2nd December 2013
السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته
Question: For the past three years, Alhamdulillah I have started fasting properly and I am 21 years of age. However, when I was young (but past puberty from 14-18 years of age) I never used to practice properly and missed some Ramadhān fasts; approximately 6-10 fasts although I do not know for certain the exact amount. I broke my fasts in school and college secretly by eating and drinking and also later on when I was 18 through physical relationship on one of the days. Unfortunately, back then I was very ignorant but now Alhamdulillah I realise the severity of missing fasts and want to make up for them. I have read that you have to make up for each fast missed with sixty consecutive days with no breaks in the in between. So does that mean I have to fast for around 600 days in total if I missed or broke 10 fasts intentionally? As I go to relatives house obviously they offer food and if you reject they become offended so how would I go about this without allowing anyone to find out family or friends as I live with family at home and my mother cooks food for me and I don’t want anyone wondering why for 600 days I am suddenly fasting. Please help me as I am really worried and want to make up my fasts as soon as possible.
الجواب حامداًَ و مصلياًَ
In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
In reference to your query, you have rightly stated that breaching a Ramadhān fast intentionally that is, without a valid shar’ee excuse necessitates Kaffarah of sixty days consecutive fasting. However, the ruling on observing multiple Kaffarahs with respect to each fast broken depends on how the fast was broken. Be mindful that Kaffarah does not apply to missing a fast intentionally during Ramadhān – as in no intention was made to fast at all on any of the days which makes only Qadha necessary.
The manner in which the fast was intentionally broken can be classified as follows;
1: To break one’s Ramadhān Fast by eating or drinking something that is naturally nourishing.
Breaking multiple fasts in this manner in one or more Ramadhān months necessitates only one Kaffarah. The scholars state that this single Kaffarah incorporates the necessary penalty for all of the previously broken fasts. This only applies however, if no Kaffarah was observed in between the two Ramadhān months. If a Kaffarh was observed for the previous Ramadhān and one deliberately broke their fast in the following Ramadhān then another Kaffarah becomes necessary. In this case, the previous Kaffarah will not suffice nor incorporate the fasts broken in the subsequent months.
2: Breaking the Ramadhān Fast due to sexual relationship
The classical Hanafi Jurists state that one Kaffarah suffices for breaking multiple fasts in this manner in a single Ramadhān only. However, to break it in two (or more) Ramadhān months then observing a separate Kaffarah per Ramadhān becomes necessary irrespective if a Kaffarah was made in the interim of two Ramadhān months or not.
[Allāh Knows Best]
Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed
Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam
JKN Fatawa Department
 Durrul Mukhtar, Chapter on those things that break the fast and those that don’t, p.391, vol 3
وَلَوْ تَكَرَّرَ فِطْرُهُ وَلَمْ يُكَفِّرْ لِلْأَوَّلِ يَكْفِيه وَاحِدَةٌ وَلَوْ فِي رَمَضَانَيْنِ عِنْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَيْهِ الِاعْتِمَادُ بَزَّازِيَّةٌ وَمُجْتَبَى وَغَيْرُهُمَا وَاخْتَارَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِلْفَتْوَى أَنَّ الْفِطْرَ بِغَيْرِ الْجِمَاعِ تَدَاخَلَ وَإِلَّا لَا
Allamah Ibn Abideen As-Shami comments,
(قَوْلُهُ: وَلَمْ يُكَفِّرْ لِلْأَوَّلِ) أَمَّا لَوْ كَفَّرَ فَعَلَيْهِ أُخْرَى فِي ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ لِلْعِلْمِ بِأَنَّ الزَّجْرَ لَمْ يَحْصُلْ بِالْأُولَى بَحْرٌ
 Bahrrur Raiq, Chapter on those things that break the fast and those that don’t, p.484, vol 2
وَلَوْ جَامَعَ مِرَارًا فِي أَيَّامِ رَمَضَانَ وَاحِدٍ، وَلَمْ يُكَفِّرْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ كَفَّارَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ؛ لِأَنَّهَا شُرِعَتْ لِلزَّجْرِ، وَهُوَ يَحْصُلُ بِوَاحِدَةٍ فَلَوْ جَامَعَ وَكَفَّرَ ثُمَّ جَامَعَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى فَعَلَيْهِ كَفَّارَةٌ أُخْرَى فِي ظَاهِرِ الرَّاوِيَةِ لِلْعِلْمِ بِأَنَّ الزَّجْرَ لَمْ يَحْصُلْ بِالْأَوَّلِ وَلَوْ جَامَعَ فِي رَمَضَانَيْنِ فَعَلَيْهِ كَفَّارَتَانِ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يُكَفِّرْ لِلْأُولَى فِي ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ، وَهُوَ الصَّحِيحُ كَذَا فِي الْجَوْهَرَة