Medical Condition and Missed Fasts and Broken Oaths

8th March 2023


السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Due to a medical condition my friend has been unable to fast for a number of years and he has also made a few oaths in the past which require expiation. He is not financially well off to offer expiations nor in he having good health to fast and expiate these missed fasts and broken oaths. In this scenario, my friend feels extremely worried as he is unable to fulfil the commands for expiation for fasting and oaths – he has made taubah and hopes his situation becomes better to offer expiations needed. What must he do in this situation?


In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful


Answer: Thank for your query we are sorry to learn that your friend has been unable to fast for a number of years and pray that Allah Almighty grants him compete cure, Ameen. Concerning your query, in order for fast not to be obligatory due to a medical reason, then this needs to be confirmed by a practicing Muslim doctor. If it is confirmed that fasting permanently proves detrimental to his health or based on past experience, he is now excused from fasting altogether.[1] He may now resort to alternative ways to expiate his fasts by giving fidya for each of his missed fast. If he is currently not financially well, then he must wait until he has sufficient money to pay fidya. Fidya need not be given all at once but can be given over a period of time. If he reaches to the point of no hope in this even, then he must specify in his will for expiation of his fasts to be paid from one-third of his wealth.

As for the expiation of his broken oaths, fasting for 3 days is the final option given by the Shariah. [2] If he is unable to feed 10 poor people, clothe them nor fast for 3 days, then again better to wait until he is financially able to feed or clothes ten poor people. The jurists have allowed a single kaffarah to expiate all of the past broken oaths. In other words, it is not necessary for him to pay kaffarah for each broken oath, rather one kaffarah would suffice for all of the breached oaths.[3]



[Allāh Knows Best]



Written by:  Mufti Anas Mullah        Reviewed by: Mufti Abdul Waheed

Attested by: Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam  

JKN Fatawa Department



[1] Fatawa Hindiyya, vol 1, p 207

ومنها المرض) المريض إذا خاف على نفسه التلف أو ذهاب عضو يفطر بالإجماع، وإن خاف زيادة العلة وامتدادها فكذلك عندنا، وعليه القضاء إذا أفطر كذا في المحيط. ثم معرفة ذلك باجتهاد المريض والاجتهاد غير مجرد الوهم بل هو غلبة ظن عن أمارة أو تجربة أو بإخبار طبيب مسلم غير ظاهر الفسق كذا في فتح القدير. والصحيح الذي يخشى أن يمرض بالصوم فهو كالمريض هكذا في التبيين


[2] Shaami, Kitabul Aymaan, vol 3, p 727

وإن عجز عنها) كلها (وقت الأداء) عندنا، حتى لو وهب ماله وسلمه ثم صام ثم رجع بهبة أجزأه الصوم مجتبى. قلت: وهذا يستثنى من قولهم الرجوع في الهبة فسخ من الأصل (صام ثلاثة أيام ولاء) ويبطل بالحيض، بخلاف كفارة الفطر. وجوز الشافعي التفريق، واعتبر العجز عند الحنث مسكين (والشرط استمرار العجز إلى الفراغ من الصوم، فلو صام المعسر يومين ثم) قبل فراغه ولو بساعة (أيسر) ولو بموت مورثه موسرا (لا يجوز له الصوم) ويستأنف بالمال خانية، ولو صام ناسيا للمال ولم يجز على الصحيح مجتبى. ولو نسي كيف حلف بالله أو بطلاق أو بصوم لا شيء عليه إلا أن يتذكر خانية (ولم يجز) التكفير ولو بالمال خلافا للشافعي (قبل حنث) ولا يسترده من الفقير لوقوعه صدقة.


[3] See our fatwa on Kaffarah on multiple oaths breached Kaffarah for Multiple Oaths Breached – JKN Fatawa