of her own) then he is still legally obliged to provide for her. The amount however is determined by the moderate standard agreed between them. Ibn Nujaym rahimahullah states;

If he is poor and she is rich then the expenses (to the standard) of poverty is necessary because when she married a poor then she consented to the expenses of a poor. Nevertheless, the adopted fatwa is that the expenses of moderate (standard) is necessary in both scenarios (regardless of who is poor or wealthy) and that (amount) which is above poverty (standard) and below affluence.”[11]    

A few points can be concluded from the above,

  1. In Islām, the husband is the breadwinner which is to maintain his wife and children by spending on them from his own earnings. Government benefits are there to provide additional financial support for people with low income. This itself does not equate to nafaqah nor absolve him from his financial duties as the additional support is not from him. This is similar to the case if his wife is wealthy or earns for herself, even so the jurists mention that he still remains financially responsible.
  2. To spend moderately on his family. The Shariah has not stipulated any amount nor fixed a time period of maintenance (e.g. weekly or monthly). Both of these would be determined mutually between the couple based on his financial circumstance. Providing the basics such as; food, clothing, grocery shopping, household essentials, bills etc are the least to fulfil his financial obligation.
  3. If the agreed amount is not sufficient for her basic needs, then she can ask for more in which case he cannot refuse when he is able to provide for her.[12] The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam once advised Abu Sufyān’s wife to take that which is sufficient for you and for your child after he refused to spend on them.[13]
  4. Finally, after fulfilling his basic right she cannot impose any further financial demands on him such as, demanding more to lavishly spend on herself or to purchase items beyond necessity like expensive clothes etc. In this case, he is not obliged to give her more Islamically.


[Allãh Knows Best]



Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department




[1] Richardson, D. (2022), What are Tax Credits? Available at: What are tax credits? – Which? [accessed 2nd September 2022]

[2] Zuhayli, Fiqhul Islami wa adillatihu, vol 7 p. 723

مبادئ عامة في النفقات

معنى النفقة وأسبابها: النفقة مشتقة من الإنفاق: وهو الإخراج، ولا يستعمل إلا في الخير. وجمعها نفقات. وهي لغة: ما ينفقه الإنسان على عياله. وهي في الأصل: الدراهم من الأموال. وشرعاً: هي كفاية من يمونه من الطعام والكسوة والسكنى (1). وعرفاً هي الطعام. والطعام: يشمل الخبز والأُدم والشرب. والكسوة: السترة والغطاء. والسكنى: تشمل البيت ومتاعه ومرافقه من ثمن الماء ودهن المصباح وآلة التنظيف والخدمة ونحوها بحسب العرف.

نفقة تجب للإنسان على نفسه إذا قدر عليها، وعليه أن يقدمها على نفقة غيره، لقوله صلّى الله عليه وسلم: «ابدأ بنفسك، ثم بمن تعول» (1) أي بمن تجب عليك نفقته.


[3] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitābus Talāq, vol 1, p.570

[الْبَابُ السَّابِعُ عَشَرَ فِي النَّفَقَاتِ وَفِيهِ سِتَّةُ فُصُولٍ]

[الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي نَفَقَةِ الزَّوْجَةِ]

وَلَا نَفَقَةَ فِي النِّكَاحِ الْفَاسِدِ، وَلَا فِي الْعِدَّةِ مِنْهُ، وَلَوْ كَانَ النِّكَاحُ صَحِيحًا مِنْ حَيْثُ الظَّاهِرُ فَفَرَضَ الْقَاضِي لَهَا النَّفَقَةَ


Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Nafaqah, vol 5 p. 117

عَلَى هَذَا الْأَصْلِ يَنْبَنِي أَنَّهُ لَا نَفَقَةَ عَلَى مُسْلِمٍ فِي نِكَاحٍ فَاسِدٍ لِانْعِدَامِ سَبَبِ الْوُجُوبِ وَهُوَ حَقُّ الْحَبْسِ الثَّابِتِ لِلزَّوْجِ عَلَيْهَا بِسَبَبِ النِّكَاحِ؛ لِأَنَّ حَقَّ الْحَبْسِ لَا يَثْبُتُ فِي النِّكَاحِ الْفَاسِدِ وَكَذَا النِّكَاحُ الْفَاسِدُ لَيْسَ بِنِكَاحٍ حَقِيقَةً وَكَذَا فِي عِدَّةٍ مِنْهُ إنْ ثَبَتَ حَقُّ الْحَبْسِ


[4] Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Nafaqah, vol 5 p. 114

وَلَنَا أَنَّ حَقَّ الْحَبْسِ الثَّابِتِ لِلزَّوْجِ عَلَيْهَا بِسَبَبِ النِّكَاحِ مُؤَثِّرٌ فِي اسْتِحْقَاقِ النَّفَقَةِ لَهَا عَلَيْهِ لِمَا بَيَّنَّا


Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Nafaqah, vol 5 p. 128

أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ فَتَسْلِيمُ الْمَرْأَةِ نَفْسَهَا إلَى الزَّوْجِ وَقْتَ وُجُوبِ التَّسْلِيمِ وَنَعْنِي بِالتَّسْلِيمِ: التَّخْلِيَةَ وَهِيَ أَنْ تَخْلِي بَيْنَ نَفْسِهَا وَبَيْنَ زَوْجِهَا بِرَفْعِ الْمَانِعِ مِنْ وَطْئِهَا أَوْ الِاسْتِمْتَاعِ بِهَا حَقِيقَةً إذَا كَانَ الْمَانِعُ مِنْ قِبَلِهَا أَوْ مِنْ قِبَلِ غَيْرِ الزَّوْجِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ التَّسْلِيمُ عَلَى هَذَا التَّفْسِيرِ وَقْتَ وُجُوبِ التَّسْلِيمِ؛ فَلَا نَفَقَةَ لَهَا وَعَلَى هَذَا يُخَرَّجُ مَسَائِلُ: إذَا تَزَوَّجَ بَالِغَةً حُرَّةً صَحِيحَةً سَلِيمَةً وَنَقَلَهَا إلَى بَيْتِهِ فَلَهَا النَّفَقَةُ لِوُجُودِ سَبَبِ الْوُجُوبِ وَشَرْطِهِ وَكَذَلِكَ إذَا لَمْ يَنْقُلْهَا وَهِيَ بِحَيْثُ لَا تَمْنَعُ نَفْسَهَا وَطَلَبَتْ النَّفَقَةَ وَلَمْ يُطَالِبْهَا بِالنُّقْلَةِ فَلَهَا النَّفَقَةُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ وُجِدَ سَبَبُ الْوُجُوبِ وَهُوَ اسْتِحْقَاقُ الْحَبْسِ وَشَرْطُهُ وَهُوَ التَّسْلِيمُ عَلَى التَّفْسِيرِ الَّذِي ذَكَرْنَا


[5] Valid reason for not relocating could include for instance, he has not paid her mahr yet, then she is eligible for nafaqah and can restrain herself from relocating until he pays her, her full mahr.


Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitābus Talāq, vol 4 p. 303

(قَوْلُهُ لَا نَاشِزَةٍ) بِالْجَرِّ عَطْفٌ عَلَى الزَّوْجَةِ أَيْ لَا تَجِبُ النَّفَقَةُ لِلنَّاشِزَةِ وَهِيَ فِي اللُّغَةِ الْعِصَابَةُ عَلَى الزَّوْجِ الْمُبْغِضَةُ لَهُ، يُقَالُ نَشَزَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ عَلَى زَوْجِهَا فَهِيَ نَاشِزَةٌ، وَعَنْ الزَّجَّاجِ النُّشُوزُ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ وَهِيَ كَرَاهَةُ كُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ، كَذَا فِي الْمُغْرِبِ وَفِي الشَّرْعِ كَمَا قَالَ الْإِمَامُ الْخَصَّافُ الْخَارِجَةُ عَنْ مَنْزِلِ زَوْجِهَا الْمَانِعَةُ نَفْسَهَا مِنْهُ وَالْمُرَادُ بِالْخُرُوجِ كَوْنُهَا فِي غَيْرِ مَنْزِلِهِ بِغَيْرِ إذْنِهِ لِيَشْمَلَ مَا إذَا امْتَنَعَتْ عَنْ الْمَجِيءِ إلَى مَنْزِلِهِ ابْتِدَاءً بِغَيْرِ إيفَاءِ مُعَجَّلِ مَهْرِهَا وَمَا إذَا خَرَجَتْ مِنْ مَنْزِلِهِ بَعْدَ الِانْتِقَالِ إلَيْهِ وَأَطْلَقَ الْخُرُوجَ فَشَمِلَ الْحَقِيقِيَّ وَالْحُكْمِيَّ وَهُوَ عَدَمُ تَمْكِينِهَا لَهُ مِنْ الدُّخُولِ فِي مَنْزِلِهَا الَّذِي يَسْكُنَانِ فِيهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَسْأَلَهُ النُّقْلَةَ؛ لِأَنَّهَا كَالْخَارِجَةِ،


[6] Surah Nisa [4:34]


[7] The right demanding dissolution is according to the Maliki and Shafi’ee School, but not according to the Hanafi school. Later Hanafi scholars have adopted the Maliki position of her right to demand a dissolution for not financially maintaining for her. Tafseer Qurtubi vol 5 p. 168-169

فِيهِ إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَ مَسْأَلَةً: الْأُولَى- قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: (الرِّجالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّساءِ) ابْتِدَاءٌ وَخَبَرٌ، أَيْ يَقُومُونَ بِالنَّفَقَةِ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَالذَّبِّ عَنْهُنَّ، وَأَيْضًا فَإِنَّ فِيهِمُ الْحُكَّامَ وَالْأُمَرَاءَ وَمَنْ يَغْزُو، وَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ فِي النِّسَاءِ.ثالثة- فهم العلماء من قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: (وَبِما أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوالِهِمْ) أَنَّهُ مَتَى عَجَزَ عَنْ نَفَقَتِهَا لَمْ يَكُنْ قَوَّامًا عَلَيْهَا، وَإِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ قَوَّامًا عَلَيْهَا كَانَ لَهَا فَسْخُ الْعَقْدِ، لِزَوَالِ الْمَقْصُودِ الَّذِي شُرِعَ لِأَجْلِهِ النِّكَاحُ. وَفِيهِ دَلَالَةٌ وَاضِحَةٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ عَلَى ثُبُوتِ فَسْخِ النِّكَاحِ عِنْدَ الْإِعْسَارِ بِالنَّفَقَةِ وَالْكُسْوَةِ، وَهُوَ مَذْهَبُ مَالِكٍ وَالشَّافِعِيِّ. وَقَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ: لَا يُفْسَخُ، لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: (وَإِنْ كانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلى مَيْسَرَةٍ «3») وَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ الْقَوْلُ فِي هَذَا فِي هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ.


[8] Sunnan Ibn Majah, Hadeeth No: 1850

بَابُ حَقِّ الْمَرْأَةِ عَلَى الزَّوْجِ

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ هَارُونَ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي قَزْعَةَ، عَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ رَجُلًا سَأَلَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَا حَقُّ الْمَرْأَةِ عَلَى الزَّوْجِ؟ قَالَ: «أَنْ يُطْعِمَهَا إِذَا طَعِمَ، وَأَنْ يَكْسُوَهَا إِذَا اكْتَسَى، وَلَا يَضْرِبِ الْوَجْهَ، وَلَا يُقَبِّحْ، وَلَا يَهْجُرْ إِلَّا فِي الْبَيْتِ»


[9] Durrul Mukhtār wa hashiyah Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābus Talāq, vol 5 p. 292

بَابُ النَّفَقَةِ

(وَلِلزَّوْجِ الْإِنْفَاقُ عَلَيْهَا بِنَفْسِهِ)

 وَلَوْ بَعْدَ فَرْضِ الْقَاضِي خُلَاصَةٌ (إلَّا أَنْ يَظْهَرَ لِلْقَاضِي عَدَمُ إنْفَاقِهِ فَيَفْرِضُ) أَيْ يُقَدِّرُ (لَهَا) بِطَلَبِهَا مَعَ حَضْرَتِهِ

(قَوْلُهُ وَلِلزَّوْجِ الْإِنْفَاقُ عَلَيْهَا بِنَفْسِهِ)

 لِكَوْنِهِ قَوَّامًا عَلَيْهَا لَا لِيَأْخُذَ مَا فَضَلَ، فَإِنَّ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ أَوْ الْمَدْفُوعَةَ لَهَا مِلْكٌ لَهَا، فَلَهَا الْإِطْعَامُ مِنْهَا وَالتَّصَدُّقُ، وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَنَّهَا لَوْ أَمَرَتْهُ بِإِنْفَاقِ بَعْضِ الْمُقَرَّرِ لَهَا فَالْبَاقِي لَهَا أَوْ بِشِرَاءِ طَعَامٍ لَيْسَ لَهُ أَكْلُ مَا فَضَلَ عَنْهَا. وَفِي الْخَانِيَّةِ: لَوْ أَكَلَتْ مِنْ مَالِهَا أَوْ مِنْ الْمَسْأَلَةِ لَهَا الرُّجُوعُ عَلَيْهِ بِالْمَفْرُوضِ بَحْرٌ مُلَخَّصًا



[10] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitābus Talāq, vol 4  p. 295

بَابُ النَّفَقَةِ

فَمُقْتَضَى التَّمْلِيكِ أَنَّ لَهَا ذَلِكَ كَمَا تَقَدَّمَ التَّصْرِيحُ بِهِ عَنْ الْخُلَاصَةِ وَالذَّخِيرَةِ فِي نَفَقَةِ الشَّهْرِ وَلَا فَرْقَ بَيْنَ نَفَقَةِ شَهْرٍ أَوْ يَوْمٍ، فَلَيْسَ فَائِدَةً أَنَّهُ يَلِي الْإِنْفَاقَ مَعَ فَرْضِ الْقَاضِي إلَّا لِكَوْنِهِ قَوَّامًا عَلَيْهَا لَا لِأَنَّهُ يَأْخُذُ مَا فَضَلَ وَعَلَى هَذَا لَوْ أَمَرَتْهُ امْرَأَتُهُ بِشِرَاءِ طَعَامٍ وَاشْتَرَى لَهَا فَأَكَلَتْ وَفَضَلَ شَيْءٌ وَاسْتَغْنَتْ عَنْهُ فِي يَوْمِهَا، فَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَكْلُهُ وَالتَّصَرُّفُ فِيهِ إلَيْهَا كَمَا هُوَ مُقْتَضَى التَّمْلِيكِ وَيَدُلُّ عَلَيْهِ أَيْضًا أَنَّهَا لَوْ أَسْرَفَتْ فِي نَفَقَةِ الشَّهْرِ فَأَكَلَتْهَا قَبْلَ مُضِيِّهِ وَاحْتَاجَتْ لَا يَفْرِضُ لَهَا أُخْرَى كَمَا لَوْ هَلَكَتْ كَمَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ، فَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ أَوْ الْمَدْفُوعَةَ إلَيْهَا مِلْكٌ لَهَا فَلَهَا الْإِطْعَامُ مِنْهَا وَالتَّصَدُّقُ وَفِي الْخَانِيَّةِ الْمَرْأَةُ إذَا فُرِضَتْ لَهَا النَّفَقَةُ فَأَكَلَتْ مِنْ مَالِ نَفْسِهَا أَوْ مِنْ مَسْأَلَةِ النَّاسِ كَانَ لَهَا أَنْ تَرْجِعَ بِالْمَفْرُوضِ عَلَى زَوْجِه


[11] Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitābus Talāq, vol 4  p. 297

وَإِنْ كَانَ مُعْسِرًا وَهِيَ مُوسِرَةٌ وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَةُ الْمُعْسِرِينَ؛ لِأَنَّهَا لَمَّا تَزَوَّجَتْ مُعْسِرًا فَقَدْ رَضِيَتْ بِنَفَقَةِ الْمُعْسِرِينَ، وَأَمَّا عَلَى الْمُفْتَى بِهِ فَتَجِبُ نَفَقَةُ الْوَسَطِ فِي الْمَسْأَلَتَيْنِ وَهِيَ فَوْقَ نَفَقَةِ الْمُعْسِرَةِ وَدُونَ نَفَقَةِ الْمُوسِرَةِ


Kasān, Badā’i Sanāi, Kitāb Nafaqah, vol 5 p. 140

فَصْلٌ فِي شَرْطِ وُجُوبِ هَذِهِ النَّفَقَةِ

وَيَسْتَوِي فِي اسْتِحْقَاقِ هَذِهِ النَّفَقَةِ الْمُعْسِرَةُ وَالْمُوسِرَةُ فَتَسْتَحِقُّ الزَّوْجَةُ النَّفَقَةَ عَلَى زَوْجِهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مُوسِرَةً لِاسْتِوَائِهِمَا فِي سَبَبِ الِاسْتِحْقَاقِ وَشَرْطِهِ وَلِأَنَّ هَذِهِ النَّفَقَةَ لَهَا شَبَهٌ بِالْأَعْوَاضِ فَيَسْتَوِي فِيهَا الْفَقِيرُ وَالْغَنِيُّ كَنَفَقَةِ الْقَاضِي وَالْمُضَارِبِ



[12] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitābus Talāq, vol 1, p.576 (Book)

[الْبَابُ السَّابِعُ عَشَرَ فِي النَّفَقَاتِ وَفِيهِ سِتَّةُ فُصُولٍ]

[الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ فِي نَفَقَةِ الزَّوْجَةِ]

إنْ كَانَ الصُّلْحُ بَعْدَ فَرْضِ الْقَاضِي، أَوْ بَعْدَ تَرَاضِيهِمَا عَلَى شَيْءٍ لِكُلِّ شَهْرٍ يُعْتَبَرُ هَذَا الصُّلْحُ بَيْنَهُمَا مُعَاوَضَةً، وَفَائِدَةُ اعْتِبَارِ التَّقْدِيرِ أَنْ تَجُوزَ الزِّيَادَةُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَالنُّقْصَانُ عَنْهُ فَعَلَى هَذَا الْأَصْلِ يَخْرُجُ جِنْسُ هَذِهِ الْمَسَائِلِ، وَإِذَا صَالَحَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ زَوْجَهَا عَلَى ثَلَاثَةِ دَرَاهِمَ لِكُلِّ شَهْرٍ فَقَالَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ: لَا يَكْفِينِي هَذَا الْقَدْرُ كَانَ لَهَا أَنْ تُخَاصِمَهُ حَتَّى يَزِيدَهَا مِقْدَارَ مَا يَكْفِيهَا إذَا كَانَ الزَّوْجُ مُوسِرًا، وَإِذَا صَالَحَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ زَوْجَهَا عَلَى ثَلَاثَةِ دَرَاهِمَ – نَفَقَةُ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ – ثُمَّ قَالَ الزَّوْجُ: لَا أُطِيقُ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُصَدَّقُ فِي ذَلِكَ، وَيَلْزَمُهُ جَمِيعُ ذَلِكَ، قَالَ فِي الْكِتَابِ: إلَّا أَنْ يَبْرَأَ مِنْهُ الْقَاضِي يُرِيدُ بِهِ إلَّا أَنْ يَتَعَرَّفَ الْقَاضِي عَنْ حَالِهِ بِالسُّؤَالِ مِنْ النَّاسِ، فَإِذَا أَخْبَرُوا أَنَّهُ لَا يُطِيقُ ذَلِكَ نَقَصَ عَنْهُ، وَأَوْجَبَ عَنْ قَدْرِ طَاقَتِهِ


Ibn Nujaym, Bahr Rāiq, Kitābus Talāq, vol 4  p. 319

وَإِذَا صَالَحَتْ الْمَرْأَةُ زَوْجَهَا مِنْ نَفَقَتِهَا عَلَى ثَلَاثَةِ دَرَاهِمَ كُلَّ شَهْرٍ فَهُوَ جَائِزٌ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرًا لِنَفَقَتِهَا وَالْأَصْلُ أَنَّ الصُّلْحَ بَيْنَهُمَا مَتَى حَصَلَ بِشَيْءٍ يَجُوزُ لِلْقَاضِي أَنْ يَفْرِضَهُ فِي نَفَقَتِهَا بِحَالٍ فَالصُّلْحُ بَيْنَهُمَا تَقْدِيرٌ لِلنَّفَقَةِ وَلَا تُعْتَبَرُ مُعَاوَضَةً سَوَاءٌ كَانَ هَذَا الصُّلْحُ قَبْلَ فَرْضِ الْقَاضِي أَوْ التَّرَاضِي عَلَى شَيْءٍ أَوْ كَانَ بَعْدَ أَحَدِهِمَا، وَإِذَا وَقَعَ الصُّلْحُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ لَا يَجُوزُ لِلْقَاضِي أَنْ يَفْرِضَهُ عَلَى الزَّوْجِ فِي نَفَقَتِهَا بِحَالٍ كَالثَّوْبِ وَالْعَبْدِ يَنْظُرُ إنْ كَانَ الصُّلْحُ بَيْنَهُمَا قَبْلَ قَضَاءِ الْقَاضِي لَهَا بِالنَّفَقَةِ وَقَبْلَ تَرَاضِيهِمَا عَلَى شَيْءٍ لِكُلِّ شَهْرٍ يُعْتَبَرُ الصُّلْحُ مِنْهُمَا تَقْدِيرًا وَبَعْدَ أَحَدِهِمَا يُعْتَبَرُ مُعَاوَضَةً، وَفَائِدَةُ اعْتِبَارِ التَّقْدِيرِ أَنْ تَجُوزَ الزِّيَادَةُ عَلَيْهِ وَالنُّقْصَانُ عَنْهُ وَفَائِدَةُ اعْتِبَارِ الْمُعَاوَضَةِ أَنْ لَا تَجُوزَ الزِّيَادَةُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَلَا النُّقْصَانُ، وَإِذَا صَالَحَهَا عَلَى دَرَاهِمَ كُلَّ شَهْرٍ، ثُمَّ قَالَتْ لَا تَكْفِينِي زِيدَتْ، وَلَوْ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ لَا أُطِيقُهُ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُصَدَّقُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّهُ الْتَزَمَهُ بِاخْتِيَارِهِ


[13] Bukhari, No: 5367

بَابُ إِذَا لَمْ يُنْفِقِ الرَّجُلُ فَلِلْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَأْخُذَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمِهِ مَا يَكْفِيهَا وَوَلَدَهَا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ هِنْدَ بِنْتَ عُتْبَةَ، قَالَتْ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ رَجُلٌ شَحِيحٌ وَلَيْسَ يُعْطِينِي مَا يَكْفِينِي وَوَلَدِي، إِلَّا مَا أَخَذْتُ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ لاَ يَعْلَمُ، فَقَالَ: خُذِي مَا يَكْفِيكِ وَوَلَدَكِ، بِالْمَعْرُوفِ»