Can Men Braid their Hair like a Ponytail?

Can Men Braid their Hair like a Ponytail?

26th May 2021

 

Question: I wanted to know is it haram for a man to Tie their hair, or can they tie it in a non-feminine way an example would be just to tie the top of the hair or even use a hairband?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

As a general rule there is no harm for men to tie their long hair, that does not exceed the shoulder length, in a manner that does not resemble females using a band at the center or the top behind the head. It is not a problem either to use a hairband for males to keep their hairs kempt and not untidy. It is reported from Sayyidah Umme Hani radhiyallahu anha that on the day of conquest, the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam entered Makkah with his hair braided into four plats. Some have given the reason that he did this due to being preoccupied in traveling.[1] Whatever the reason being, plaiting one’s hair in a non-feminine manner is permissible. It is only forbidden during Salāh as the Hadeeth mentions that it is a place where the Shaytan sits during one’s Salāh.

It is reported that a man once saw Sayyiduna Abu Rafi’ radhiyallahu anhu passing by Sayyiduna Hasan ibn Ali radhiyallahu anhu standing in Salāh with his hair plaited behind his head.  Sayyiduna Abu Rafi’ radhiyallahu anhu upon seeing it untied there and then. Sayyiduna Hasan immediately turned around angrily so Sayyiduna Abu Rafi’ radhiyallahu anhu said, “Turn to your Salāh and do not be angry for I heard the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam say, ‘this is the seating place of Shaytan’ in other words at the root of his plaited hair.”[2]

It is also reported that Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas radhiyallahu anhu also did the same where he saw a man’s hair plaited whist standing in Salāh. He instantly untied it and said, “I heard the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam say that that ‘the likeness of this one is that of a man who prays with his hands tied (behind his back).’”[3] The Hadeeth therefore, as agreed by all of the scholars implies that it is disliked for a person to pray Salāh with his hair plaited in a manner where he ties his hair behind his head with a band.[4] The wisdom behind that as scholars state is that it allows all of the hair to prostrate before Allāh.[5]

Hence, you may tie your hair in a manner that doesn’t resemble women (or those of sinful people) as mentioned so to keep the hair kempt. But according to the Prophetic Hadeeth you must release it before Salāh.

 

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Ibn Hajar, Fathul Bari, vol 10, p. 360

بَابُ التَّلْبِيدِ

وَمَا دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدِيثُ مِنْ كَوْنِ شَعْرِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ إِلَى قُرْبِ مَنْكِبَيْهِ كَانَ غَالِبَ أَحْوَالِهِ وَكَانَ رُبَّمَا طَالَ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ ذُؤَابَةً وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنْهُ عَقَائِصَ وَضَفَائِرَ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ بِسَنَدٍ حَسَنٍ مِنْ حَدِيثِ أُمِّ هَانِئٍ قَالَتْ قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَكَّةَ وَلَهُ أَرْبَعُ غَدَائِرَ وَفِي لَفْظٍ أَرْبَعُ ضَفَائِرَ وَفِي رِوَايَة بن مَاجَهْ أَرْبَعُ غَدَائِرَ يَعْنِي ضَفَائِرَ وَالْغَدَائِرُ بِالْغَيْنِ الْمُعْجَمَةِ جَمْعُ غَدِيرَةٍ بِوَزْنِ عَظِيمَةٍ وَالضَّفَائِرُ بِوَزْنِهِ فَالْغَدَائِرُ هِيَ الذَّوَائِبُ وَالضَّفَائِرُ هِيَ الْعَقَائِصُ فَحَاصِلُ الْخَبَرِ أَنَّ شَعْرَهُ طَالَ حَتَّى صَارَ ذَوَائِبَ فَضَفَّرَهُ أَرْبَعَ عَقَائِصَ وَهَذَا مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى الْحَالِ الَّتِي يَبْعُدُ عَهْدُهُ بِتَعَهُّدِهِ شَعْرَهُ فِيهَا وَهِيَ حَالَةُ الشُّغْلِ بِالسَّفَرِ وَنَحْوِهِ

 

[2] Abu Dawood No: 646

بَابُ الرَّجُلِ يُصَلِّي عَاقِصًا شَعْرَهُ

646 – حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، حَدَّثَنِي عِمْرَانُ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْمَقْبُرِيِّ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ رَأَى أَبَا رَافِعٍ مَوْلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَرَّ بِحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلَام وَهُوَ يُصَلِّي قَائِمًا وَقَدْ غَرَزَ ضَفْرَهُ فِي قَفَاهُ فَحَلَّهَا أَبُو رَافِعٍ، فَالْتَفَتَ حَسَنٌ إِلَيْهِ مُغْضَبًا فَقَالَ أَبُو رَافِعٍ: أَقْبِلْ عَلَى صَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تَغْضَبْ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «ذَلِكَ كِفْلُ الشَّيْطَانِ» يَعْنِي مَقْعَدَ الشَّيْطَانِ، يَعْنِي مَغْرَزَ ضَفْرِهِ

 

Tuhfadhul Ahwadhi vol 2, p. 325

بَاب مَا جَاءَ فِي كراهة كَفِّ الشَّعْرِ فِي الصَّلَاةِ

وَفِي رِوَايَةِ أبي داود وقد غرز ضفره أي لوى شَعْرَهُ وَأَدْخَلَ أَطْرَافَهُ فِي أُصُولِهِ وَالْمُرَادُ مِنَ الضَّفْرِ الْمَضْفُورُ مِنَ الشَّعْرِ وَأَصْلُ الضَّفْرِ الْفَتْلُ وَالضَّفِيرُ وَالضَّفَائِرُ هِيَ الْعَقَائِصُ الْمَضْفُورَةُ قَالَهُ الْخَطَّابِيُّ (فِي قَفَاهُ) الْقَفَا بِالْفَارِسِيَّةِ يس سر يُذَكَّرُ وَيُؤَنَّثُ (فَحَلَّهَا) أَيْ أَطْلَقَ ضَفَائِرَهُ الْمَغْرُوزَةَ فِي قفاه (مغضبا) بفتح الضاد (ذلك) أي الظفر الْمَغْرُوزَ (كِفْلُ الشَّيْطَانِ) بِكَسْرِ الْكَافِ وَسُكُونِ الْفَاءِ أَيْ مَوْضِعُ قُعُودِ الشَّيْطَانِ وَفِي رِوَايَةِ أَبِي دَاوُدَ ذَلِكَ كِفْلُ الشَّيْطَانِ يَعْنِي مَقْعَدَ الشَّيْطَانِ يَعْنِي مَغْرِزَ ضَفْرِهِ

 

[3] Umdatul Qari vol 6, p. 91

(بابُ السجُودِ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أعْظُمٍ)

وَقَالَ سَمِعت النَّبِي – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم َ – يَقُول ذَلِك كفل الشَّيْطَان أَو قَالَ مقْعد الشَّيْطَان يَعْنِي مغرز ضفيرته وَفِي الْمعرفَة روينَا فِي الحَدِيث الثَّابِت ” عَن ابْن عَبَّاس أَنه رأى عبد الله بن الْحَارِث يُصَلِّي وَرَأسه معقوص من وَرَائه فَقَامَ وَرَاءه فَجعل يحله وَقَالَ سَمِعت النَّبِي – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم َ – إِنَّمَا مثل هَذَا كَمثل الَّذِي يُصَلِّي وَهُوَ مكتوف

[4] Umdatul Qari vol 6, p. 91

(بابُ السجُودِ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أعْظُمٍ)

فَدلَّ الحَدِيث على كَرَاهَة الصَّلَاة وَهُوَ معقوص الشّعْر وَلَو عقصه وَهُوَ فِي الصَّلَاة فَسدتْ صلَاته والعقص أَن يجمع شعره على وسط رَأسه ويشده بخيط أَو بصمغ ليتلبد وَافق الْجُمْهُور من الْعلمَاء أَن النَّهْي لكل من يُصَلِّي كَذَلِك سَوَاء تَعَمّده للصَّلَاة أَو كَانَ كَذَلِك قبلهَا لِمَعْنى آخر وَقَالَ مَالك النَّهْي لمن فعل ذَلِك للصَّلَاة وَالصَّحِيح الأول لإِطْلَاق الْأَحَادِيث. قيل الْحِكْمَة فِي هَذَا النَّهْي عَنهُ أَن الشّعْر يسْجد مَعَه وَلِهَذَا مثله بِالَّذِي يُصَلِّي وَهُوَ مكتوف وَقَالَ ابْن عمر رَضِي الله تَعَالَى عَنْهُمَا لرجل رَآهُ يسْجد وَهُوَ معقوص الشّعْر أرْسلهُ يسْجد مَعَك.

 

[5] Tuhfadhul Ahwadhi vol 2, p. 325

بَاب مَا جَاءَ فِي كراهة كَفِّ الشَّعْرِ فِي الصَّلَاةِ

وَإِنَّمَا أَمَرَهُ بِإِرْسَالِ الشَّعْرِ لِيَسْقُطَ عَلَى الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي فِيهِ صَاحِبُهُ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ فَيَسْجُدَ مَعَهُ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْهُ أَيْضًا عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَسْجُدَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ آرَابٍ وَأَنْ لَا أَكُفَّ شَعْرًا وَلَا ثَوْبًا انْتَهَى

 

Hadīth on Headache

Hadīth on Headache

            2nd July 2020

 

Question: Is it true that there is a Hadīth that those who do not have a headache will be amongst the people of Hell-Fire?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

There is a Hadīth of a similar nature wherein the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam indicated towards a man who never experienced an illness in his life that he will be amongst the people of Hell-Fire. It is a lengthy Hadīth transmitted by many scholars with an authentic chain. An excerpt from the relevant part of the Hadīth is presented here. Sayyidunā Abū Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhu narrates that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam asked a Bedouin, “Have you ever experienced pain in your head (Suda’)?” he asked, “What is Suda?” the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam replied, “A sweat that breaks from a person’s head.” He said, “I have never had it.” When he turned away the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Whoever it pleases to see a man amongst the inmates of Hell then see this person.”[1]  

This Hadīth suggests that a person who has never experienced a headache in their life is amongst the inmates of Hell-Fire. Scholars explain that headaches as well as other general illnesses are a means of cleansing a believer from his sins so to safeguard him from the greater punishment in the after-life.[2] This suggests that illnesses and headaches are considered amongst the signs of a true believer that serve as an atonement for his past sins and means of purification for him. Illness can also elevate a believer’s status in the Hereafter. Should a person never experience an illness in their life nor a headache in the least then it is less likely that they will be purified in this world and as a result, will be admitted into Hell-Fire according to Allāh’s law as an atonement for their sins.

As a side note to the above, this does not imply that one must not seek medical treatment. Allāh Almighty inflicts an illness upon whoever He wishes as a test for the believers (so to cleans them from their sins provided they accept Allāh’s decree and to elevate their status in the Hereafter) and yet, Allāh Almighty does not want to burden his servants either. Treatment is part of our Islamic tradition. In one Hadīth, the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “O servants of Allāh! Seek treatment because verily Allāh has not placed any illness except that he has also placed a cure with it except for one illness; old age.”[3]  So if someone suffers from a headache then seeking treatment for it is not just allowed but encouraged.

So in short, the Hadīth is authentic as mentioned above and should be viewed in a positive light but does not suggest that one must ask for an illness nor refrain from seeking treatment.

 

 [Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

 

[1] Ibn Hibban No: 2916

أَخْبَرَنَا عِمْرَانُ بْنُ مُوسَى بْنِ مُجَاشِعٍ ، حَدَّثَنَا هَنَّادُ بْنُ السَّرِيِّ ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، قَالَ : دَخَلَ أَعْرَابِيٌّ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : ” أَخَذَتْكَ أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ ؟ ” قَالَ : وَمَا أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ ؟ قَالَ : ” حَرٌّ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الْجِلْدِ وَاللَّحْمِ ” قَالَ : وَمَا وَجَدْتُ هَذَا قَطُّ ، قَالَ : ” فَهَلْ وَجَدْتَ هَذَا الصُّدَاعَ ؟ ” قَالَ : وَمَا الصُّدَاعُ ؟ قَالَ : ” عِرْقٌ يَضْرِبُ عَلَى الإِنْسَانِ فِي رَأْسِهِ ” قَالَ : وَمَا وَجَدْتَ هَذَا قَطُّ ، فَلَمَّا وَلَّى قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : ” مَنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ إِلَى هَذَا ” ، قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ : قَوْلُهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ” مَنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ إِلَى هَذَا ” لَفْظَةُ إِخْبَارٍ عَنْ شَيْءٍ مُرَادُهَا الزَّجْرُ عَنِ الرُّكُونِ إِلَى ذَلِكَ الشَّيْءِ ، وَقِلَّةِ الصَّبْرِ عَلَى ضِدِّهِ ، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ وَعَلا جَعَلَ الْعِلَلَ فِي هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا وَالْغُمُومِ وَالأَحْزَانِ سَبَبَ تَكْفِيرِ الْخَطَايَا عَنِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ، فَأَرَادَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، إِعْلامَ أُمَّتِهِ أَنَّ الْمَرْءَ لا يَكَادُ يَتَعَرَّى عَنْ مُقَارَفَةِ مَا نَهَى اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فِي أَيَّامِهِ وَلَيَالِيهِ وَإِيجَابِ النَّارِ لَهُ بِذَلِكَ ، إِنْ لَمْ يُتَفَضَّلَ عَلَيْهِ بِالْعَفْوِ ، فَكَأَنَّ كُلَّ إِنْسَانٍ مُرْتَهَنٌ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ يَدَاهُ ، وَالْعِلَلُ تُكَفَّرُ بَعْضُهَا عَنْهُ فِي هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا ، لا أَنَّ مَنْ عُوفِيَ فِي هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا يَكُونُ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ

Mustadrak Hakim, No:1215

أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ الْقَاضِي بِمَرْوَ ، ثنا الْحَارِثُ بْنُ أَبِي أُسَامَةَ ، ثنا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ ، ثنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لأَعْرَابِيٍّ : ” هَلْ أَخَذَتْكَ أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ قَطُّ ؟ ” , قَالَ : وَمَا أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ ؟ , قَالَ : ” حَرٌّ بَيْنَ الْجِلْدِ وَاللَّحْمِ ” , قَالَ : مَا وَجَدْتُ هَذَا قَطُّ , قَالَ : ” فَهَلْ أَخَذَكَ الصُّدَاعُ قَطُّ ؟ ” , قَالَ : وَمَا الصُّدَاعُ ؟ , قَالَ : ” عِرْقٌ يَضْرِبُ عَلَى الإِنْسَانِ فِي رَأْسِهِ ” , قَالَ : مَا وَجَدْتُ هَذَا قَطُّ ، فَلَمَّا وَلَّى قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : ” مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ إِلَى هَذَا ” . هَذَا حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحٌ عَلَى شَرْطِ مُسْلِمٍ ، وَلَمْ يُخَرِّجَاهُ

Bayhaqi Shu’bul Iman No:9250

أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَافِظُ , أَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ الْقَاضِي , بِمَرْوَ , نَا الْحَارِثُ بْنُ أَبِي أُسَامَةَ , نَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ , نَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو , عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ , عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، لأَعْرَابِيٍّ : ” هَلْ أَخَذَتْكَ أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ ؟ قَالَ : وَمَا أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ ؟ قَالَ : حَرٌّ بَيْنَ الْجِلْدِ , وَاللَّحْمِ ، قَالَ : فَمَا وَجَدْتُ هَذَا قَطُّ ، قَالَ : فَهَلْ أَخَذَكَ الصُّدَاعُ ؟ قَالَ : وَمَا الصُّدَاعُ ؟ قَالَ : عِرْقٌ يَضْرِبُ عَلَى الإِنْسَانِ فِي رَأْسِهِ ، قَالَ : مَا وَجَدْتُ هَذَا قَطُّ ، فَلَمَّا وَلَّى قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ , فَلْيَنْظُرْ إِلَى هَذَا ” . قَالَ الشَّيْخُ أَحْمَدُ : وَلِهَذَا شَاهِدٌ مِنْ حَدِيثِ ابْنِ الْمُسَيِّبِ , عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ , وَمِنْ حَدِيثِ مَعْمَرٍ , عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ , عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , مُرْسَلا

Musnad Ahmad – No: 8395

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بِشْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ: دَخَلَ أَعْرَابِيٌّ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” أَخَذَتْكَ (2) أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ قَطُّ؟ ” قَالَ: وَمَا أُمُّ مِلْدَمٍ؟ قَالَ: ” حَرٌّ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الْجِلْدِ وَاللَّحْمِ “، قَالَ: مَا وَجَدْتُ هَذَا قَطُّ، قَالَ: ” فَهَلْ أَخَذَكَ الصُّدَاعُ قَطُّ؟ ” قَالَ: وَمَا الصُّدَاعُ؟ قَالَ: ” عُرُوقٌ تَضْرِبُ عَلَى الْإِنْسَانِ فِي رَأْسِهِ “، قَالَ: مَا وَجَدْتُ هَذَا قَطُّ، قَالَ: فَلَمَّا وَلَّى، قَالَ: ” مَنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ .

[2] Sharhu Saheeh Bukhari Ibn battal vol 9, p. 391

قيل: ليس شىء من هذه الآثار يعارض أحاديث هذا الباب ولكل حديث منها وجه مفهوم وذلك أن العلل والأمراض كفارات لأهل الإيمان وعقويات يمحص الله بها عمن شاء منهم فى الدنيا ليلقوه مطهرين من دنس الذنوب

 

[3]  Mishkat al-Masabeeh, No: 4532

[كِتَابُ الطِّبِّ وَالرُّقَى]

 عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ شَرِيكٍ قَالَ: «قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَفَنَتَدَاوَى؟ قَالَ: ” نَعَمْ، يَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ! تَدَاوَوْا، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَضَعْ دَاءً إِلَّا وَضَعَ لَهُ شِفَاءً، غَيْرَ دَاءٍ وَاحِدٍ، الْهَرَمُ» “. رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ، وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ، وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ.

 

Are Diseases Contagious? – The Hadeeth of Fleeing from a Leper

Are Diseases Contagious? – The Hadeeth of Fleeing from a Leper

12th March 2020

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I read in an article that A’isha radhiyallahu anha relates in a Hadith found in Sahih Bukhari that the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wasallam told people to flee from a leper as they would from a lion, is not what he would have said. The references given for this are from Fath al Bari, which is in Arabic and unfortunately, I am unable to read it. Kindly clarify whether this is true or not.

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

In reference to your query, the underlying issue rests on whether Islām agrees to the concept of an illness being contagious or not. Hadeeth scholars have differed whether the prophetic statement ‘flee from a leper as you flee from a lion’ is authentically established from the Noble Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam or not. Imām Bukhari transmits a report from Sayyidunā Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu anhu where the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “(There is) no ‘Adwa (no contagious disease is conveyed without Allah’s permission) nor is there any bad omen (from birds), nor is there any Hamah, nor is there any bad omen in the month of Safar, and flee from the leper as you flee from a lion.” In one narration,  (Sayyidah) A’isha radhiyallahu anha herself denied such report from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam when she was asked but contrarily, there is another report where she apparently affirms the statement from him. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani rahimahullah (the author of Fath al-Bari) transmits a report from Saheeh ibn Khuzaimah in the Book of Reliance narrated from Sayyidah A’ishah radhiyallahu anha where she states, ‘and when you see a leper then flee from him just as you flee from a lion’. The strongest view is that the command of fleeing from a leper is authentically attributed to the Noble Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. There are many similar reports that Ibn Hajar rahimahullah cites that allude to its authenticity. For instance, there is a narration in Saheeh Muslim where a man from the delegation of Thaqeef who suffered from leprosy (as a result he could not visit the Messenger sallallahu alayhi wasallam). The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam sent someone to him stating that indeed we have taken your pledge so return. This proves that the prophet exercised caution when coming in contact with a leper. However, there is another report that Ibn Hajar rahimahullah cites from Sayyiduna Jabir radhiyallahu anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam ate with a leper in the same dish and said, ‘Reliance upon Allah and (our) trust in Him’. There are two types of reports that come to light here; one in which the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam  exercised caution whilst in another, he came into close contact with a leper.

This issue is heavily diversified and contested amongst the scholars partly due to the conflicting reports as in some have denied contagiousness of disease whilst others seem to affirm it. Some have opted the abrogation approach, others have chosen preference whilst most have sought to harmonize between the conflicting reports. Below is a summary of the In Hajar’s rahimahullah commentary of the diverse groups in the same sequence in his Fath al-Bari volume 10 pp.159-161. This will hopefully ground your understanding of the issue.

  1. This group views that the command of abstinence i.e. fleeing from a leper is abrogated and coming into contact with him is valid e.g. eating with him. This was the view of Sayyidunā Umar radhiyallahu anhu.
  2. This group and the most authentic position which the majority have adopted is that the command of abstinence is not abrogated. Rather the conflicting reports are reconcilable. The command of feeing is a preferable command whilst eating with a leper alludes to permissibility.
  3. This group have opted for preference, meaning that both narrations are not reconcilable therefore one narration must be preferred over the other. This group subdivides into two;
  4. The negation of contagiousness is preferred over those narration that affirm it. In other words, one is not commanded to flee nor exercise caution from a leper at all. This group adduce the report of Sayyidah A’isha radhiyallahu anha when she denied the narration of fleeing from a leper being attributed to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam and said that we had a servant suffering from this illness who would eat from my plate, drink from my cup and sleep on my bed. Here Sayyidah A’isha radhiyallahu anha disproved of fleeing from a leper because the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam welcomed them in his home.
  5. This division prefers the narrations of contagiousness over those that deny it due to the overwhelming reports. Meaning that contrary to the above, one should exercise caution and distance themselves from a leper. These scholars such as Imam Tirmizi rahimahullah question the authenticity of the reports that a leper ate in the same plate with the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. In their view, it was merely placing their hand on the same plate as opposed to eating in it.

After detailing the multiple views on this matter, Ibn Hajar rahimahullah leans towards the second group namely, reconciliation between the seemingly conflicting reports; preferable to exercise caution from a leper though coming in close contact with them is permissible. This is because all of the narrations have been transmitted through reliable chains that are undeniable. In his view, tarjeeh – preference is only resorted to when reconciliation is not possible and since reconciliation is possible, preference is not an option in this case. Moreover, most scholars adopt the approach of reconciliation so that all of the reports are practised in specific circumstances. Ibn Hajar rahimahullah presents the possible interpretations to harmonise the conflicting reports that affirm and deny illnesses transmitting.

  • Negating (the necessary ability of) contagiousness altogether and as for fleeing from a leper, this was a command in due consideration of the victim himself so to relieve his worry. When a leper sees a healthy person, it could naturally increase in his distress, hence the command was not to glare at lepers.
  • Both reports; the negation and affirmation of disease transmitting refer to two different occasions. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam  negating transmission of the disease was in reference to those with strong faith whose reliance in Allah Almighty was very strong. A person with strong faith acknowledges that diseases are not contagious per se as all matters are in the hands of Allāh Almighty so a person one can avert themself from it. The one with weak faith, on the other hand, may not have strong reliance in Allah Almighty thus, the command of fleeing (suggesting disease transmission) apply to him only.
  • According to Abu Bakar Baqillani rahimahullah, the affirmation of leprosy transmission is an exceptional disease to the general command which negates contagiousness.
  • It is possible that the command of fleeing from leprosy does not fall under the remit of contagiousness but rather transmission through physical contact only like touching, embracing or even smelling. Where no physical contact occurs then the disease is not infectious.

[As a point of note, this explanation negates the disease having the ability to transmit if no physical contact occurs. So, the fact a person standing in front without touching him would not necessitate a person being affected by them.]

  • The report which negates disease transmitting was to refute people’s notion during the days of ignorance who assumed that disease is contagious without attributing its control to Allah Alone. The negation was thus to clarify that it is Allah who ultimately afflicts people with disease and illnesses and is able to cure them as well. As for those reports that affirm transmission of disease is to acknowledge the natural causes that Allah has set on earth. As in, the transmission of disease is a cause which Allah has placed on earth albeit He is the controller of all causes.

Ibn Hajar’s rahimahullah conclusion from the above possible interpretations is concerned with it being a matter of one’s personal faith. He states that people with weak faith are discouraged from coming near it whereas those with strong faith have the choice. It appears that the Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam practice on different occasions was to encompass both categories of people for the sake of ease.

Whilst the above discussion was related to a leper, if we assume the second position to be the most reliable position i.e. conflicting reports are reconcilable and relative to specific circumstances, as Ibn Hajar rahimahullah alludes to in his commentary, then similar ruling applies to all modern forms of endemic disease and viruses for instance coronavirus. One can exercise caution and avoid physical contact such as touching [e.g. shaking hands or embracing] and in doing so, does not go against reliance on Allāh Almighty. Yet, at the same time, we must believe that all matters rest in the hands of Allāh Almighty and it is only He who has the power to inflict and cure illness.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and Researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

What is the Islamic Stance on the Outbreak of Coronavirus?

What is the Islamic Stance on the Outbreak of Coronavirus?

           2nd March 2020

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: I was just wanting to know as coronavirus has come as a shock what does the Qur’ān say about this and what should we do? As in, can we escape from it or not? I’ve heard that Allāh Almighty will never create a disease without a cure and inshallah there is a cure soon. Also, I’ve heard that somewhere in the Qur’ān it says than an incurable disease will appear it will kill many and it will be untreatable. Is this true?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

There are two parts to your query that will be addressed separately; firstly, the Qurānic position on virus-outbreak and fleeing from it such as coronavirus and secondly, Allāh Almighty creating a curable disease and whether Allāh Almighty will one day cause an untreatable disease to break out.

As for the issue concerning coronavirus itself, it is an infectious virus that infects the nose, sinuses, or the upper throat. As it is known that this virus broke out in Wuhan, China in December 2019 affecting million of its citizens and reported to have killed hundreds with the death toll continuing to rise. Common symptoms of it include fever, cough and shortness of breath.[1] The Noble Qur’ān and the Sunnah make reference to a similar endemic illness called tā’oon – plague, an infectious and deadly illness that killed thousands of people including many companions, for instance, the famous incident of Amwās – a name of a city in the land of Shām – where thousands of companions died as a result of a plague. The answer to your query of coronavirus can, therefore, be addressed through the light of tā’oon so to highlight the Muslim viewpoint of such events. Allāh Almighty makes reference but indirectly to plague during an incident when Allāh Almighty cast death upon the children of Israel as a result of fleeing in thousands. Allāh Almighty states; “Haven’t you seen those who emerged from their homes whilst in thousands with the fear of death, so Allāh said to them ‘Die’ then he resurrected them.”[2] According to the majority of the mufasirūn [Qur’ānic exegetes] a huge plague struck the children of Israel in a village called Dawardan causing thousands amongst them to flee from the village whilst a small number of them remained there. Those who fled remarked that if a plague strikes us again then we will surely leave and travel to a land where no plague could reach. After the second outbreak of the plague, they fled to another village and at that moment, Allāh Almighty cast death upon them. After some time, Prophet Hizkeel alayhissalaam prayed for them and through this, Allāh Almighty revived all of them. This was so to remind them that life and death lie with Allāh Almighty Alone. It was in reference to this that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “When you hear of a plague in a land then do not enter it, and if it occurs in (your) land then do not leave the land whilst fleeing from it.” Sayyidunā Abdullah ibn Abbās radhiyallahu anhu reports that Sayyidunā Umar radhiyallahu anhu travelled to Syria where he met with the commanders of the Muslim army. Sayyidunā Abū Ubaidah ibn Jarrah radhiyallahu anhu informed him of a plague that broke out in Syria [the notorious plague of Amwās]. Whilst consulting the companions; whether to enter the lands [struck with plague] or not, Sayyidunā Abdur Rahman ibn Awf radhiyallahu anhu said that I heard the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam say, “If it is [occurs] in a land which you are in then do not leave whilst fleeing from it, but if you hear about it in a land then do not enter it.” Upon hearing this Sayyidunā Umar radhiyallahu anhu praised Allāh Almighty and returned [back to Madeenah].[3]

It appears that a deadly illness to break out resulting in mass death of people; Muslims and Non-Muslims, is not a new phenomenon today but existed in our Islamic history. The Arabic term used is waba which means an epidemic or contagious illness. The above narrations serve as a precedent for coronavirus and all modern forms of an outbreak of viruses such as swine -flu etc. This is to display the power of Allāh Almighty over His creation and to remind us that life and death rest in His Hands Alone. The guiding principle is that one should not enter nor exit those lands whilst fleeing from it. But what does it mean by not to flee from it? It means fleeing assuming that this itself will ultimately save a person. Imām Qurtubi rahimahullah under the commentary of the above verse [2:243] explains the reasons for not fleeing nor entering those lands. For instance, the one fleeing may be infected by it due to the infectious illness [and thereby infecting others]. It also may result in him undertaking hardship of the journey because of the illness and furthermore, it became contagious and increasing in harm perishing everyone in its path. Another reason he adds is the fear of corruption in one’s belief when stating ‘I was safe due to me fleeing alone’ [but in reality Allāh Almighty saved him]. Moreover, fleeing is forbidden because many amongst the weak and destitute people may struggle to leave and thus neglected and no one to cater to them. As for the prohibition of entering is to cast oneself into destruction [unless if it is for aid and support of the people].[4]

The above outlined the underlying wisdom of not fleeing nor entering a land of plague. Fleeing may result in the virus spreading and neglecting the week, the poor, women and children. Most importantly, fleeing may corrupt a person’s faith like the case with the children of Israel when after fleeing from the plague, they assumed that fleeing was the ultimate cause of their safety, hence Allāh Almighty cast death upon them to demonstrate that He is the one who gives life and causes death and no security lies except with Him. One may object that doesn’t Islām encourage its followers to safeguard their health? The answer is yes and a believer has every right to take all precautionary measures in safeguarding his life and health. The prohibition of fleeing in the hadeeth as explained above rests on the notion that fleeing does not result in greater harm (infecting others if one is infected that is) and most importantly does not corrupt one’s faith. Should anyone leave or enter the affected town knowing that all matters rest with Allāh Almighty or to enter the city to support the victims then fleeing is permissible. Imām Qurtubi rahimahullah states that the Prophet stipulating “fleeing from it [the plague]” implies that should a person leave or enter with a sound belief that nothing happens except through Allāh’s Divine decree then that would be permissible.[5] This includes leaving for the safety of one’s life with reliance upon Allāh Almighty knowing that all matters are in His control.

For the purpose of preventing the virus from spreading, the government to clamp down the people from exiting the city with the fear of the virus spreading is justifiable Islamically under the principle of ‘specific harm is tolerated to prevent greater harm’.[6] In this case, to restrict people’s movement to prevent greater harm of the virus spreading outside of the city.

This raises another question that can these viruses be viewed as a punishment from Allāh Almighty or not, and what happens to the victims? It is reported that once Sayyidah A’isha radhiyallahu anha asked the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam regarding plague (what to do if it occurs). The Prophet of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “It is a punishment that Allāh sends upon whoever He wishes then Allāh makes it a mercy for the believers. There no servant where a plague affects him and remains in his city enduring patience knowing that nothing afflicts him except what Allāh has decreed for him, except that for him is a reward similar to a martyr.”[7] The Hadeeth suggests that it is a punishment for some people due to their sins but a mercy for the believers. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani rahimahullah comments on this Hadeeth that epidemic diseases [virus] are a punishment for the disbelievers and a mercy for the righteous believers [elevating them to the status of martyrdom]. He enlists numerous narrations, both weak and sound, to suggest that Allāh Almighty descends a punishment when shamelessness and sinful acts prevail amongst the people. As for a sinful believer engulfed in major sins, then it said that it can serve as a punishment for him because of his sins or rank him to the status of martyrdom but not equal to the righteous servants in status. For him then Allāh Almighty hastens His punishment in this world out of His Mercy [so to save him from the greater punishment in the Hereafter].[8] What we understand as a general rule is that outbreak of viruses can be considered a punishment attributed to a specific sin prevalent in a society and that a disbeliever is deprived of Allāh’s Mercy in both worlds. However, to consign its true reality to Allāh Almighty is better as He is the best of Judges and most importantly, we refrain from stereotyping everyone to be equal in the crime. As for a sinful Muslim who falls victim of the coronavirus, one must not outrightly treat it as a punishment for him considering that Allāh Almighty is maybe hastening his punishment in this world so to save him from a greater punishment in the Hereafter.

The above was the answer to the first part of your question related to coronavirus. As with the second part to your question of curable illnesses, then Allāh Almighty has created a cure for every illness. Sayyidunā Abū Darda radhiyallahu anhu reports that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, ‘Allah has sent down both the disease and the cure, and He has appointed a cure for every disease, so treat yourselves medically, but use nothing unlawful.”[9] In another Hadeeth he said, “Seek medication for Allāh has not placed an illness except he [also] placed a cure for it, except for one illness; old age.”[10]

These two Ahādeeth should sufficiently answer your query that except for old age, Allāh Almighty has placed a cure for all illnesses whether that is immediately discovered or not is a separate matter altogether. To our knowledge, there isn’t anything mentioned specifically in the Qur’ān where Allāh Almighty will create an untreatable illness that will kill everyone. This includes coronavirus disease that we should never lose hope in Allāh Almighty and believe that coronavirus is curable albeit discovering its cure make take time. A final point to mention is that during such moments we must constantly seek forgiveness from Allāh Almighty and draw closer to Him through worship. Nothing falls outside of His control and to Him belongs the affairs of both worlds.  Some useful Duās to be recited every morning and evening for protection are;

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

I seek refuge in the complete [and perfect] words of Allāh from all evils He has created.

 

بِسْمِ اللهِ الَّذِي لَا يَضُرُّ مَعَ اسْمِهِ شَيْءٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

In the Name of Allah, Who with His Name nothing can cause harm in the earth nor in the heavens, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

 

Written and researched by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] See https://www.webmd.com/lung/coronavirus#1 [accessed 12th February 2020]

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/wuhan-novel-coronavirus/ [accessed 12th February 2020]

https://www.itv.com/news/2020-01-20/what-is-the-coronavirus-and-what-are-the-symptoms/ [accessed 12th February 2020]

Scientists are still discovering the dangerous effects of it, see https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/51204456 [accessed 12th February 2020]

[2] Surah al-Baqarah [2:243]

[3] Ibn Katheer vol 1, p. 661-663

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: {أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ} قَالَ: كَانُوا أَرْبَعَةَ آلَافٍ خَرَجُوا فِرَارًا مِنَ الطَّاعُونِ قَالُوا: نَأْتِي أَرْضًا لَيْسَ بِهَا مَوْتٌ حَتَّى إِذَا كَانُوا بِمَوْضِعِ كَذَا وَكَذَا قَالَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ مُوتُوا فَمَاتُوا فَمَرَّ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبِيٌّ مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنْ يُحْيِيَهُمْ فَأَحْيَاهُمْ، فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: {أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ} الْآيَةَ.

وَفِي هَذِهِ الْقِصَّةِ عِبْرَةٌ وَدَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَنْ يُغْنِيَ حَذَرٌ مِنْ قَدَرٍ وَأَنَّهُ، لَا مَلْجَأَ مِنَ اللَّهِ إِلَّا إِلَيْهِ، فَإِنَّ هَؤُلَاءِ فَرُّوا مِنَ الْوَبَاءِ طَلَبًا لِطُولِ الْحَيَاةِ فَعُومِلُوا بِنَقِيضِ قَصْدِهِمْ وَجَاءَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ سَرِيعًا فِي آنٍ وَاحِدٍ.

وَمِنْ هَذَا الْقَبِيلِ الْحَدِيثُ الصَّحِيحُ الَّذِي رَوَاهُ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ عِيسَى أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ وَعَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ كِلَاهُمَا عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ زيد [ابن أَسْلَمَ] بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ نَوْفَلٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عباس: أن عمر بن الْخَطَّابِ خَرَجَ إِلَى الشَّامِ حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ بِسَرْغٍ لَقِيَهُ أُمَرَاءُ الْأَجْنَادِ: أَبُو عُبَيْدَةُ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ وَأَصْحَابُهُ فَأَخْبَرُوهُ أَنَّ الْوَبَاءَ قَدْ وَقَعَ بِالشَّامِ فَذَكَرَ الْحَدِيثَ فَجَاءَهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ وَكَانَ مُتَغَيِّبًا لِبَعْضِ حَاجَتِهِ فَقَالَ: إِنَّ عِنْدِي مِنْ هَذَا عِلْمًا، سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: “إِذَا كَانَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ فِيهَا فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا فِرَارًا مِنْهُ، وَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ بِأَرْضٍ فَلَا تَقْدَمُوا عَلَيْهِ” فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ عُمَرُ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ.

وَأَخْرَجَاهُ فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ مِنْ حَدِيثِ الزُّهْرِيِّ بِهِ.

طَرِيقٌ أُخْرَى لِبَعْضِهِ: قَالَ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ وَيَزِيدُ العمِّي قَالَا أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي ذِئْبٍ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ سَالِمٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَامِرِ بْنِ رَبِيعَةَ: أَنَّ عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ عَوْفٍ أَخْبَرَ عُمَرَ، وَهُوَ فِي الشَّامِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “أَنَّ هَذَا السَّقَمَ عُذِّبَ بِهِ الْأُمَمُ قَبْلَكُمْ فَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ فِي أَرْضٍ فَلَا تَدْخُلُوهَا وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ فِيهَا فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا فِرَارًا مِنْهُ” قَالَ: فَرَجَعَ عُمَرُ مِنَ الشَّامِ. وَأَخْرَجَاهُ فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ مِنْ حَدِيثِ مَالِكٍ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ بِنَحْوِهِ

Tafseer Mazhari vol 1, p. 343

قال البغوي ان اهل داوردان قرية قبل واسط وقع بها طاعون فخرجت طائفة منها وبقيت طائفة فهلك اكثر من بقي في القرية وسلم الذين خرجوا- فلما ارتفع الطاعون رجعوا سالمين فقال الذين بقوا أصحابنا كانوا احزم منالو صنعنا كما صنعوا لبقينا ولئن وقع الطاعون ثانيا لنخرجن الى ارض لا وباء بها فوقع الطاعون من قابل فهرب عامة أهلها وخرجوا حتى نزلوا واديا افيح فلما نزلوا المكان الذي يبتغون فيها النجاة ناداهم ملك من أسفل الوادي واخر من أعلاه ان موتوا فماتوا جميعا …. عن ابن عباس وروى احمد والبخاري ومسلم والنسائي عن اسامة بن زيد عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إذا سمعتم بالطاعون في ارض فلا تدخلوا عليه وإذا وقع بأرض فلا تخرجوا منها وأنتم فرار منه

 

Some scholars are of the view that the children of Israel fled due to the fleeing from battle, which as a result Allāh I cast death upon them.

Qurtubi vol 3, p. 232

وَقِيلَ: إِنَّهُمْ فَرُّوا مِنَ الْجِهَادِ وَلَمَّا أَمَرَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِهِ عَلَى لِسَانِ حِزْقِيلَ النَّبِيِّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ، فَخَافُوا الْمَوْتَ بِالْقَتْلِ فِي الْجِهَادِ فَخَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ فِرَارًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَأَمَاتَهُمُ اللَّهُ لِيُعَرِّفَهُمْ أَنَّهُ لَا ينجيهم من الموت شي، ثُمَّ أَحْيَاهُمْ وَأَمَرَهُمْ بِالْجِهَادِ بِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى:” وَقاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ”

 

Tafseer Mazhari vol 1, p. 343

وقال الكلبي ومقاتل والضحاك انما فروا من الجهاد وذلك ان ملكا من ملوك بنى إسرائيل أمرهم ان يخرجوا الى قتال عدوهم فعسكروا ثم جبنوا وكرهوا الموت واعتلوا وقالوا لملكهم ان الأرض التي تأتيها بها الوباء فلا نأتيها حتى ينقطع منه الوباء فارسل الله عليهم الموت فخرجوا من ديارهم فرارا من الموت

 

[4] Qurtubi vol 3, p. 233-234

وَقَدْ قِيلَ: إِنَّمَا نُهِيَ عَنِ الْفِرَارِ مِنْهُ لِأَنَّ الْكَائِنَ بِالْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي الْوَبَاءُ فِيهِ لَعَلَّهُ قَدْ أَخَذَ بِحَظٍّ مِنْهُ، لِاشْتِرَاكِ أَهْلِ ذَلِكَ الْمَوْضِعِ فِي سَبَبِ ذَلِكَ الْمَرَضِ الْعَامِّ، فَلَا فَائِدَةَ لِفِرَارِهِ، بَلْ يُضِيفُ إِلَى مَا أَصَابَهُ مِنْ مَبَادِئِ الْوَبَاءِ مَشَقَّاتِ السَّفَرِ، فَتَتَضَاعَفُ الْآلَامُ وَيَكْثُرُ الضَّرَرُ فَيَهْلَكُونَ بِكُلِّ طَرِيقٍ وَيُطْرَحُونَ فِي كُلِّ فَجْوَةٍ وَمَضِيقٍ، وَلِذَلِكَ يُقَالُ: مَا فَرَّ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْوَبَاءِ فَسَلِمَ، حَكَاهُ ابْنُ الْمَدَائِنِيِّ. وَيَكْفِي فِي «6» ذَلِكَ مَوْعِظَةً قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:” أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقالَ لَهُمُ اللَّهُ مُوتُوا” وَلَعَلَّهُ إِنْ فَرَّ وَنَجَا يَقُولُ: إِنَّمَا نَجَوْتُ مِنْ أَجْلِ خُرُوجِي عَنْهُ فَيَسُوءُ اعْتِقَادُهُ. وَبِالْجُمْلَةِ فَالْفِرَارُ مِنْهُ مَمْنُوعٌ لِمَا ذَكَرْنَاهُ، وَلِمَا فِيهِ مِنْ تَخْلِيَةِ الْبِلَادِ: وَلَا تَخْلُو مِنْ مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ يَصْعُبُ عَلَيْهِمُ الخروج منها ولا يتأتى لهم ذلك، ويتأذون بحلو الْبِلَادِ مِنَ الْمَيَاسِيرِ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا أَرْكَانًا لِلْبِلَادِ وَمَعُونَةً لِلْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ. وَإِذَا كَانَ الْوَبَاءُ بِأَرْضٍ فَلَا يَقْدَمُ عَلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ أَخْذًا بِالْحَزْمِ وَالْحَذَرِ وَالتَّحَرُّزِ مِنْ مَوَاضِعِ الضَّرَرِ، وَدَفْعًا لِلْأَوْهَامِ الْمُشَوِّشَةِ لِنَفْسِ الْإِنْسَانِ، وَفِي الدُّخُولِ عَلَيْهِ الْهَلَاكُ، وَذَلِكَ لَا يَجُوزُ فِي حُكْمِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، فَإِنَّ صِيَانَةَ النَّفْسِ عَنِ الْمَكْرُوهِ وَاجِبَةٌ، وَقَدْ يُخَافُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ سُوءِ الِاعْتِقَادِ بِأَنْ يَقُولَ: لَوْلَا دُخُولِي فِي هَذَا الْمَكَانِ لَمَا نَزَلَ بِي مَكْرُوهٌ. فَهَذِهِ فَائِدَةُ النَّهْيِ عَنْ دُخُولِ أَرْضٍ بِهَا الطَّاعُونُ أَوِ الْخُرُوجِ مِنْهَا، وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

 

[5] Qurtubi vol 3, p. 234

الرَّابِعَةُ- فِي قَوْلِهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ:” إِذَا وَقَعَ الْوَبَاءُ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا فِرَارًا مِنْهُ”. دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَجُوزُ الْخُرُوجُ مِنْ بَلْدَةِ الطَّاعُونِ عَلَى غَيْرِ سَبِيلِ الْفِرَارِ مِنْهُ، إِذَا اعْتَقَدَ أَنَّ مَا أَصَابَهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُخْطِئَهُ، وَكَذَلِكَ حُكْمُ الدَّاخِلِ إِذَا أَيْقَنَ أَنَّ دُخُولَهَا «1» لَا يَجْلِبُ إِلَيْهِ قَدَرًا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ قَدَّرَهُ لَهُ، فَبَاحَ لَهُ الدُّخُولُ إِلَيْهِ وَالْخُرُوجُ مِنْهُ عَلَى هَذَا الْحَدِّ الَّذِي ذَكَرْنَاهُ، وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

 

[6] Ibn Nujaym, al-Ashbah wa Nazair, p.74

يُتَحَمَّلُ الضَّرَرُ الْخَاصُّ؛ لِأَجْلِ دَفْعِ ضَرَرِ الْعَامِّ.

[7] Bukhari No: 5734

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّهَا أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّهَا سَأَلَتْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ الطَّاعُونِ فَأَخْبَرَهَا نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:” أَنَّهُ كَانَ عَذَابًا يَبْعَثُهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ فَجَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ رَحْمَةً لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَلَيْسَ مِنْ عَبْدٍ يَقَعُ الطَّاعُونُ فَيَمْكُثُ فِي بَلَدِهِ صَابِرًا يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ لَنْ يُصِيبَهُ إِلَّا مَا كتب الله له إلا كان له مثله أَجْرِ الشَّهِيدِ”

[8] Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani vol 10, p. 192-3

وَهُوَ صَرِيحٌ فِي أَنَّ كَوْنَ الطَّاعُونِ رَحْمَةً إِنَّمَا هُوَ خَاصٌّ بِالْمُسْلِمِينَ وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِالْكَفَّارِ فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ عَذَابٌ عَلَيْهِمْ يُعَجَّلُ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا قَبْلَ الْآخِرَةِ وَأَمَّا الْعَاصِي مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ فَهَلْ يَكُونُ الطَّاعُونُ لَهُ شَهَادَةً أَوْ يَخْتَصُّ بِالْمُؤْمِنِ الْكَامِلِ فِيهِ نَظَرٌ وَالْمُرَادُ بِالْعَاصِي مَنْ يَكُونُ مُرْتَكِبَ الْكَبِيرَةِ وَيَهْجُمُ عَلَيْهِ ذَلِكَ وَهُوَ مُصِرٌّ فَإِنَّهُ يَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَا يُكَرَّمُ بِدَرَجَةِ الشَّهَادَةِ لِشُؤْمِ مَا كَانَ مُتَلَبِّسًا بِهِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ أَنْ نجعلهم كَالَّذِين آمنُوا وَعمِلُوا الصَّالِحَات وَأَيْضًا فقد وَقع فِي حَدِيث بن عُمَرَ مَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ الطَّاعُونَ يَنْشَأُ عَن ظُهُور الْفَاحِشَة أخرجه بن مَاجَهْ وَالْبَيْهَقِيُّ بِلَفْظِ لَمْ تَظْهَرِ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي قَوْمٍ قَطُّ حَتَّى يُعْلِنُوا بِهَا إِلَّا فَشَا فِيهِمُ الطَّاعُونُ وَالْأَوْجَاعُ الَّتِي لَمْ تَكُنْ مَضَتْ فِي أَسْلَافِهِمُ الْحَدِيثَ وَفِي إِسْنَادِهِ خَالِدُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ بْنِ أَبِي مَالِكٍ وَكَانَ مِنْ فُقَهَاءِ الشَّام لكنه ضَعِيف عِنْد أَحْمد وبن مَعِينٍ وَغَيْرِهِمَا وَوَثَّقَهُ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ الْمِصْرِيُّ وَأَبُو زرْعَة الدِّمَشْقِي وَقَالَ بن حِبَّانَ كَانَ يُخْطِئُ كَثِيرًا وَلَهُ شَاهِدٌ عَنِ بن عَبَّاسٍ فِي الْمُوَطَّأِ بِلَفْظِ وَلَا فَشَا الزِّنَا فِي قوم قطّ إِلَّا كَثُرَ فِيهِمُ الْمَوْتُ الْحَدِيثَ وَفِيهِ انْقِطَاعٌ وَأَخْرَجَهُ الْحَاكِمُ مِنْ وَجْهٍ آخَرَ مَوْصُولًا بِلَفْظِ إِذَا ظَهَرَ الزِّنَا وَالرِّبَا فِي قَرْيَةٍ فَقَدِ أَحَلُّوا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ عَذَابَ اللَّهِ وَلِلطَّبَرَانِيِّ مَوْصُولًا مِنْ وَجه آخر عَن بن عَبَّاسٍ نَحْوُ سِيَاقِ مَالِكٍ وَفِي سَنَدِهِ مَقَالٌ وَلَهُ مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ بِلَفْظِ مَا مِنْ قَوْمٍ يَظْهَرُ فِيهِمُ الزِّنَا إِلَّا أُخِذُوا بِالْفَنَاءِ الْحَدِيثَ وَسَنَدُهُ ضَعِيفٌ وَفِي حَدِيثِ بُرَيْدَةَ عِنْدَ الْحَاكِمِ بِسَنَدٍ جَيِّدٍ بِلَفْظِ وَلَا ظَهَرَتِ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي قَوْمٍ إِلَّا سَلَّطَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَوْتَ وَلِأَحْمَدَ مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَائِشَةَ مَرْفُوعًا لَا تَزَالُ أُمَّتِي بِخَيْرٍ مَا لَمْ يَفْشُ فِيهِمْ وَلَدُ الزِّنَا فَإِذَا فَشَا فِيهِمْ وَلَدُ الزِّنَا أَوْشَكَ أَنْ يَعُمَّهُمُ اللَّهُ بِعِقَابٍ وَسَنَدُهُ حَسَنٌ فَفِي هَذِهِ الْأَحَادِيثِ أَنَّ الطَّاعُونَ قَدْ يَقَعُ عُقُوبَةً بِسَبَبِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ فَكَيْفَ يَكُونُ شَهَادَةً وَيَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يُقَالَ بَلْ تَحْصُلُ لَهُ دَرَجَةُ الشَّهَادَةِ لِعُمُومِ الْأَخْبَارِ الْوَارِدَةِ وَلَا سِيَّمَا فِي الْحَدِيثِ الَّذِي قَبْلَهُ عَنْ أَنَسٍ الطَّاعُونُ شَهَادَةٌ لِكُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ وَلَا يَلْزَمُ مِنْ حُصُولِ دَرَجَةِ الشَّهَادَةِ لِمَنِ اجْتَرَحَ السَّيِّئَاتِ مُسَاوَاةُ الْمُؤْمِنِ الْكَامِلِ فِي الْمَنْزِلَةِ لِأَنَّ دَرَجَاتِ الشُّهَدَاءِ مُتَفَاوِتَةٌ كَنَظِيرِهِ مِنَ الْعُصَاةِ إِذَا قُتِلَ مُجَاهِدًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لِتَكُونَ كَلِمَةُ اللَّهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا مُقْبِلًا غَيْرَ مُدْبِرٍ وَمِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ بِهَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ الْمُحَمَّدِيَّةِ أَنْ يُعَجِّلَ لَهُمُ الْعُقُوبَةُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَا يُنَافِي ذَلِكَ أَنْ يَحْصُلَ لِمَنْ وَقَعَ بِهِ الطَّاعُونُ أَجْرُ الشَّهَادَةِ وَلَا سِيَّمَا وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ لَمْ يُبَاشِرْ تِلْكَ الْفَاحِشَةَ وَإِنَّمَا عَمَّهُمْ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ لِتَقَاعُدِهِمْ عَنْ إِنْكَارِ الْمُنْكَرِ

[9] Sunnan Abū Dawood, No: 3874

عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ الدَّاءَ وَالدَّوَاءَ، وَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ دَاءٍ دَوَاءً فَتَدَاوَوْا وَلَا تَدَاوَوْا بِحَرَامٍ»

[10] Sunnan Abū Dawood, No: 3855

عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ شَرِيكٍ، قَالَ: أَتَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَصْحَابَهُ كَأَنَّمَا عَلَى رُءُوسِهِمُ الطَّيْرُ، فَسَلَّمْتُ ثُمَّ قَعَدْتُ، فَجَاءَ الْأَعْرَابُ مِنْ هَا هُنَا وَهَا هُنَا، فَقَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَنَتَدَاوَى؟ فَقَالَ: «تَدَاوَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يَضَعْ دَاءً إِلَّا وَضَعَ لَهُ دَوَاءً، غَيْرَ دَاءٍ وَاحِدٍ الْهَرَمُ»

 

Displaying the Hair of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam

Displaying the Hair of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam

26th November 2018

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question. If the hair of the Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam displayed in any museums then is it allowed to visit it?

  

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

As far as visiting the hair of the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam is concerned its permissibility has been established in many authentic reports. Uthmān Ibn Abdullāh radhiyallahu anhu relates that I once visited Sayyidah Umme Salamah radhiyallahu anha and she drew out for us a hair of the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam that was dyed.[1]

In this narration, Sayyidah Umme Salmah radhiyallahu anha showed to Uthmān the Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam hair which she preserved after his demise. This establishes the permissibility of visiting the hair (or any other traces) that remains from the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam. One can seek barakah from the Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam hair and seek treatment from it also. It has been reported that if any person was struck with an illness such as evil eye or something, then Sayyidah Umme Salmah radhiyallahu anha would send a container of water with the Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam hair in it.[2]

Apart from Sayyidah Umme Salmah radhiyallahu anha, there were other companions who retained some hair of the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam for the purpose of Barakah (blessing) after his demise. Sayyidunā Khālid Ibn Waleed radhiyallahu anhu used to knit the hair of the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam to his hat which he used to wear in the battlefield.

These reports show that there are strong possibilities of the Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam hair existing today. Nevertheless, to attribute the present-day hair of the Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam exhibited in many museums such as in Turkey and very recently in Chechnya requires that it must be established from reliable source. In other words, it must be authentically established through reliable transmission that this is the very hair of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. If this is not the case then it falls under mere assumption, which means that one cannot attribute it to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam with certainty.

Therefore, one must primarily verify whether the present hair of Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam is authentic in itself and established through reliable sources or not. If this is not possible then the safest approach is not to have total reliance on it nor out rightly disapprove of it, rather best to consign its true knowledge to Allāh Almighty.

 

 

[Allāh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Bukhāri, No:5897

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا سَلَّامٌ، عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَوْهَبٍ، قَالَ: دَخَلْتُ عَلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، «[ص:161] فَأَخْرَجَتْ إِلَيْنَا شَعَرًا مِنْ شَعَرِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَخْضُوبًا» وَقَالَ لَنَا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا نُصَيْرُ بْنُ أَبِي الأَشْعَثِ، عَنْ ابْنِ مَوْهَبٍ: أَنَّ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ، أَرَتْهُ «شَعَرَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَحْمَرَ»

[2] Bukhāri, No:5896

حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَوْهَبٍ، قَالَ: أَرْسَلَنِي أَهْلِي إِلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِقَدَحٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ – وَقَبَضَ إِسْرَائِيلُ ثَلاَثَ أَصَابِعَ مِنْ قُصَّةٍ – فِيهِ شَعَرٌ مِنْ شَعَرِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَكَانَ إِذَا أَصَابَ الإِنْسَانَ عَيْنٌ أَوْ شَيْءٌ بَعَثَ إِلَيْهَا مِخْضَبَهُ، فَاطَّلَعْتُ فِي الجُلْجُلِ، فَرَأَيْتُ شَعَرَاتٍ حُمْرً

Good Relations with Parents Even After their Death

Good Relations with Parents Even After their Death

24th August 2018

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question:  If someone didn’t have a good relationship with their parents and both of their parents have passed away then what can the child do for their parents now to make things better?

 

الجواب حامداًَ و مصلياًَ

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The most paramount of good deeds in the sight of Allāh Almighty after worshipping Him is being dutiful towards one’s parents whether in the state of happiness or in reluctance. There could be many reasons as to why you didn’t have a good relationship with your parents so, what I would primarily suggest you to do is to reflect on the nature of your personal relationship with them. If you are at fault then seek sincere forgiveness from Allāh Almighty for your shortcomings in regards to their rights. Nevertheless, this does not mean that by mere seeking forgiveness you become absolved from your responsibilities.  Islām has set guidelines of how to honour them even after their death. Sayyidunā Mālik Ibn Rabi’ah as-Sa’di radhiyallahu anhu relates that we were once seated around the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam when suddenly one man from Bani Salmah (a name of a particular tribe) came and asked, “O Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam! Is there any act of kindness towards my parents remaining which I can do even after their death?” He said, “Yes! Praying for them, seeking forgiveness for them, fulfilling their oaths after their death, to join ties with relatives because (your) relationship was not established (with them) except through them (parents) and to honour their friends.” (Abū Dāwood)

The above Hadeeth hopefully answers your query as to what you and your other siblings must do after the demise of your parents.  May Allāh Almighty forgive your parents and grant them Jannatul-Firdaws, Āmeen.

[Allāh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

Does transferring the Deeds of property onto someone else’s name make them the property owner?

Does transferring the Deeds of property onto someone else’s name make them the property owner?

18th December 2017

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Many people nowadays when purchasing a property, they put their next of kin’s name onto that property. This is done usually for specific reasons but the original buyer still maintains all financial responsibilities towards the property.  For instance, my father purchased a land with a property back home and transferred them both onto his wife’s (my mother’s) name for tax evasion purposes. My mother only bears her name on the land and property but my father is the one who still maintains the property and deals will all financial expenditure and income such as rent.  My question is Islamically, who is considered the owner of the land and property and if one dies before the other then in whose estate will the land and property fall under?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

As a general rule, proprietorship (full-ownership) is established through transferal of a property [or asset] onto someone else with the intention of ownership. This is known as Hiba (gift) in Islām. This is usually indicated through the donor’s words such as, I’ve gifted this to you, I’ve made you the owner of this, this belongs to you now etc.[1] Such statements or similar to them indicate to relinquishing his rights over that asset for someone else.[2] This simply means the recipient now has full control over the asset and the donor no longer has anything to do with it.

In reference to your particular case, merely transferring name of land & property to next of kin is insufficient and doesn’t make them the proprietor Islamically unless the intention of transferring complete ownership or gift is present as explained above.[3] Your father transferring them both onto your mother’s name solely for tax evasion is an indication that he has not made her the sole owner. Therefore, your father still reserves all rights over the property and land and both will be included in his estate after his death regardless of whoever dies first from your parents.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

 

[1] Badai Sanai Kitābul Hiba, Ruknul Hiba, vol 8, p. 86-7

فَالْإِيجَابُ هُوَ أَنْ يَقُولَ الْوَاهِبُ وَهَبْتُ هَذَا الشَّيْءَ لَكَ أَوْ مَلَّكْتُهُ مِنْكَ أَوْ جَعَلْتُهُ لَكَ أَوْ هُوَ لَكَ أَوْ أَعْطَيْتُهُ أَوْ نَحَلْتُهُ أَوْ أَهْدَيْتُهُ إلَيْكَ أَوْ أَطْعَمْتُكَ هَذَا الطَّعَامَ أَوْ حَمَلْتُكَ عَلَى هَذِهِ الدَّابَّةِ وَنَوَى بِهِ الْهِبَةَ.

 

[2] Fatawa Hindiyyah, Kitābul Hiba, Bābul Awwal Tafseerul Hiba wa ruknuha., vol 4, p. 418

وَهِيَ نَوْعَانِ: تَمْلِيكٌ وَإِسْقَاطٌ وَعَلَيْهِمَا الْإِجْمَاعُ، كَذَا فِي خِزَانَةِ الْمُفْتِينَ.

[3] Durr wa Ibn Ābideen Shami p. 689 vol 5 – Shamila

(وَتَصِحُّ بِإِيجَابٍ كَ وَهَبْت وَنَحَلْت وَأَطْعَمْتُك هَذَا الطَّعَامَ وَلَوْ) ذَلِكَ (عَلَى وَجْهِ الْمِزَاحِ) بِخِلَافِ أَطْعَمْتُك أَرْضِي فَإِنَّهُ عَارِيَّةٌ لِرَقَبَتِهَا وَإِطْعَامٌ لِغَلَّتِهَا بَحْرٌ (أَوْ الْإِضَافَةِ إلَى مَا) أَيْ إلَى جُزْءٍ (يُعَبَّرُ بِهِ عَنْ الْكُلِّ كَ وَهَبْت لَك فَرْجَهَا وَجَعَلْته لَك) لِأَنَّ اللَّامَ لِلتَّمْلِيكِ بِخِلَافِ جَعَلْته بِاسْمِك فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِهِبَةٍ

(وَقَوْلُهُ: بِخِلَافِ جَعَلْته بِاسْمِك) قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ: قُيِّدَ بِقَوْلِهِ: لَكَ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ قَالَ: جَعَلْته بِاسْمِك، لَا يَكُونُ هِبَةً؛ وَلِهَذَا قَالَ فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ: لَوْ غَرَسَ لِابْنِهِ كَرْمًا إنْ قَالَ: جَعَلْته لِابْنِي، يَكُونُ هِبَةً، وَإِنْ قَالَ: بِاسْمِ ابْنِي، لَا يَكُونُ هِبَةً، وَلَوْ قَالَ: أَغْرِسُ بِاسْمِ ابْنِي، فَالْأَمْرُ مُتَرَدِّدٌ، وَهُوَ إلَى الصِّحَّةِ أَقْرَبُ اهـ.

وَفِي الْمَتْنِ مِنْ الْخَانِيَّةِ بَعْدَ هَذَا قَالَ: جَعَلْته لِابْنِي فُلَانٍ، يَكُونُ هِبَةً؛ لِأَنَّ الْجَعْلَ عِبَارَةٌ عَنْ التَّمْلِيكِ، وَإِنْ قَالَ: أَغْرِسُ بِاسْمِ ابْنِي، لَا يَكُونُ هِبَةً، وَإِنْ قَالَ: جَعَلْته بِاسْمِ ابْنِي، يَكُونُ هِبَةً؛ لِأَنَّ النَّاسَ يُرِيدُونَ بِهِ التَّمْلِيكَ وَالْهِبَةَ اهـ.

 

Kaffarah for Multiple Oaths Breached

Kaffarah for Multiple Oaths Breached

3rd January 2017

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: What is the ruling about a person who has taken multiple oaths in the past and breached every single one of them? The person has breached approximately 100 oaths. Is he now required to give Kaffarah for each oath breached or can he just give one kaffarah to suffice for all?

 

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

The classical Hanafi scholars have differed whether breaching an oath multiple times results in multiple Kaffarahs or not. The mainstream position is that breaking multiple oaths does result in multiple Kaffarahs. In other words, to give Kaffarah for each broken oath is necessary.[1] This is because the penalty for breaching an oath is less severe compared to the Kaffarah of other acts of worship breached such as Ramadhān fast. The Kaffarah for breaching an oath is to either free a slave, clothe [or] feed ten poor people [miskeen] an adequate meal twice a day or alternatively give each miskeen money equivalent to fitrana. If one is unable to do any of the above [for instance, they themselves are poor] then as a last resort, fast for three consecutive days.

Nonetheless, Ibn Ābideen Shāmi rahimahullah (a renowned Hanafi jurist) quotes another opinion reported from Imām Muhammad rahimahullah (a renowned student of Imām Abū Haneefah rahimahullah) of a single Kaffarah incorporating multiple oaths breached. This means that one Kaffarah will suffice for the multiple oaths breached according to him.[2] The first position is the mainstream position whilst the second is the most lenient position.[3] Since the second position is also a valid position, in your particular case you may act on this; to give one Kaffarah to release yourself from the 100 oaths you breached only if giving Kaffarah 100 times proves difficult for you.

It must be noted that following the mainstream position is necessary but acting on the second opinion is valid only when genuine constraint is inevitable. However, sincere repentance from breaking the oath multiple times is also necessary.

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

 

[1] Ibn Nujaym, Bahrur Rāiq, Kitābul Aymān, p.490 vol 4

وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ الْمُصَنِّفُ مَسْأَلَةَ تَعْدَادِ الْكَفَّارَةِ لِتَعَدُّدِ الْيَمِينِ وَهِيَ مُهِمَّةٌ قَالَ فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ وَلَوْ قَالَ: وَاَللَّهِ وَالرَّحْمَنِ وَالرَّحِيمِ لَا أَفْعَلُ كَذَا فَفَعَلَ فَفِي الرِّوَايَاتِ الظَّاهِرَةِ يَلْزَمُهُ ثَلَاثُ كَفَّارَاتٍ وَيَتَعَدَّدُ الْيَمِينُ بِتَعَدُّدِ الِاسْمِ لَكِنْ يُشْتَرَطُ تَخَلُّلُ حَرْفِ الْقَسَمِ وَرَوَى الْحَسَنُ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ أَنَّ عَلَيْهِ كَفَّارَةً وَاحِدَةً وَبِهِ أَخَذَ مَشَايِخُ سَمَرْقَنْدَ وَأَكْثَرُ الْمَشَايِخِ عَلَى ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ وَلَوْ قَالَ: وَاَللَّهِ وَالرَّحْمَنِ لَا أَفْعَلُ كَذَا فَفَعَلَ يَلْزَمُهُ كَفَّارَتَانِ فِي قَوْلِهِمْ جَمِيعًا وَالْفَرْقُ عَلَى قَوْلِ أُولَئِكَ الْمَشَايِخِ أَنَّ الْوَاوَ إذَا اتَّحَدَ ذِكْرُهُ يَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ تَكُونَ وَاوَ عَطْفٍ وَيَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ تَكُونَ وَاوَ الْقَسَمِ وَلَا يَثْبُتُ الْقَسَمُ بِالشَّكِّ وَالِاحْتِمَالِ بِخِلَافِ مَا إذَا تَعَدَّدَ ذِكْرُهُ؛ لِأَنَّ أَحَدَهُمَا لِلْعَطْفِ وَالْآخَرَ لِلْقَسَمِ

Ibnul Humām, Fathul Qadeer Kitābul Aymān, p. 73 vol 5

[فُرُوعٌ: فِي تَعَدُّدِ الْيَمِينِ وَوَحْدَتِهَا وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ]

فَلَوْ قَالَ بِوَاوَيْنِ كَوَاللَّهِ وَوَالرَّحْمَنِ فَكَفَّارَتَانِ فِي قَوْلِهِمْ. وَرَوَى ابْنُ سِمَاعَةَ فِي غَيْرِ الْمُخْتَلِفَةِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ نَحْوَ وَاَللَّهِ وَاَللَّهِ مُطْلَقًا هَذَا قَبْلَ ذِكْرِ الْجَوَابِ. أَمَّا لَوْ قَالَ وَاَللَّهِ لَا أَفْعَلُ كَذَا ثُمَّ أَعَادَهُ بِعَيْنِهِ فَكَفَّارَتَانِ، وَكَذَا لَوْ قَالَ لِامْرَأَتِهِ وَاَللَّهِ لَا أَقْرَبُك ثُمَّ قَالَ وَاَللَّهِ لَا أَقْرَبُك فَقَرُبَهَا مَرَّةً لَزِمَهُ كَفَّارَتَانِ، رُوِيَ ذَلِكَ عَنْ أَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -، وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ فِي مَجْلِسٍ أَوْ مَجَالِسَ. وَرَوَى الْحَسَنُ أَنَّهُ إنْ نَوَى بِالثَّانِي الْخَبَرَ عَنْ الْأَوَّلِ صَدَقَ دِيَانَةً، وَهِيَ عِبَارَةٌ مُتَسَاهَلٌ فِيهَا، وَإِنَّمَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يُرِيدَ بِالثَّانِي تَكْرَارَ الْأَوَّلِ وَتَأْكِيدَهُ، اخْتَارَ هَذَا الْإِمَامُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ قَالَ: فَإِنْ نَوَى بِهِ الْمُبَالَغَةَ أَوْ لَمْ يَنْوِ شَيْئًا يَلْزَمُهُ كَفَّارَتَانِ، وَقَدْ مَرَّ فِي الْإِيلَاءِ فِي التَّجْرِيدِ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ: إذَا حَلَفَ بِأَيْمَانٍ عَلَيْهِ لِكُلِّ يَمِينٍ كَفَّارَةٌ وَالْمَجْلِسُ وَالْمَجَالِسُ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ. وَلَوْ قَالَ عَنَيْت بِالثَّانِي الْأَوَّلَ لَمْ يَسْتَقِمْ فِي الْيَمِينِ بِاَللَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى وَلَوْ حَلَفَ بِحِجَّةٍ أَوْ عُمْرَةٍ يَسْتَقِيمُ، وَهَذَا يُخَالِفُ مَا رَوَى الْحَسَنُ. وَفِي الْخُلَاصَةِ عَنْ نُسْخَةِ الْإِمَامِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ فِي أَيْمَانِ الْأَصْلِ: إذَا حَلَفَ عَلَى أَمْرٍ أَنْ لَا يَفْعَلَهُ ثُمَّ حَلَفَ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَجْلِسِ أَوْ فِي مَجْلِسٍ آخَرَ أَنْ لَا يَفْعَلَهُ أَبَدًا ثُمَّ فَعَلَهُ إنْ نَوَى يَمِينًا مُبْتَدَأَةً أَوْ التَّشْدِيدَ أَوْ لَمْ يَنْوِ فَعَلَيْهِ كَفَّارَةُ يَمِينَيْنِ، أَمَّا إذَا نَوَى بِالثَّانِي الْأَوَّلَ فَعَلَيْهِ كَفَّارَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ

[2] Ibn Ābideen Shāmi, Kitābul Aymān, p.486 vol 5

وَفِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ الْخُلَاصَةِ وَالتَّجْرِيدِ: وَتَتَعَدَّدُ الْكَفَّارَةُ لِتَعَدُّدِ الْيَمِينِ، وَالْمَجْلِسِ وَالْمَجَالِسِ سَوَاءٌ

(قَوْلُهُ وَتَتَعَدَّدُ الْكَفَّارَةُ لِتَعَدُّدِ الْيَمِينِ) وَفِي الْبُغْيَةِ: كَفَّارَاتُ الْأَيْمَانِ إذَا كَثُرَتْ تَدَاخَلَتْ، وَيَخْرُجُ بِالْكَفَّارَةِ الْوَاحِدَةِ عَنْ عُهْدَةِ الْجَمِيعِ. وَقَالَ شِهَابُ الْأَئِمَّةِ: هَذَا قَوْلُ مُحَمَّدٍ. قَالَ صَاحِبُ الْأَصْلِ: هُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ عِنْدِي. اهـ. مَقْدِسِيٌّ، وَمِثْلُهُ فِي الْقُهُسْتَانِيُّ عَنْ الْمُنْيَةِ

[3] Ahsanul Fatawa, Kitābul Aymān vol 5 p. 495

 

Quran Recitation and Speaker

Quran Recitation and Speaker

24th August 2016

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question – We have a monitor linked to the local masjid in our house. If a bayān is on is it best to turn it off if I am reading the Qur’ān? Usually there are many time when Muhammad SAW is mentioned and I know we always have to repeat SAW but if I am reading should I turn this off so not to have to break during Qur’ān to repeat what is heard on the monitor?

 

الجواب حامداًَ و مصلياًَ

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

 

If you are engaged in recitation of the Holy Qur’ān and suddenly a scholar delivers a speech transmitted through the receiver in your home then best to turn it off so that you give full attention to the Holy Qur’an. If you wish to listen to the speech and stop reciting then even that is ok.

 

 

 [Allāh Knows Best]

 

 

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

The Holy Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam Marriage in Paradise

The Holy Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam Marriage in Paradise

12th August 2016

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

Question: Is it true that Sayyidah Maryam radhiyallahu anha will marry our beloved Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam in Jannah?

الجواب حامداً و مصلياً

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Answer

According to a prophetic narration, recorded in Mu’jam Tabrāni, the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu alayhi wasallam said to Sayyidah A’ishah radhiyallahu anha that Allāh Almighty will marry him to (Sayyidah) Maryam radhiyallahu anha the daughter of Imrān, (Sayyidah) Kaltham radhiyallahu anha the sister of Sayyidunā Moosā alayhissalaam and (Sayyidah) Āsiya radhiyallahu anha the wife of Fir’awn.[1]  Some scholars such as Imām Dhahabi rahimahullah have classified this Hadeeth as weak due to a specific narrator being unreliable in the chain of transmission. Its weakness in the chain however, does not negate the possibility of the Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam marrying them due to their lofty status. Their piety has been clearly expressed both in the Holy Qur’ān and in the prophetic tradition and for them becoming his wives does not go against his status. So Allāh Almighty can allow this to happen in Jannah if He so Wills. Its possibility can also be proven by the fact that Sayyidah Maryam radhiyallahu anha remained unmarried throughout her life whilst Sayyidah Āsiya radhiyallahu anha was married to a tyrant who relentlessly persecuted her because of her faith in Allāh Almighty and Prophet Moosā alayhissalaam. This inevitably terminates the marriage between them due to the clash of faiths. As for Kaltham radhiyallahu anha, the the Qur’ān and Hadeeth make no clear reference of her marriage in this world.  Allāh Almighty promises the believers, both men and women, on multiple occasions in the Holy Qur’ān that they will relish the company of their spouse(s) in Jannah. This suggests that every believing man and woman will marry those of their own choices and no one will be left unmarried, including the three aforesaid women. If viewed in this way then arguably, it is plausible that Allāh Almighty can permit the marriage of these three great women with the Messenger sallallahu alayhi wasallam.

Henceforth, though the authenticity of the Hadeeth is objectionable by some scholar, it does not conflict with the general Islamic principles and neither negates its possibility of happening. We must however consign its true knowledge to Allāh Almighty Himself.

 

 

[Allãh Knows Best]

Written by (Mufti) Abdul Waheed

Answer Attested by Shaykh Mufti Saiful Islam

JKN Fatawa Department

[1] Tabrāni, Mu’jamul Kabeer No:8006

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ نُوحِ بْنِ حَرْبٍ الْعَسْكَرِيُّ، ثنا خَالِدُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ السَّمْتِيُّ، ثنا عَبْدُ النُّورِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ، ثنا يُونُسُ بْنُ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ لِعَائِشَةَ: «أَشَعَرْتِ أَنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ زَوَّجَنِي فِي الْجَنَّةِ مَرْيَمَ بِنْتَ عِمْرَانَ، وَكَلْثَمَ أُخْتَ مُوسَى، وَامْرَأَةَ فِرْعَوْنَ